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MEANING AND MESSAGE 
OF THE TRADITIONS 



MAUL ANA MUHAMMAD MANZOOR NO'MANI 



Volume Four 



DARUL-ISHAAT 

KARACHI ■ PAKISTAN 



MEANING AND MESSAGE 

OF THE 

TRADITIONS 

(MA'ARIFUL HADITH) 



Volume Four 

Part VII & VIII 



By 

Maulana Mohammad Manzoor Nomani 

Completed in Urdu by 

Maulana Mohammad Zakaria Sanbhali 

Translates oy 

Rafiq Abdur Rehman 



CONTENTS 

PART-VII 



1 Marriage And Other Related Matters 19 

2 Rule & Traditions concerning Union of Man and 20 
Woman, And Off-spring during the Age of Ignorance 

3 It is Better to Have one Look at the woman One is 22 



Intending to Marry 

4 An Offer Should Not Be Made Upon Another Offer 23 

5 The Consent Of the Woman and The Position Of Her 24 
Guardians In Relation To It 

* 6 Marriage Should Not Be Solemnised in Secrecy 25 

7 Witness 26 

8 The Sermon of Marriage 27 

9 Mahr 28 

10 Felicitations And Supplication 31 

1 1 The Simpler A Marriage, The More Blessed It is 32 

1 2 Dowry of Fatima 3 2 

13 Walima 33 

1 4 Invitation of Walima Should Be Accepted 34 

15 Whose Invitation Should be Declined? 35 

16 Supplication at The Time of Couplation 36 

17 Couplation Must be Kept As a Secret From Others 36 

1 8 The urse of God is On The Unnatural Act 37 

19 Restrained Ejaculation 37 

20 Permission To Have Four Wives 39 

2 1 Justice And Equity in Treatment Towards Wives 40 

22 Divorce And Period of Waiting 43 

23 Most Disagreeable Act 44 



8 



Meaning and Message o f the Traditions Part VII 



24 Time And Procedure 45 

25 To Give Three Divorces At the Same Time is a Great 47 
Sin 

26 The Consequence of Three Divorces And The 48 



Injunction of The Shari'ah 

27 Even a Divorce in Jest is a Divorce 49 

28 Divorce by A Man of a Deranged Mind 50 

29 A Divorce Under Duress is Null And Void 50 

30 Iddah 51 

3 1 Iddah On Death And Mourning 53 

32 KITABUL MUA'MALAT 55 

(The Book of Affairs) 

3 1 Importance of Economic Affairs 57 

32 Clean Living And Lawful Earning 58 



33 Importance And Need of Money in Certain 59 
Circumstances 

34 The Honest Traders Will be With the Prophets, the 59 



Truthful and The Martyrs 

35 Diginity of Labour 60 

36 Agriculture And Friut-Growing 6 1 

37 Legitimate Wealth is Blessing 62 

38 Importance And Politeness in Monetary Dealings 63 

39 The Curse of Ill-Gotten Wealth 63 

40 Piety Demands Shunning, Also What is Doubtful 67 

4 1 Gentleness and Forbearance in Money Matters 69 

42 Excellence of Giving A Loan, And Guidance 72 

43 Loan is Most Serious Matter 73 

44 If There intention to Pay Back a Loan, God will, 77 
Somehow, Have it Paid 

45 Practice of The Holy Prophet 0 79 

46 Usury 83 

47 Miscellaneous 91 

48 Buying And Selling 95 



49 A Fruit-Crop Should neither Be Sold Nor Bought Until 95 
it is Readv 



Contents 



9 



50 Crops of Fruit Orchards Should not be Given on 97 
Contract For a Number of Years 

51 An Article Which is Not Happenings One's Possession 97 
At the Time of the Deal Should not Be Sold 

52 If Grain etc. Is bought. It Should Not be sold Until 98 
Delivery Has been taken of It 

53 Forbidding Buying and Selling With a Man who is in 98 
Extreme Need 

54 Warning Against Concealing The Defect of A 99 
Commodity Offered for Sale 

55 Undue Advantage Should Not be Taken Of The 100 
Ignorance of the Buyer or Seller 

56 Selling By Auction 

57 Hoarding And Excessive Profit Disllowed 

58 Price-Control 

59 Cancelling A Deal 

60 Cancelling A Sale Owing To a Defacting Good 

61 Cancelling A deal After It Had Been Completed 

62 Forbidding Swearing By The Traders 

63 Expiation For Swearing And Other Improper Things In 
Business 

64 The Trade Which is Not Carried on Cleanly is 
Extremely Bad 

65 A Kindly Advice Regarding Sale of Immovable 
Property 

66 Partnership in Business 

67 Appointing An Agent 

68 Hire And Wages 

69 Letting Out of Land on Rent or Division of The Crop 
Between the Cultivator and Land Lord 

70 Accepting Remuneration For Dam, (Blowing), Ta'weez 
etc. (Charm) 

71 Borrowing 

72 Borrowing of a Horse By the Prophet 

73 Misapporpriation 

74 Gift 

75 A Present Generates Love and Removes Malice From 



10 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



The Heart 

76 The Guidance And Practice of The Prophet 129 
Concerning The return for a Gift 

77 Gratefulness to Benefactors 130 

78 Articles Which Should Not be Refused As a Gift 1 32 

79 To Claim Back a Gift is Highly Disgraceful 133 

80 To Whom It is Forbidden To Accept a Gift 133 

81 Waqf (Charitable Fund) 135 

82 Basic Principles 135 

83 Will 141 

84 A Religious Obligation 141 

85 Claim of The Heirs Should Not Be Disregarded 142 

86 A Will Cannot Be Made In Respect of An Heir 145 

87 Punishment of Hell for Those Who are Unjust to 146 
Right-ful Heirs in Their Will 

88 Legal Administration 147 

89 Just And Unjust Rulers And Judges 148 

90 Honest Error of Judgement 150 

9 1 Rulers And Judges Who Heaven And Hell 1 5 1 

92 To Be And To Accept Bribe Is a Curse 1 5 1 

93 To Be a Ruler or Judge is A Severe Test 1 52 

94 Divine Help and Guuidance is Withheld From The 153 
Seekers of Power 

95 Some Guidelines for the Judges 154 

96 Evidence is Essential for A Claim 157 

97 The Ultimate Abode of Those Who Lay a False Claim 160 
or Swear a False Oath is Hell 

98 Even The Prophet's Decision Cannot Make Anyone 161 

99 else's Property Lawful 

100 False Swearing is The Worst Form of Sin 162 

1 0 1 People Whose Deositions Are Not Worthy of Trust 1 63 

102 System of Government 165 

103 Exhorting The People to Obey the Ruler, And the 166 
r Ruler to Observe Piety And Be Just 

104 Enjoining Upon The Rulers to Be Well- Wishers of The 168 
People 

105 The Doors of The rulers Should Always Remain Open 169 



Contents 



11 



For the Petitioners 

106 The Order of The Ruler Should be Carried out 170 
Provided it is Not Against the Shari'ah 

107 It is Not Wise to Have a Woman as Ruler 1 7 1 

1 08 A Ruler Appoints His Successor to Leaves it to Men of 1 7 1 

1 09 Influence And Discernment 

110 Caliphate On the Lines of Messengership Only for 30 173 
Years 

111- Proper way of Counselling Kings and Rulers 174 
112 The Tyranny of Rulers is The Result of Our Own 174 
Evildoring, and Punishment From Allah 



PART- VIII 

1 1 3 Preface to The Urdu 1 77 

114 Foreword Perfection of 'Ma'arif 1 85 

1 1 5 Some More Peculiarities 1 8 8 

116 KITABULILM 193 

(The Book of Knowledge) 

117 It is Fard for Every Muslim to Seek & Acquire 196 
Knowledge 

118 Those Who Do Not Know Religion Must Learn From 197 
Those Who Know & They Must Teach Them 

119 The Rank of Religious Knowledge & of Its Students & 201 
Teachers 

120 A Clarification 205 

121 Those Who Seek Religious Knowlede For Worldly 206 
Gains Will Go to Hell & Will Be Deprived of The 
Fragrance of Paradise Too 

122 The Example of An Unpracticing Aalim 207 



Meaning ami Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

KITABUL ETISAAM BIL 209 
QUR AN WAS SUNNAH 
(Book of Holding Fast To 
The Qur'an And The Sunnah) 

124 Sticking to Book of Allah & Prophet's Teaching And 211 
Shunning Bid'ah 

125 What is Bid'ah 212 

126 Adherence to Allah's Book & Teachings of The 217 
Prophet 

127 Like Allah's Book, The Sunnah Too is Wajib to 219 
Observe 

128 The Prophet's Conduct Alone is The Best Example 221 

1 29 Obeying the Prophet is The Only Way to Salvation 223 



130 Attachment to Sunnah During Thurmoil 228 

131 Effort to Revive Sunnah & Reform The Ummah 229 

132 Prophet's Personal Opinion In Worldly Matters 232 

133 Invitation to Piety 235 

134 Enjoining What is Good and Forbidding What is Evil 235 

1 35 Reward for Invitation to Good 236 



136 Encouragement To Command Virtue & Forbid Evil & 237 
Warning Against Lethargy 

137 Conditions in Which Responsibility to Preach is 242 



Waived 

138 Jihad & Martyrdom 244 

139 A Clarification 255 

140 The Sphere of Martyrdom 257 

141 KITABUL FITAN 259 

(The Book of Trials & Afflictions) 

142 Religious Decline & Trials Faced By The Ummah 261 

143 Trial Through Wealth 265 

144 The Trials That Will Grow 268 

145 Signs of The Qiyamah 275 

146 Major Signs of The Last Hour 281 



147 Sun Rise From West, Beast of The Earth, Mischief of 281 



12 
123 



Contents 



13 



Dajjal, Coming of Imam Mahdi & Descent of 



Sayyidina Isa SSSft 

148 Dajjal Supernatural Feats 284 

149 Coming of Mahdi 286 

1 50 A Cautionary Note 290 

151 The Shi'a Belief About Mahdi 291 

1 52 Descent of Sayyidina Isa 293 

153 Some Basic Facts 294 

154 KITABUL FAZAI'L WAL MANAQIB 307 

(The Book of Virtues & Excellence) 

1 55 Merits of Allah's Messenger lH And His High Station 309 

1 56 Birth, Commisioning, Wahy & Age 3 1 6 
1 5 7 Some Aspects of The Hadith 327 

158 His Manners 329 

159 Illness & Death 336 

160 Sayyidina Abu Bakr 368 

161 Sayyidina Umar Ibn Al-Khattab 377 

162 Martyrdom 386 

163 Merits of The Shaykhayn 389 

164 Sayyidina Uthman 393 

165 SayyidinaAli 412 

166 Sayyidina Ali's Martyrdom 436 

167 Merits of The Four Khalifas 438 

1 68 A Fact About Their Excellence 44 1 

169 The Remaining of The Ten Given Glad Tidings 443 

1 70 Talhah Ibn Ubaydu I lah 444 

171 Sayyidina Zubayr 445 

1 72 Abdur Rahman Ibn A vvf 449 

173 Sa'd Ibn Abu Waqqas 454 

174 Sa'eed Ibn Zayd 457 

175 Abu Ubaydullah Ibn Jarrah 459 

176 Excellence of The People of The Prophet's House 463 

(His Wives And Children) 

177 The Pure Wives 465 

178 The Honour of Being Prophet's Wife 466 



* 



1 4 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

179 Sayyidah Khadijah 466 

180 Marriage 467 

181 Children 467 

182 Characteristics of Sayyidah Khadijah 468 

183 Her Excellence 469 

184 Sayyidah Sawdah Bint Zam'ah 471 

1 85 Sayyidah Ayshah 472 

1 86 Characteristics 474 

187 Merits 475 

188 Scholarly Excellence 480 

189 Oratory 481 

190 Sayyidah Hafsah 482 

191 Sayyidah Umm Salamah 484 

192 Children 487 

193 Merits 487 

194 Sayyidah Zaynab Bint Jahsh 489 

195 First Marriage 489 

1 96 Walimah (Wedding Feast) 494 

197 Merits 496 

198 Death 499 

199 Sayyidah Al-HHaliyah 499 

200 Merits 500 

201 Sayyidah Juwayriyah 500 

202 Merits 503 

203 Death 504 

204 Sayyidah Umm Habibah 504 

205 Worthy 506 

206 Death 508 

207 Sayyidah Safiyah 508 

208 Merits 509 

209 Death 510 

210 Sayyidah Maymunah 511 

211 Merits 511 

212 Death 512 

2 1 3 The Prophet's & Children 5 1 5 

214 Sayyidah Zaynab 515 

2 1 5 Marriage 5 1 6 



Contents 1 5 

216 Merits 517 

217 Death 517 

218 Children 518 

219 Sayyidah Ruqayyah 518 

220 Sayyidah Umm Kulthum 519 

221 Merits 521 

222 Death 52 1 

223 Sayyidah Fatimah 521 

224 Children 522 

225 Merits 522 

226 Death 523 

227 Sayyidina Hasan Ibn Ali 523 

228 Birth 524 

229 Khilafah 524 

230 Death 525 

231 Features 525 

232 Merits 525 

233 Sayyidina Husayn Ibn AH 525 

234 Merits of Both Brothers 526 

235 Excellences of The Companions 529 

236 Sayyidina Hamzah Ibn Abdul Muttalib 537 

237 Merits 539 

238 Sayyidina Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib 540 

239 Merits 542 

240 Children 543 

241 Death 543 

242 Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Abbas 543 

243 Merits 543 

244 Sayyidina Ja'far Ibn Abu Talib 546 

245 Merits 549 

246 Sayyidina Zayd Ibn Harithah 550 

247 Merits 551 

248 Martyrdom 552 

249 Sayyidina Usamah Ibn Zayd 552 

250 Merits 553 

251 Death 555 



1 6 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VUl 

252 Sayyidinah Abdullah Ibn Mas'ood 555 

253 Merits 556 

254 Death 559 

255 Sayyidina Ubayy Ibn Ka'b 559 

256 Merits 559 

257 Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 561 

258 Merits 562 

259 Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Umar 567 

260 Merits 567 

261 Death 571 

262 Sayyidina Bilal 571 

263 Merits 572 

264 Sayyidina Anas Ibn Maalik 574 

265 Merits 575 

266 Sayyidina Salman Farsi 578 

267 Merits 581 

268 Death 583 

269 Sayyidina Abu Musa Al-Ash'ary 584 

270 Merits 585 

271 Death 586 

272 Sayyidina Abu Ayyub Ansari 586 

273 Merits 587 

274 Death 589 

275 Sayyidina Ammar Ibn Yaasir 589 

276 Merits 589 

277 Martyrdom 591 

278 Sayyidina Suhayb Roomi 591 

279 Merits 592 

280 Death 593 

281 Sayyidina Abu Zarr Ghiffari 593 

282 Merits 595 

283 Death 596 

284 Syyidina Mu'az Ibn Jabal 596 

285 Merits 597 

286 Sayyidina Ubaydah Ibn Samit 599 

287 Merits 599 

288 Death 600 



Contents 1 7 

289 Sayyidina Khabbab Ibn Al-Arat 600 

290 Merits 601 

291 Sayyidina Sa'd Ibn Mu'az 602 

292 Merits 603 

293 Death 605 

294 Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Salaam 605 

295 Merits 606 

296 Sayyidina Mus'ab Ibn Umayr 607 

297 Merits 607 

298 Sayyidina Khalid Ibn Waleed 608 

299 Merits 609 

300 Death 6 1 1 

301 Sayyidina Amr Ibn Al-Aas 61 1 

302 Merits 612 

303 Death 614 

304 Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn Al-Aas 614 

305 Merits 614 

306 Death 615 

307 Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn Hizam 616 

308 Merits 616 

309 Sayyidina Jabir Ibn Abdullah Ibn Amr 617 

310 Merits 617 

311 Death 618 

3 1 2 Sayyidina Zay d Ibn Thabit 618 

313 Merits 619 

314 Sayyidina Jarir Ibn Abdullah Al-Bajali 62 1 

315 Merits 621 

316 Sayyidina Hassan Ibn Thabit 623 

317 Merits 623 

318 Sayyidina Abu Sufyan 624 

319 Merits 625 

320 Sayyidina Mu'awiyah 626 

321 Merits 626 

322 Death 628 



MARRIAGE AND OTHER 
RELATED MATTERS 



In the Age of Ignorance, before the advent of the holy Prophet 
Hi, many forms of matrimony and practices of having children 
were prevalent among the Arabs, some of which were, positively, 
hateful Of these arrangements, one was correct, in principle, and 
dignified. The sacred Prophet iH adopted it with suitable changes 
and rejected the others as sinful. 

The form of Nikah (marriage) enjoined by the holy Prophet H 1 , 
by his sayingsas well as practice, was that the proposal was made, 
on behalf of the man, to the parents or guardians of the woman, 
and if thy found it suitable, they accepted it, after obtaining her 
consent, if she had come of age, and, on the basis of their own 
good judgement if she happened to be a minor, and had her 
married. This method, obviously, is most appropriate. 

Since the real responsibilites accuring from marriage devole on 
woman and she has to fulfil them throughout her life, her voluntary 
acceptance has been made necessary. Yet, at he sametime, it due 
consideration of teh dignity of the fair sex, it has been provided 
that the betrothal and wedding of a woman should be settled 
through her elders and it is they who should give her in marriage. It 
would, indeed, not be consistent with feminine honour if the 
woman arranged directly whose wife she was going to be and came 
up to give hereself in marraige to someone. 

Besides, the effects and consequences of a woman's marriage 
are, generally, shared by her family, the elders, too, have, to an 
extent, been given a say in the matter. It was, also, quite possible 
that if the whole affair was left in the hands of the woman and the 
elders were kept aloof, she fell a prey to the deceitful overtures of 
the wooer and made a wron choice. For these reasons, it has been 



20 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Rart VII 

thought better and wiser that, leaving aside the exceptional cases, 
the marriage of a woman was settled and performed through the 
agency of her elders. 

Another instruction, in this regard, is that if the man has not yet 
seen the woman with whom his marraige is going to be arragned, 
he should see her, if possible, before the .offer is made so that he 
may not be disappointed in the end. The object can, also, be 
gained, in some degree, by the girl being seen by a few reliable 
ladies of the man's family. 

Yet another thing is tht if a request has already been made, on 
behalf of any other man, for the hand of girl, a proposal should not 
be made for her until the earler offer has been declined. 

It, also, is essential that marriage was not be contracted in 
secrecy. It ought to be celebrated poenly, and in the presence of 
some persons who may act as a witness to it. Prefeably, marriage 
should be performed in a mosque. It is , further, confirmed by the 
practice of the holy Prophet that a sermon was delivered on the 
occasion. 

The -offering of Mahr (dower or marriage-protion) from the 
side of the man to the bride, too, has been prescribed as an 
essential part of wedding. 

Rule And Traditions Concerning Union 
Oof Man And Woman, And Off-Spring 
During The Age of Ignorance 

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Marriage And Other Related Matters 



21 



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(1672/1) It is related by Sayyidah Ay shah if* to that "four 
forms of marriage, i.e., union of man and woman were in vogue 
in the Age of Perversoin. One was what is practiced today as 
well, i.e., a request of his daughter or ward and the latter 
marriaed her to him on the settlement of an appropriate Mahr. 

"Another way was that when the wife of anyone had finished 
her monthly course, (it is a time when the fertility of a woman is 
higher), he would tell her to invite such-and-such a man (of 
superior birth or status) to have seuxal relations with her, (and, 
thus, try to concieve a child from him). The husband used to 
keep away from her until she had concieved and would have sex 
with her only when the signs of pregnancy had appeared. All 
this was done with the object of obtaining a son of noble birth 
and possessing good qualities. It was called Nikah Al-Istibda . 
"The third method was that a group of men, (the word used in 
the text is Raht which denotes 'less than ten'), approached a 
woman, and each of them had sex with her, (and it took place 
with her consent), and if the woman became pregnant, and ave 

O. The abnoxious custom was prevalent among some tribes of the Arabs during 
those days, It was like this: Suppose a low-class man wanted his son to be 
brave, strong or handsome, he would tell his wife to have sexual relations with a 
man possessing a simillar quality so that she might concieve from him and the 
son that was bom to her was like the man who had fathered him. It is called 
istibda' in Arabic and was very much similar to the practice of Niyog existing in 
the ancient Hindu society. The details of it are given by the founder of Arya 
Samaj, Swami Saraswati, in his well-known book, Satyarth Prakash. 



22 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



birth to a child, she called all those men, and, (according to the 

custom), none of them could refuse to come, and when they had \ 

collected, she would say to them: 'You know what happened (on 

that occasion), and, as a result of it, this child has been born to 

me.' She would, then, identify whosoever of them she liked as 

the father of the child, and it was acknowledged as his child, 

and he could not decline to accept it. 1 

'The fourth was that a woman used to have seuxal relations 
with several men, (and) there was no restirction on anyone. 
These were the prostitutes, on the doors of whose apartments 
there used to be a sign indicating that everyone was welcome. 
When such a woman became pregnant and a child was born to 
her, all the men who had sex with her would gather, and the 
specialists in the line were called in, and they, from the facial 
appearance of the child, would fix its paternity, and it would, 
then, become the child of the man, thus, named and he could not 
refuse to accept it." (After narrating all these forms of union, 
Hazrat Ayshah &\ observed): "When the Holy Prophet 
ill was raised up by God with truth, he abolished all the 
despicable and rotten coustoms that were prevalent during the 
days of Perversion, and (only the good and the clean) method 
remained which is, now, being followed." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: It can be imagined from the above in what filth and 
debasement the Arabs were immersed at the time of the raising up 
of the sacred Prophet 0. 

It is Better To Have One Look At The 
Woman One is Intending To Marry 

(1673/2) It is related by Muhammad ibn Maslamah that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: "When the Lord may put the 
intention of marrying a woman into anyone's heart, it is not 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



23 



sinful to have one look at her." (Musnad Ahmad and Ibn Majah) 

(1674/3) Mughirah ibn Shu'bah narrated When I made the 
offer to marry a lady, (or thought of doing so), the Messenger of 
Allah &b enquired if I had seen her, and, on my replying in the 
negative, he said: 'Have one look at her. It will be helpful in 
promoting love and pleasantness between you." 

(Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Marriage is a very serious matter and a life-long 
partnership. It should not be taken lightly and settled in the dark, 
but with open eyes. Correct information about the girl can, also, be 
obtained through trustworthy persons, specially ladies. Care 
should, however, be taken that it did not cause annoyance or 
inconvenience to the girl or her family, and, better still, that it was 
done without their knowledge. 

It is stated in Abu Dawood, on the authority of Hazrat Jabir <^>, 
that when he decided to make a request for marriage with a girl, he 
tried to see her, without her knowledge, and on the advice of the 
sacred Prophet until he succeeded. 

AnOfferShouldNotBeMadeUponAnotherOffer 

(1675/4) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 

Allah iH said: "No one should make a proposal (of marriage) 

against the proposal of his brother, i.e., any other person until he 

(the latter) weds (another woman) or withdraws the offer." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that if a man has made an offer of 
marriage with a girl, it is not proper for anyone else to propose for 
her until the earlier offer has been rejected or taken back. 



24 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

The Consent of The Woman And The 
Position Of Her Guardians in Relation To It 

(1676/5) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas ^> that the 
Messenger of Allah iil said: "A woman who has been through a 
husband has a greater authority over herself than a guardian, and 
the father of a virgin should obtain her consent regarding 
marriage, and silence, too, is (a form of) consent." (Muslim) 

ul£ in j j^3 b - 1 '^fcJj 2^ ^ J CS^" ^ 

(1 677/6) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah ^ said: "A woman who has been through a husband 
should not be married (again) until she has been sounded about 
it, and an unmarried woman should, also, not be married 
without her consent." The Companions upon it, enquired 
what would be the way of knowing whether she was willing or 
not." Her silence, (on being asked)." replied he Prophet $§1, 
"will denote her willingness." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The literal meaning of the word Aiyyim\ occuring 
in the original, are 'a woman without a husband', but, in this 
Tradition, it denotes a woman who has separated from her husband 
after the marriage, or after living with him for sometime, either on 
account of the death of the husband or divorce. The same kind of 
woman has been described as Saiyyib in Abdullah ibn Abbas's 
narrative. About such a woman it is stated in both the 
aforementioned Traditions that she should not be married without 
her approval which can be expressed veriablly or by a clear sign. 
This is what Ha/la Tustamar, used in the text, denotes. 

As against it, Bikr -a 'maiden', a 'virgin' denotes gril who has 
attained puberty, but is still unmarried. About her, the rule is that 
she should not be married without her consent, but as, it is, 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



25 



generally, difficult for a girl like her to convey her willingness 
through the speach or a clear sign, her keeping quiet when asked 
has declared o be the equivalent of consent. 

The purport of both the Traditions, in any case, is that the 
marriage of a woman who has come of age should not be 
performed by her guardian without her consent, no matter whether 
she is a maiden or has been through a husband. 

If, however, a girl is too young in years to decide for herself 
and a good match is available, and it is in her interest that she is 
married to him, her guardian can do so out of sincere goodwishing. 

It may be recalled that Sayyidina Abu Bakr *$b, had married his 
daughter, Sayyidah Ayshah if* Ai^j, to the Holy Prophet iH 
when she was only six or seven years old. 



ill 

(1678/7) It is related by Moosa Ash'ari 4p> that the Messenger 
of Allah is§l said: "There can be no Nikah (marriage) without the 
guardian." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah and Daarmi) 

Commentary: What it, apparently denotes that the Nikah of a girl 
should be performed through her guardian. It is not proper for a 
woman to have her marriage solemnised on her own. It does not go 
well with her natural sense of modesty and self-respect, and can, 
also, lead to unpleasent consequences. 

Nevertheless, as already stated, the woman has the final say in 
the matter, and the guardian cannot marry her to anyone against her 
wish. 

Marriage Should Not Be Solemnised in Secrecy 

(1679/8) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* h ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah iall said: "Perform the marriage openly, and 
in the mosque, and have the tambourine played." (Tirmizi) 



26 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Commentary: Perhaps, the idea behind it is that if a marriage is 
solemnised secretly, it can give rise to irresponsible talk and lead to 
frustrating developments. It should, therefore, be performed 
publicly, and, perferably, in a mosque where, apart from the 
blessings of the place, no special invitation is needed for the 
occasion and the provision concerning the witness, too, is easily 



As for the playing of the tambourine, it was a common feature, 
during the days of the sacred Prophet iH, on occasions like 
marraige. A wedding ceremony should, in any case, not be 
althogether devoid of entertainment. Hence, the Prophet S$fc has 
permitted, or rather encouraged the palying of the drum when a 
marriage is celebrated. 

Witness 



(1680/9) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: "The women who marry without a 
witness, i.e., secrecy are adulteresses." 

Commentary: Imam Tirmizi has quoted this Tradition as a 
Murfoo'\ on the authority of Abdullah ibn Abbas 4&>, as well .as 
Mauqooj, i.e., it is not actually a saying of the Prophet but 
Abdullah ibn Abbas's own utterance or fiat, and preferred the 
latter view on the basis of the evidence of transmission. But, even 
if it is an utterance of Abdullah ibn Abbas 4^>, he would not , 
surely, have said such a thing on his own, and without hearing it 
from the Messenger of Allah 

It, thus, belongs to the class of Murfod Traditions according to 
the criterion laid down by the authorities, and almost all the Jurists 
are agreed that witnesses are essential to the performance of a 
marriage. A marraige is null and void if it is solemnised without 
the presence of persons who testify that the event has duly taken 

place. 

O. The report of saying of the Holy Prophet S which is attributed directly to 



©. The report of a saying which is attributed to a Companion or Companions. 



fulfilled. 




him. 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 27 

The Sermon of Marriage 

> \ * 9 s f 9 9 ' s {*9 ' 9 ' * s 9 s ' 6> * - ' ' s * * s s 

^i$U t uJi> 0 Q3 ,^1* l\ f^j ^ j 6jJ 

(1681/10) Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4& related to us. saying that 
"The Messenger of Allah taught us the following sermon for 
all important occasions like marriage: 

'Praise be to Allah! Thee, alone, do we beg for help and 
forgiveness, and in Thee, alone, do we seek refuge from the 
mischief of the self, 

i.e., the inordinate appetites. No one can lead him astray upon 
whom God bestows Guidance, and no one can make him 
rightly-guided from whom God withholds Guidance. 1 affirm 
that no one is worthy of worship and obedience save Allah, and 
Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger 

Be careful of your duty towards Allah in whom you claim (your 
rights) of one another, and toward th wombs (that beare you). 
Lo! Allah has a watch over you. (Al Nisaa4:l) 

O You who believe! Fear Allah and speak words straight to the 
point, He will set right your deeds for you and will forgive your 
sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he indeed 
has gained a mighty triumph. (Al Ahzab 33 :70-7 1 ) 

(Abu Dawood, Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, and Nasai) 

Commentary: Whatever a bondman may be wanting to declare, by 
way of an affirmation of his loyalty and humbleness, is contained 
in the opeinig lines of this sermon while the Qur'anic verses given 
at the end are, wholly, sufficient for the bondsman's guidance and 
information. 



28 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

The sermon is delivered before Nikah, or, as would say, the 
proceedings of marriage begin with it. Alas, it, too, has got reduced 
to a mere formality, otherwise it includes a complete code of 
conduct for the couple. 

Mahr 

As we have learnt from Sayyidah Ayshah's if* &\ narrative, 
quoted in the last Chapter, the settlement of Mahr, i.e., dower or 
marriage-portion was in vogue, among the good families of the 
Arabs even in the Age of Ignorance, as a part of the matrimonial 
arragnement. It was, in other words, necessary for the bridegroom 
to agree upon the payment of a fixed amount of money to the bride 
before the performance of Nikah. The practice was, also, 
maintained by Islam. 

The Mahr serves as a proof and indication of the fact that the 
man is desirous of marrying the woman he is going to wed, and is 
willing to offer Mahr as a gift to her, according to his means, or 
has bound himself to its payment at a future time. 

The Holy Prophet w has not, definitely, set forth the amouunt 
of Mahr, as circumstances can vary from man to man. He had, 
however, fixed the Mahr of 500 dirhams, 1 or a little short of it, for 
his daughters, and similar, also, was the Mahr of most of his wives. 

During the lifetime of the sacred Prophet Hi, a greatqr or lesser 
amount them 500 Dirhams was, also, settled upon as dower-money 
, and it was deemed necessary for Muslims to conform to the Mahr 
of his wives or daughters. 

From the directions given in the Qur'an and the Traditions, it is 
clear that the settlement of Mahr on the bride is not an empty ritual 
or formality, but its payment is binding on the husband excepting 
that the wife, on her own account, forgoes it. As it is set forth in 
the Qur'an: 

(1:1 fr L*Jl) SJLAi j^J 13 JUtf> *LlJl \ 

And give that woman (you marry) their dower cheerfully as a 
free gift. (AlNisaa4:4) 

O. Dirham is said to be an unstamped piece of silver which was current in 
Arabia of those days as a coin. Later, it was altered into a round form and 
stamped. Its value is uncertain. 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



29 



The Importance attached by the Holy Prophet to Mahr can 
be imagined from the Traditions given below. 

*J&&\J**&\ Jj-^j Jl3 JIB^jI jP^^SJI Oj^o* O^AYA ^) 

O^aHj ^ ^1>J1 jJ»J f ^ ^ ^ ^Ji 

(1682/1 1) Maimoon Kurdi relates, on the authority of his father, 
that the Messenger of Allah said: "whoever weds a woman 
on a Mahr, whether big or small, and, in his heart, there is not 
the intention to pay it, will appear before the Lord, on the Day 
of Resurrection, as an adulterer (or fornicator)." (Tabarani) 

Commentary: It tells that if a man is not sincere about the 
payment of Mahr from the very beginning and has agreed to it 
purely as a formality, his Nikha is faulty and incomplete, and he is 
such a sinner in the sight of God that he will be treated as an 
adulterer or fornicator on the Day of Requital. 

Many other sayings of an identical nature have been quoted in 
Kanzid f Ummal from authentic source-books. These contain a most 
severe warning for men who do not take Mahr seriously and agree 
to amounts the payment of which is beyond their means. 

(1683/12) It is related by Abu Salmah 4$> "1 enquired from 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* *»i about the A/a/?r of the Messenger of 
Allah Hi. She replied that the Mahr of the Messenger of Allah 
wives was \2Vi Auqiya." (Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: An Auqiya is equal to 40 dirhams, and 12/4 
Auqiya will, thus, make 500 dirhams. 

It needs be remembered that 500 dirhams were quite a 
substantial amount during those days, and about 50 goats could be 
purchased with them. 

' a ' * y ' 3 «" . . *" ' <" 3 3 , . . *m ^ 3 / 3 S . 




30 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Jlp j lL>j %\ J^> ^Jl ^il^Jl Ai4^Jl ^jb 

J^-> ^ dp'it Jj> iit JJ) i# ^ Jtf ^ 

(1684/13) It is related by Umm Habibah if*& ^j, She relates 
that she was married to Ubaidullah ibn Hajsh (and had migraged 
with him to Abyssinia). (It was there that) her husband, 
Ubaidullah ibn Hajsh died, and Negus, (the King of Abyssinia) 
married her to the Messenger of Allah, and settled 5,000 
dirhams as her Mahr, on behalf of the Holy Prophet lH, and 
paid it to her from his own pocket. Negus, then sent her to the 
Prophet ^ in the company of Sharjeel ibn Hasana. 

(Abu Dawood and Nissai) 

Commentary: Umm Habibah ^ iui was the daughter of Abu 
Sufyan who, till the Victory of Makkah, was the leader of its 
Pagans and an Arch enemy of the Messenger of Allah H*. Eight 
years after the Migration, at the time of the Victory of Makkah, 
Abu Sufyan embraced Islam, but his daughter had become a 
Muslim much earlier, and so had her husband, Ubaidullah ibn 
Jahash. 

When the Muslims were persecuted Mercilessly in Makkah, 
some of them had, on the Prophet's iaH advice, migrated to 
Abyssinia, they included Umm Habiba and her husband. It so 
happened that, in Abyssinia, Abdullah ibn Jahash forsook Islam 
and adopted Christianity. He, also, drank excessively and died in 
that state. But Umm Habiba ^ remained steadfast in Faith. 

When the news of the death of Obaidullah ibn Jahash reached the 
Messenger of Allah H^, he decided to marry Umm Habiba &\ 
i^p in order to bring her solace and comfort, and, also, to show his 
appreciation of her resoluteness in the path of Islam. There were 
some other reasons, too, of importance to the Faith that called for 
it. The Holy Prophet then, sent a special messenger to Negus, 
requesting him to make the proposal of marriage, on his behalf, to 
Umm Habiba, and the Abyssinia Emperor had it done through his 
slave-girl, Abraha. The proposal was gladly accepted by Umm 
Habiba if* & who appointed a near relation from among the 
emigrant Muslims, named Khalid ibn Saeed El-Aasi, as her agent, 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



31 



and, as it is stated in Abu Dawood and Nasai, Negus married her 
to Messenger of Allah $1, and himself paid the Mahr, In the report 
quoted in Abu Dawood, the amount of Mahr is given as 4,000 
dinars 1 which is more authentic, according to the authorities. In 
any case, the Mahr of Umm Habiba was highest among the wives 
of the Holy Prophet but it was settled by the Abyssinian ruler, 
and not by him, and, as the Traditions have it, it was, also, paid by 
the former. 

The incident, it appears, took place in the fifth" year of 
migration to Abyssinia. 

It may be noted that Negus was the title of the Emperor of 
Abyssinia while the real name of the particular ruler, referred to in 
the above Tradition, was Asmaha. He had learnt about the 
teachings of the Prophet 0 through the Muslim emigrants and 
embraced Islam. He died in the 8th or the 9th A.H.,. The Holy 
Prophet iH was informed of his death in Divine Revelation who, 
then, told it to the Companions 4^ and held his funeral service in 
absentia. 

Felicitations And Supplication 

Various forms of felicitations, on the occasion of marriage, are 
current in the world. The Holy Prophet 1$^, however, has taught a 
formula which is more in the nature of a supplication for the . 
happiness nd well-being of the couple. 

(1685/14) Abu Hurayrah relates, saying that when the 
Prophet fife congratulated anyone on his marriage, he would 
say: "May God bless you, and bestow His favour on you, and 
keep you united for ever in goodness and welfare." . 

(Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

*^ TF * s s s s s 



32 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



.i^z \^XJr U ^4) tali ij*> j Up U li^ 

(1686/15) Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas 4^> related to us, saying 
that the Messenger of Allah HI said: "Whoever marries a 
woman or buys a slave or slave-girl should make the following 
supplication: Oh Allah! I beseech Thee for the goodness and 
virtue Thou hast blessed her (or him) with, and embedded in her 
(or his) nature. Favour me with it, And 1 beg Thee refuge from 
her (or his) wickedness, and the vice and viciousness in her (or 
his) nature. Protect me from it." (Abu Dawood) 



The Simpler a Marriage, The More Blessed it is 

jJLj 4*'& «ii 1 J* £ft ^> ^ ( n AY/ H) 

(1687/16) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah & ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah ^ said: "That marraige is most blessed 
which is the least burdensome." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: It, obviously, is not a mere statement of fact, but, 
also, an exhortation to the Ummah to keep the marriages as simple 
as possible. In that casse, the marraige will prove a blessing, and 
not a burden. 

Dowry of Fatima if* ^ 

^ai^li J~e&\ Jjijjfc J^Js^<S* (HAA/W) 

(l5 ;uJi oijj) .^o] ^Ujj ajjS j 

(1688/17) Sayyidina Ali 4fe narrates "Messenger of Allah ill 
had given the following articles as dowry to his daughter, 
Ftimah 14* ^ A bordered head covering, a small water-bag 
of leather, and a pillow stuffed with the grass, Azkhar." (Nasai) 

Commentary: This report is commonly believed, in our country, 
to men that the Messenger of Allah iH had given these articles to 
his duaghter, Saiyyidah Fatimah ifpiwi^j, as dowry on the 
occasion of her marriage, while, in fact, the practice of giving 
something to the bride, on her marriage, did not exist among the 
Arabs. They had no idea of it, so much so that a word like 'dowry' 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



33 



did not exist in their language, nor is it mentioned in any of the 
reports of the marriages of that time. The Holy Prophet lH had 
arranged for these things as Sayyidina Ali's 4fe guardian, and at his 
request, and with his money, as he did not possess the essential 
household goods at the time of his marriage with Sayyidah Fatimah 
i^piii^j. Full details of the event are contained in the Traditions. 

Walima 

To be married to a woman of one's liking a great favour of the 
Lord, and a matter of rejoicing. The marriage-feast, commonly 
known as Walima, is an outward expression of the feelings of 
gratitude and plesure. Through it, it is further, made known from 
the side of the bridegroom and his family that they are happy over 
the alliance and regard it as a Divine blessings which will, of 
course, be a source of great satisfaction to the bride and her people 
and add to mutual attachment and goodwill. 

(1689/18) Sayyidina Anas $k> Narrates "(once), on noticing a 

trace of the yellow colour on Abdul Rahman ibn Awf 4fe>, i.e., 

on his dress or body, the Messenger of Allah 111 enquired from 

him about it. Abdul Rahman ibn Awf replied 'I have married 

a woman for gold of the wieght of a date-stone, i.e., as Mahr, 

'God bless you,' observed the Prophet lH. 'Give the feast of 

Walima even if you have to slaughter s whole goat (for it).'" 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: What the Messenger of Allah ill meant, probably, 
was that Sayyidina Abdul Rahman ibn 'Awf 4&> should spend 
liberally on the feast to celebrate his marriage. 

It, further, shows that the training and instruction the holy 
Companions c^> had received at the hands of the Holy Prophet iH 
had cast them in such a mould that they did not give Prophet 0 
the trouble of attending their marriages. They did not even inform 
him. 



34 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

Thus, we find that even Abdul Rahman ibn Awf 4^> who was 
among the chosen Companions c$k> and belonged to the group of 
the ten most pious Companions who were honoured with the 
title of Ashra Mobashshira, at the time of the Truce of Hudaibiyah, 
got married and the sacred Prophet III knew nothing of it. 

The trace of yellowness on the clothes of Syyidina Abdul 
Rahman ibn Awf 4fe, as mentioned in the above Tradition, can, 
perhaps, be explained by the fact that, in those days, the brides 
used to wear garments dyed in saffrorn etc., and its effects were , 
also, sometimes, felt on the dress or body of the bridegroom. 

j «» 5 j) • P j 1 J* fa ^ est 

(1690/19) Sayyidina Anas 4fe related to us, saying "the 
Messenger of Allah iil did not give a Walima on his marriage 
with. any of his wives on the scale on which he gave the Walima 
on his marriage with Zainab bint Jahash ^iiit^>>He gave the 
Walima of a whole goat. (The entire meat of a goat was used in 
the feast)" 

Commentary: It shows that the feasts the Holy Prophet ill gave 
on his other marriages were on a smaller scale. As it is stated, for 
instance, in Sahih Bukhari, on the authority of Safia bint Sheba, 
only two seers of barely were used in the Walima feasts of some of 
his marriages and, again, on the authoirty of Sayyidina Anas 
that when the Prophet HI married Sayyidah Safia if* it there 
was neither meat nor bread in the feast, but only some dates, 
cheese and butter. From it, we learn that not even a regular meal is 
necesary for Walima. Whatever eatables one can afford should be 
served to the guests. How sad it is that, like dowry, we have made 
Walima, too, a heavy obligation. 

Invitation of Walima Should be Accepted 

(1691/20) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "When anyone of you is invited to 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



35 



the feast of the Walima, he should accept the invitation. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The marriage feasts were held in the correct way 
when the holy Prophet Hi had made this observation, and it is with 
regard to such feasts that the commandments stand. It has nothing 
to do with the entertainments that are openly wasteful and the eye 
is on display. The Holy Prophet $H, in fact, has advised us to stay 
away from them. 

Whose Invitation Should be Declined? 

(1692/21) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& that "the 
Messenger of Allah ill 5 forbade from eating the food of the 
people who try to excel one another." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: What it tells is that the invitations of persons who 
throw lavish parties, dinners etc., to impress others with their 
wealth or superiority should not be accepted. 

8j*Ul i\'Jft\ \$ ^Jb i^JJJl flit 

(1694/23) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^ that the Messenger 

of Allah iH said: "The food of the Walima is allowed to which 

only the rich are invited and the poor are ignored; and whoever 

did not accept the invitation (without a cogent reason) acted 

against the Commandment of Allah and His Messenger." 

(Bukahri and Muslim) 

Commentary: The first part of the above Tradition stresses that 
whoever gives a marriage feast should, also, invite the poor. The 
food served at a Walima to which only the well-to-do or important 
persons are invited is not worth eating. It, naturally, applies to all 
the feasts, and not merely to Walima. 

What the second part seeks to convey is that unless there is a 
valid excuse, the invitation of a Muslim brother to a feast ought to 



36 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



be accepted. It generates brotherly feelings while the declining of 
an invitation can stir up unfriendly sentiments. 

Prayer at The Time of Couplation 

^ j 6&-sJ> > ^ <>- # >*! 

(1694/23) It is related by Ibn Abbas 4k> that the Messengr of 
Allah HI said: "When anyone of you makes this supplication to 
God while going to his wife (for making love), and a child is 
destined to him from that couplation, the Devil will not be able 
to harm the child and it will remain safe forever from his 
mischeif: 

'In the Name of Allah! O God! Save me from the mischief of the 

Devil, and the progeny You may bestow upon me." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: As Sheikh Abdul Haq Mohaddith Dehlavi has 
observed in Ash'iatul Larn'aat, if a supplication like it is not made 
at the time of copulation and only the sexual urge is satisfied like 
the animals, the child that may born as a result of it will not be 
safe from the evil influence of the Devil. The Sheikh adds that "it is 
the main reason why the morals of the present generation are not 
good." 

Copulation Must be Kept as A Secret From Others 

fi 4\ 4'j\ Ji ^ fS 2ji iule ^UlljA» 

(1695/24) It is related by Abu Saeed Khudri 4*> that the 

Messenger of Allah m> said: "On the Day of Resurrection, he 

will be of the worst degree in the eyes of Allah in the greatest 

degree who divulges the secret after having sex with is wife." 

(Muslim) 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



37 



The Curse of God is on The Unnatural Act 

(1696/25) Abu Hurayrah relates that the Mesenger of Allah 
§jl said: "The man who performs the unnatural act with his wife 
is accursed." (Musnad Ahmad and Abu Dawood) 

(1697/26) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4k that the 
Messenger of Allah III said: "God will not even look at him 
who commits sodomy with a man or woman." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Even the animals do not satisfy their sexual desire 
in the unnatural way. The human beings who ae guilty of it, thus, 
are even worse than the quadrupeds, and offer a living proof of the 
Correctness of the Qur'anic verse: 

"Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low. (Al Tin 95:5) 

It will be known only on the Day of Final Judgement what a 
grievous misfortune is to remain deprived of even a glance from 
the Almighty. 

Restrained Ejaculation 

Sometimes, for a special reason, such as, the health of the wife 
or the earlier children, a man does not want his wife to become 
pregnant. For it, he practices 'Azl (restrain ejaculation), i.e., 
separates himself from the wife at the time of ejaculation. It was 
done during the days of the Holy Prophet iH as well, the reply the 
Prophet H> gave when enquired is not forbidden, it is also not 
good. Most of the Jurists have drawn the same conclusion from the 
Traditions pertaining to it, and the basic law, according to them, it 
that if a man wants to pracitce 'Azl owing to his peculiar 
circumstances, he can do so, and it will not amount to sin. But the 
way in which the campaigns of family planning or population 



38 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



control are being launched now a days, in certain countries, at the 
national level, and the chief aim of which is to put a check to limit 
the human race mainly on the ground that if the population goes on 
increasing as it is, it will not be possible to feed the people or 
improve the standard of living is wholly un-Islamic. In truth, it is 
not far different, in its spirit, from the custom of killing the 
children in their infancy that was prevalent among the Arabs in the 
Age of Ignorance. It is to such people that these verses are 
addressed in the Qur'an: 



Slay not your children because of penury. We provide you and 
for them. (Ai-Anam 6:151) 

After this brief introduction, the Traditions. 



(1698/27) It is narrated by Sayyidina Jabir 4fe> "(during the 
life-time of the Messenger of Allah III), when the revelation of 
the Qur'an was continuing, we, i.e., some of the Companions 4^> 
used to practise 'Azl, (and no verse of the Qur'an had been 
revealed forbidding it)." In another version of it, quoted in 
Sahih Muslim, it is added that "it was in the knowledge of the 
Prophet ®, but he did not prohibit." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

(1699/28) Abu Saeed Khudri 4^ relates, saying "(once) the 
Messenger of Allah was asked about 'y4z/ upon which he 
said: 'It is not that one conceives with every seminal discharge. 
(It is only by Allah's will that a woman conceives and gives 
birth to a child). And when Allah decides upon the creation of 
anything, no one can stop it." (Bukhari) 

Commnetary: It shows that it is not correct to suppose that the 
birth of a child can be prevented by 'Azl. The birth will take place, 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



39 



in any case, if it is willed by God. The next Tradition is more clear 
to it 



(1700/29) It is related by Jabir 4fe "(once) a man came to the 
Messenger of Allah lH and said: 'I have a slave-girl who looks 
after the domestic work at my house, and I, also, make love to 
her, but I do not want her to become pregnant.' (Perhaps, he 
wanted to know if he could practise Azl with her). The 
Messenger of Allah ill observed: 'You can practise 'Azl if you 
like, but it is certain that what has been destined for the 
slave-girl will happen.' The man, again, came after some time 
and said that the slave-girl had conceived. The Messenger of 
Allah iHl replied: 'I had told you that what had been ordained for 
her shall come to pass'." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In the two aforementioned Traditions, it is 
emphasised that if it is decided by God about anything that it will 
come into existance, it shall take place and nothing can stop it. As 
for example, a man practises 'Azl to kep his wife from conceiving, 
but if it is decreed by the Lord, at any time, that she gave birth to a 
child, either the husband will not be able to get away from her 
quickly enough or some discharge secretion will take place before 
the ejaculation, without his knowing it, and she will become 
pregnant. 

Permission to Have Four Wives 

Whether by temperament or circumstances, there are men who 
are likely to go astray and seek sexual gratification in a sinful 
manner if they are not allowed to have more than one wife at the 
same time. That is why, in the Canonic Laws in which adultery or 
fornication is strictly forbidden, it has, generally, been permitted to 
have more wives than one. 

In the Shari'ah brought by the sacred Prophet H?, fornication. 




40 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



specially by a married person is such a great sin that it is 
punishable with death by stoning. If in such a SharVah, polygamy 
was not allowed, in any event, it would, indeed, have ben 
extremely cruel and unjust. In the Westren countries in which 
polygamy is legally forbidden, no eyeborws are rasied on illicit 
sexual intercourse and the question of its legitimacy or otherwise 
does not arise. In order to put an end to illicit sex, the Islamic 
SharVah, on the one hand, prescribed a most severe punishment, 
and, on the other, permitted a man to have upto four wives at the 
same time, subject, of course, to appropriate conditions. 

Like many other communities, among the Arabs, too, there was 
no limit to the number of wives before the advent of Islam, some 
men used to have ten, and even more wives at a time. Keeping in 
view the different circumstances of different people, the Islamic 
SharVah has fixed the limit at four. 

\juj\ ^S~*J>\ (iJLl»j <UIp &\ { Jufi iS ^S\ JUS &*a jiJL>l3 iliAUsJi Ui 

(1701/30) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4k> Narrates "When 
Ghailan ibn Salmah Thaqafi embraced Islam, he had ten wives 
who had, also, accepted Islam with him. The Messenger of 
Allah thereupon, told him to keep four and divorce the rest." 

(Musnad Ahmad) 

Justice And Equity in Treatment Towards Wives 

A man who has more than one wife must deal fairly with them, 
and make no difference in the treatment of one wife over another. 
In Sura-i-Nissa, in which permission has been given to marry upto 
four women, it is candidly stated that: 

If you fear that you cannot do justice (to so many wives), then 

one (only). 

For husbands who do not treat their wives with justice there is 
the warning of a heavy penalty in the Hereafter. The inclination of 
the heart is, of course, different over which a man has little control, 
b"ut where the moral and material rights of the wives are concerned, 



Marriage And Other Related Matters 



41 



no discrimination should be shown. 

. laSL) &i>j i£JjJ» U^ri J4*i <^ f^il 

(1702/31) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^ that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "Whosoever has two, (or more), wives, and 
does not treat them with justice and fairness, he will appear on 
the Last Day in such a condition that one side of his body would 
have missing. (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Daarmi) 

Commnetary: It offers another example of similarity between the 
misdeeds of this world and the punishment, in the Hereafter. A 
jnan, it tells, who has more than one wife and discriminates among 
them in behaviour and treatment will be seen by everyone, on the 
Day of Resurrection, with one side of his body missing. 

4ii^j ^ ^-S |ii 3 » » o« < ^ v • r/r y > 
tj Q ^ufitf J&ii Q ^jj & j^ti J>;j j^ii 

(1703/32) Sayyidah Ayshah if* it ^ Narrated "the Messenger 
of Allah iH used to live with his wives in turns, and treat them 
with full justice. In adition to it, he would supplicate: 

"O my God! This is my behaviour in things and doings over 
which I have control. Call me, therefore, not to account for the 
thing (of the heart) which is in You power, not mine." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: It shows that the Prophet maintained a complete 
equality among his wives as far as practical behaviour and standard 
of living were concerned. He treated all of them alike. But the 
attachment of the heart is something which cannot be ordered. It 
could not be the same with each wife. Hence, the Prophet iH used 
to beseech the Lord to forgive him if there was any difference in it 
for love and inclination did not lie in his power; it was in the 
Hands of Allah. 



1 



DIVORCE AND PERIOD OF WAITING 

The main object of marriage is that, by entering into it, people 
led a clean and virtuous life, and just as they were someone's 
children, they, too, produced children, and the children were a 
source of joy to them and a means to the attainment of Paradise in 
Hereafter. 

For the realisation of these ends, it is essential that relations 
between man and wife were pleasent and based on love and 
understanding. This, is a nutshell, is the substance of the teachings 
of the Holy Prophet Hi relating to the conduct and behaviour 
between husband and wife. Yet, sometimes, circumstances arise in 
which it becomes extremely difficult to live together. The Prophet's 

advice, even then, is that they should try their utmost tolerate 
with each other, and resolve their differences, through mutual 
concession and compromise. Divorce or Talaq, too, has, however, 
been permitted as a last resort. It, evidently, would have been most 
unjust if the breaking up of a marriage was not allowed in any case, 
and however miserable the life of a couple became, it was legally 
compelled to remain joined in wedlock till death. 

Detailed guidance has, hence, been furnished on the subject of 
divorce, the first thing to remember, as a matter of principle, being 
that such a development is highly displeasing to God, and, 
therefore, it should be avoided as far as possible. Neither the 
husband nor the wife should act in a hurry. The step is to be taken 
only when no choice is left, in the same way as, for example, the 
amputation of a limb is agreed to when no other course is open. 

The method prescribed for divorce is that the husband should 
give only one Raj'ee Talaq at a time when the wife is in a state of 
cleanliness, i.e., she is not having her men ses so that it remained 

O. Meaning a 'reversible' divorce ; a divorce that can be taken back within the 
period of 'Iddah. 



44 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

open to the husband to retrace his steps and take back the divorce 
within the period of 'Iddah 1 . If, however, the husband cannot make 
up his mind about returning to his wife and restoring her to the 
former position, he should allow the period of Iddah to pass after 
which though the withdrawal of the divorce will not be possible, 
they can be joined, again, in wedlock by mutual consent. 

The-pronouncement of three Talaqs simultaneously is 
extremely sinful, but to do so at three different times, too, has been 
viewed with strong disfavour, and the punishment laid down on it, 
here in this world, is that the husband will not be allowed to 
re-marry his divorced wife until she is married to another man and 
full conjugal relations have been established between them, and 
after it, she has either become a widow owing to the death of her 
second husband or has been divorced by her husband. It is only 
then that he can marry her again on the completion of Iddah. This 
severe restriction, in fact, is the penalty imposed on the husband 
for pronouncing three Talaqs. 

Most Disagreeable Act 

(1704/33) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar 4& that the 
Prophet illl said: "Among the lawful and legitimate things, most 
disagreeable to God is divorce." (Abu Dawood) 

y ' 

y y 

(1 705/34) It is related by Mu'az ibn Jabal 4^ that the Messenger 
of Allah III said: "O Mu'az , God has not created anything on 
the face of the earth wich may be more pleasing to Him than the 

©.The period of waiting for a widowed or divorced woman before the expiry of 
which she cannot re-marry, for a divorced woman, Iddah extends up to the 
time that three cyclic periods of menstruation are completed, and if the woman 
be pregnant, until she is gives birth of the child. 

O. Plural of Talaq, meaning 'divorce'. 



Divorce And Period of Waiting 



45 



setting free of slaves and slave-girls, and he has not created 
anything on the face of the earth which may be more displeasing 
to Him than divorce." (Daar Qutni) 



(^jtuJlj krU jj! j a jto jj» j >Jlj -U^t jj) 

(1706/35) It is related by Thauban 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah iil said: "The sweet smell of Paradise is forbidden to the 
woman who demands divorce from her husband except on 
account of severe hardship." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: The admonition, evidently, does not apply to the 
woman for whom it may have become really intolerable to live 
with her husband, but if she seeks divorce without the things 
having gone that far, it will be highly sinful'on her part. 

(1707/36) Abu Moosa Ash'ari 4^ related to us, that the 
Messenger of Allah $H said: "Women should not be divorced 
unless they are of a doubtful character. God does not like men 
who are addict to pleasure and enjoyment." 

(MuSnad Bazzar, and Tabarani) 

Commentary: What the last part of the above Tradition denotes is 
that men who divorce their wives simply to marry again and derive 
satisfaction from a new wife are excluded from thr love and good 
pleasure of the Lord. The same is the case with women who obtain 
divorce from their husbands so that they can have pleasure with a 
new man. 

Time And Procedure 

j+* /AS Jaiy J*j JUp Ail j** (\ Y . A/TV) 



46 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



(1708/37) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe> Narrates that he 
divorced his wife in the condition that she was having her 
menses, and his father mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah 
Hi, upon which he was very angry and said: Tell Abdullah to 
take back the divorce and keep the wife with him in marriage 
unitl the menstruation period ends and she comes into the 
period of cleanliness, and, then, the period of cleanliness ends, 
and she, again, has her menses, and returns, once more, to the 
period of cleanliness. Should he still want to divorce her, he 
might have a sexual intercourse with her." The Prophet of God 
I added: "This is the Iddah laid down in the Qur'an: 



V % 9 H I 



"Divorce them at their prescribed periods." (AI Talaq 65:1) 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It tells that it is forbidden to divorce a woman while 
she is having her menses, and whoever does so by mistake should 
receive back his wife after the divorce. In case the husband 
remained of the same mind, the divorce ought to be given at the 
time of purification after menstruation provided that he had not 
made love to her during it. 

The idea behind the arrangement is that during menstruation , a 
woman is not fit for sexual intercourse while, in the state of 
purification, it is quite possible that the husband felt inclined 
towards her and the intention to divorce disappeared from his heart 
which, in any case, is more pleasing to the Lord and Prophet $i>. 

In the incident related above, Abdullah ibn Umar 4l> was told 
by the holy Prophet to take back the divorce he had given and 
allow a period of purification to pass, and if, even then, he was 
adamant, he could divorce his wife during the second period of 
purification, the idea being that when the two would live together 
during the whole of the intervening period of purification, the 
relations might improve and the divorce avoided. But if it did not 
turn out that way and the divorce was invetiable, the Prophet 



Divorce And Period of Waiting 



47 



advised Abdullah ibn Umar 4^> to do so during the second period 
of purification, before cohibition. This last condition, too, was 
based on the logic that the sexual urge was stronger at the end of 
the menses, and it might, also, offer a hindrance to divorce. 

It, further, shows that though divorce is forbidden during 
menses and is a grave sin, it does take place if given. Were it 
otherwsie, there would have been no need for restitution, and 
instead of telling Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe> to receive back his wife, 
the holy Prophet HI would have said that the divorce was void. 

To Give Three Divorces at 
The Same Time is A Great Sin 



(1709/38) Sayyidina Mahmood ibn Labeed 4fe> narrated "(once), 
as the Messenger of Allah ^ came to know about a person that 
he had divorced his wife thrice, at the same time, he rose up in 
great anger and said: 'Will the book of God be mocked with 
even when I am present in Your midst? (To divorce thrice, at 
the same time, is to make a mockery of the Qur'an in which the 
law and method of divorce are distinctly laid down. Will the 
Book of God be reduced to a plaything in my lifetime)?' (As the 
Messenger of Allah 111 spoke these words in extreme anger), a 
Companion stood up and said: 'O Messenger of Allah iH ! May 
I better not kill that man who has acted like that."' (Nasai) 

Commentary: It shows that the giving of three divorce 
simultaneously is a most serious transgression of the law of God. 
But as a divorce given during the monthly course takes effect in 
spite of being highly sinful and the woman gets divorced as a result 
of it, the divorce given thrice, at the same time, too, takes place in 
the opinion of an overwhelming majority of Jusists. 

The giving of three divorces, at the same time, has been 
condemned as playing with the Book of God, probably, on the 



48 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



basis of the following verses: 

S> £j3 J± JJ6 f # SJ JajS ^ l^iifc ^ O oU> j^kJi 

Divorce is twice, then either a retention with honour or a rebase 
with kindness. So if he divorces her, then she shall not be lawful 
to him. Therefore, until she marries another husband 

(AlBaqarah 2:229/230) 

From these verses, it is evident that if a man wanted to divorce 
his wife more than once, he should not do so at the same time, but 
at different times, with suitable intervals. 

The narrative does not tell what reply the Prophet £H gave to 
the Companion who had offered to kill the transgressor. 
Perhaps, he kept quiet, and, thereby, indeed that man had 
committed a grievous sin, it did not amount to an offence 
punishable with death. 

The Consequence of Three Divorces 
and The Injunction of TheShar'iah 

.fill J j*>j ^1 ^yJl apISj i\y>\ o t\sr cJlS JLtilP j£ ( ^ V \ • IX 1) 

• . * 

' ^ . ^ , ^ ^ . . . 4^ ^ s s * s s s S y , ^ 

(1710/39) Sayyidah Ayshah if^ii^j relates, saying that "Once 
the wife of Rifa'ah Qurazi came to the Messenger of Allah iH* 
and said that she had been married to Rifa'ah who had divorced 
her and completed the whole procedure, i.e., given three 
divorces. She had, thereupon, married Abdul Rahman ibn 
Zubair, but is incapable of performing the sexual act. The 
Messenger of Allah asked her if she wanted to go back to 
Rifa'ah to which she replied in the affirmative. The Messenger 
of Allah III, then, observed: "It cannot be done until sexual 
intercourse takes place between you two. "(Meaning between the 
former wife of Rifa'ah and her new husband." (Bukhari & Muslim) 



Divorce And Period of Waiting 



49 



Commentary: The commandment is set forth, also, in the Qur'an 
which says: 

"And if a person divorces his wife the third time, he cannot, 
after that, re-marry her until after she has married another 
husband. (A! Baqarah 2:23) 

It is only in the event that the second husband dies or he, also, 
divorces her that the woman can re-marry her former husband, after 
completing the period of Icldah. 

From this and many other similar Traditions, we learn by way 
of elucidation of the afore-mentioned verse of the Qur'an that the 
mere performance of marriage with some other man is not enough 
for this prupose. Its consummation is essential. This view is upheld 
by a vast majority of the Jurists. The condition of second marriage 
will, indeed, be rendered meaningless if it is not subject to the 
completion of the act that is fundamental to the relationship 
between man and wife. 

Even a Divorce in Jest is A Divorce 

(171 1/40) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^> that the Messenger 

of Allah lH said: "There are three things to speak seriously and 

with deliberation with relation to which is a reality, and to 

speak light-heartedly and in jest with relation to which, too, is a 

reality. The three things are: marriage, divorce and restitution, 

i.e., receiving by a husband of his wife after divorce. 

(Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Its purport is that if a man marries a woman or 
divorces her or recieves back the divorced wife in joke, it will be 
real in the eyes of the SharVah and deemed to have, actually, taken 
place. Marriage, divorce or restitution, by their nature, are such 
serious and solemn acts that no fun or frivolity can be permitted. 



50 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Divorce By a Man of A Deranged Mind 

(1712/41) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Prophet $1 
said: "Each divorce is valid except by a man who is not in his 
senses." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Sometimes, a man goes out of his mind, owing to a 
shock or illness, and does things he would not do if he was in his 
senses. Should such a man divorce his wife, in that condition, the 
divorce will not have a legal force in the same way as the divorce a 
lunatic is held, legally, to be of no effect. 

In another Tradition, it is stated tha there are three persons who 
will not be held responsible for what they say or do, and no law of 
the SharVah shall be applicable to them: (i) he who is in a state of 
slumber; (ii) a minor child; and (iii) one who is out of his mind. 

It denotes that if a man divorces his wife while talking hin his 
sleep, it will not be effective, and similar is the case with the 
divorce given by a minor child or a man with a deranged mind. 

A Divorce Under Duress is Null And Void 

(1713/42) Sayyidah Ayshah ^ & relates, saying that she 

heard the Messenger of Allah iH say: "A divoce and setting free 

of a slave under duress are void and have no effect (in law)." 

(Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: It shows that if a man is made to divorce his wife 
or sets free his slave under constraint or coercion, it will not be 
valid. This is the viewpoint of a majority of Jusists, but Imam Abu 
Hanifah holds that a divorce given under duress will be effective in 
the same way as a divorce given in jest, and the authorities of the 
Hanafi School of thought gives quite a different interpretation of 
the above Tradition. 

It should, however, be noted tha Imam Abu Hanifah is not 
alone in his judgement, but Saeed ibn Mussaiyyib, Ibrahim 



Divorce And Period of Waiting 5 1 

Nakha'ee and Sufyan Thauri, also, are reported to have drawn the 
same conclusion. 

Iddah 

The law of Iddah, too, has been laid down, in the Islamic 
Shari'ah, for a divorced woman. It maintains that a woman whose 
husband has divorced her should spend a period of time in waiting, 
the essentilal details of which are given in the Qur'an itself. For a 
menstruating woman, a period of waiting for three monthly courses 
has been prescribed, while if the menses have finally ceased or 
have not yet started and she is, also, not in the family way, it is 
three months. For a pregnant woman, Iddah extends up to the time 
she delivers the child, no matter how long or short it is. 

The provision of Iddah is a prudent, well-advised and sensible 
arrangement. An important aspect of it is that it underlines the 
sanctity and solemnity of Nikah, i.e., the wedlock. Had there been 
no such stipulation and it was permitted to a woman to remarry at 
will and immediately after being divorced by her husband, it will, 
surely, have acted against the seriousness and dignity and reduce 
Talaq to a joke. Another aim, specially in the case of Rafee 
(reversible) Nikah, is to give an opportunity to the husband to think 
over the whole thing again and take back the divorce so that the 
couple may live, once more, as man and wife which is more 
pleasing to God and Prophet Hi. It is for this reason that during the 
Iddah of Talaq Rafee, the woman is advised to pay a little more 
attention to her adornment and behave towards her husband in such 
a way that he may, again, feel attached to her and decide to recieve 
her back as his wife. As for Talaq Baina? though it is not possible 
for the husband to return to his wife, there still remains a greater 
possibility of re-marriage by mutual consent as a result of the 
stipulation that the wife cannot marry again before the expiry of the 
peirod of waiting. 

The third consideration is that there remained no possibility of 
doubt about the paternity of the child born to the woman after 
divorce. 

Anyway, these are some of the manifest aims and advantages of 
the law of Iddah. It is, perhaps, for these reasons that a period of 



52 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



waiting after separation is prescribed, in one form or another, in a 
number of civilised societies of the world, but, in some cases, the 
peirod is so long as to become unbearble for the woman. The 
period of Iddah laid down in the Shariah, as everyone will agree, is 
moderate and reasonable. 

From the Tradition that follows we will learn that the law of 
Iddah was revealed when a Companion of the Prophet lH 
called Asma ibn Yazid ibn es-Sakan Ansariya, had been divorced 
by her husband. 

(1714/43) It is related by Asma bint Yazid ibn as-Sakan 
Ansariya, that she had been divorced during the time of the 
Messenger of Allah 111, and until then no commandment had 
come down concerning Iddah. So, the Lord revealed the verses 
of the Qur'an in which Iddah for a divorced woman was 
decreed. Asma bint Yazid, thus, was the first divorced woman 

about whom the commandment of Iddah was revealed. 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The Qur'anic verse mentioned in it is, perhaps, the 
following verse of Surah AUBaqara: 

( y Y A: Y o >Ll») i jj Xjti jf-diib j-ij^J OliikJl j 

And the divorced women shall wait, keeping themselves apart, 
for three monthly periods. (Al Baqarah 2:228) 

Laws concerning women who are not menstruating owing to 
minority or old age or who are with child indicated in Surah 
At-Talaq. 



O. Lietrally, 'a divorce that separates. 1 In the Shariah, it is distinguished from the 
three divorces in the sense that while the third time the divorce becomes 
irrevocable until the woman marries some other man, nad he, also, divorces 
her, in Talaq Baina no such condition is laid and re-union is permissible 
without it. 



Divorce And Period of Waiting 



53 



Iddah on Death And Mourning 

There is the command of Iddah for the widow, in the Shariah, 
in the same way as for the divorced woman. As it is distinctly 
stated in the Qur'an: 

And those of you who die, and leaves their wives, such women 
shall wait by themselves for four months and ten days. 

(AlBaqarah 2:234) 

This applies to the widows who are not pregnant. For the 
widows who are in the family way, the Iddah has been prescribed 
in another verse. It is until the child is born, however long or short 
the period may be. For the term of Iddah, the Command of 
mourning has. also, been given. A widowed woman is enjoined to 
show the conventional grief during the whole period of waiting. 
She is to abstain strictly from using things that are, commonly, 
assoicated with embellishment, and lead a life indicating her loss 
and sorrow so that those who saw her should know from her dress, 

4 

appearance and behaviour that, like a good and virtuous lady, she 
was feeling sad and distressed at the death of her husband, but this 
commandment is only for the period of Iddah, and should cease at 
its expiry. It is not allowed, in the Shariat, that a woman observed 
life-long mourning on the death of her husband. 

Aside of the husband, if a woman shows he heart-felt giref, in 
the form of mourning at the death of any other near relative like 
father or brother, she can do so only for three days. 

* « \ N . J ✓ y *> t 

s £ * s V 

(1715/44) It is related by Umm Habiba if* & and Zainab 
bint Jahash ^^^j that the Messenger of Allah said: "It is 
not permitted to a believing woman that she observed mourning 
on the death of a near relative for more than three days, save 
that of her husband. On the death of the husband, the 



54 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



commandment is that the mourning be observed for four months 
and ten days." (Bukahri and Muslim) 

(1716/45) Umm Salmah ipe&s^j relates, saying that the 
Prophet !S& said: "A woman whose husband has died should not 
wear clothes dyed in saffron or red chalk, nor use ornaments, 
hair-dye, henna or collyrium." (Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: In the days of the holy Prophet $jb 9 safflower and 
red chalk were, generally, used by women to dye their clothes for 
attraction. These two things have, thus, been, particularly, 
mentioned in the hadith, otherwise no special significance is 
attached to them and the real meaning and intention of the saying is 
that women who have been widowed should avoid wearing 
attractive clothes. In the same way, they should not use articles of 
adornment like ornaments, henna or collyrium. 

The object of these rules and regulations is that the grief of a 
woman, at the loss of her husband, should not only be felt in the 
heart, but its effect must, also, be apparent from her dress etc. 



KITAB UL-MA'MLAAT 

(BOOK OF AFFAIRS) 



IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC AFFAIRS 

No man can do without acting jointly with others, and having 
various forms of relations, including monetary dealings. Men are 
dependent no one another for their needs. For instance, a labourer 
whose needs are very limited stands in need of the grocer from 
whom he can buy provisions for himself and his family, and the 
farmer needs the labourer to grow the crops. In the same way, both 
the labourer and the farmer are dependent for their dress upon the 
man who makes or sells the cloth, and the cloth manufacturer or 
dealer upon the person who buys it. If anyone has to build a house, 
he requires the services of the maison and other workers, and when 
he falls ill, he goes to the physician. 

In brief, economic affairs, like buying and selling, labour and 
wages, agriculture and industry, and lending and borrowings are an 
essential part of life. In all these spheres, again, there is always the 
possibility of a dispute to settle with legal procedure and courts of 
justice is needed. 

Though His Prophets f^LJi ^-U, specially the last of them, the 
Prophet Muhamamd $H, Almighty Allah has enunciated the 
principles and methods of monetary dealings as well which , 
apparently, are related, purely, to worldly affairs. These laws are 
fully consistent with the nobility of the human race, and, also, hold 
out the assurance of felicity in both the worlds. 

What is more, as a consequence, the management of these 
affairs and interests, in conformity with Divine guidance and the 



58 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



laws of the Shariah, has ceased merely to be a worldly matter and 
got elevated to Faith itself, and, in a sense, to worship the promise 
of Divine recompense and elevation in ranks in the Hereafter in the 
same way as on deeds of worship, such as, Salah, Fasting, Zikr, 
Recitation and Jihad and to inculcate moral virtues etc. 

The guidance, rules and regulations which have reached us 
through the Holy Prophet III concerning this department of life, 
Muamlaat (Mutual Dealings) as it is called, are, as far as we know, 
based upon four fundamental principles: i) public good; injustice; 
iii) honesty and truthfulness; and iv) compassion^ 

Clean Living And Lawful Earning 

y y> i* y y y 9 

(1717/1) It is related by Abdullah ibn Masud that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "To earn lawfully is, also, a duty 
next (only) to the pricnipal duties of Faith." (Biahaiq) 

Commentary: As most commentators agree, what this Tradition 
seeks to emphasise is that after testimony that there is no diety save 
God, and Muhammad ill is the Messenger of Allah and Salah 
Fasting etc, which are the fundamentals tenets of Islam, it is the 
earning of one's livelihood through honest means and by engaging 
oneself cleanly in a trade or profession that comes frist. Whoever is 
heedless incurs the danger of succumbing to the temptation of 
earning money or acquiring wealth from illegitimate sources, and, 
then, his end, in the Hereafter, will be what has been indicated in 
the Qur'an and the Traditions with regard to those who live on 
unclean income. 

Again, to perform a duty enjoined by God, obviously, in an act 
of worship, and the bondsman who does so is deserving of the 
Divine reward a person becomes entitled to on doing anything he is 
required to do by the Lord. Hence, to strive towards earning one's 
livelihood through honest means is virtually identical to worship 
and worhty of Divine recompense. What good tidings does it 
contain, indeed, for the conscientious traders, artisans, workers and 
peasants who make a clean living! It may, however, be remebered 



Book of Affairs 



59 



that the emphasis in this Tradition is on the seeking of a clean 
livelihood and not merely on making an imcome. The object of this 
saying is to warn against everything in connection with subsistence 
that is forbidden and unlawful 

Importance And Need of Money 
In Certain Circumstances 

(1718/2) It is related, on the authority of Miqdoom ibn M'adi 
Karab <4fe, that he heard the Prophet $m say: "A time will come 
wehn money, alone, will avail." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: The narrator of this Tradition is a Taba'ee called 
Abu Bakr ibn Abi Maryam. he has related it on the authority of 
Sayyidina Miqdaam ibn M'adi Karab The incident he has 
mentioned in this context is that Sayyidina Miqdaam ibn M'adi 
Karab 4fe had some milch cattle, the milk of which was sold by his 
slave-girl while the price was collected by Miqdaam himself. Some 
people felt that it was unbecoming of Sayyidina Miqdaam to 
make money by selling milk, and they objected to it. Sayyidina 
Miqdaam 4& admitted that he did so, and, in his support, referred 
to the aforementioned saying of the Prophet ill. Had the holy 
Prophet not said that a time was to come when money, alone, 
would be of use to men? What Sayyidina Miqdaam 4^ meant was 
that it might not be a highminded act to make money by selling 
milk, but, surely was permissible. 

The Honest Trader Will Be With The 
Prophets, The Truthful and The Martyrs 

(1719/3) It is related by Abu Saeed Khudri 4fe that the 
Messenger of Allah III said: "The trader who plies his trade 



60 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



cleanly and honestly will rise, in the Hereafter, in the company 

of the Propehts f^LJi ffcl*, the Truthful, and the Martyrs." 

(Tirmizi, Daarami and Daar-Qutni) 

Note: The same Tradition has been quoted by Ibn Majah, on the 
authority of Sayyidina Ibn Umar 4fe>. 

Commentary: Says the Qur'an: 

& ^ f& if JO jli J^lj -5JJ^ 

And whoever obeys Allah and the Messengers f^LJij^U, they 
are with those whom Allah has blessed — of the Prophets 
jk^uJ\ and the truthful, and the martyrs, and the righteous, and an 
excellent company are they. (Al Nisaa 4:69) 

The life of a trader is beset with numerous trials and 
temptations. He is, often, confronted with a situation in which 
there, apparently, is the danger of loss if he remains steadfast and 
follows the path of honesty, as enjoined by the Almighty, and a 
good chance of profit if he disregards the Divine commandments 
and allows himself to be guided solely by material considerations. 
Thus, the trader who observes his duty to God in business dealings 
comes out successful in the trial prescribed by the Lord, and, for 
him , there is the promise that he will be in the company of the most 
favourite bondsmen of the Lord in After-life- the Prophets 
f*-Jt ? the Truthful and the Martyrs. This will be the reward of the 
upright traders in the world to come. 

Warning: As we had occasion to point out repeatedly in the 
earlier volumes, all the tidings like it are subject to the condition 
that a person abstains from the other wicked and sinful deeds as 
well which are abomination in the sight of God and make one 
unworthy of His good Grace. 

Dignity of Labour 

\ s S s. ' I S - * ✓ i> s _ s s s s s & 



Book of Affairs 



61 



(1720/4) It is related by Miqdaam ibn M'adi Karab 4& that the 

Messenger of Allah $H said: "The cleanest food is that which 

has ben earned by the labour of one's hand. In fact, the Prophet 

Dawood $s£Sl used to work with his hands for his living." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: It stresses the dignity of labour and cites the 
example of Prophet Dawood $0 to bring home the food 
purchased from the earnings. It is told in the Qur'an that Prophet 
Dawood used to make Chain armour and, from the above 
Tradition, we, further, learn that he did it for a living. 



J15 £Urt J Jtf ^ 0\j jfi ( W Y \ /o) 

(1721/5) Sayyidina Raafi' ibn Khadeej 4^> narrates that a person 
(once) enquired from the Prophet iH which income was better 
and more clean. (What was a better way of earning one's 
livelihood)? "The one who works with his hands, and every 
trade that was (done) with honesty," replied the Messenger of 
Allah ifi§l. (Musnad Ahmad) 

Agriculture And Fruit-Growing 

*i\ j\ at-Jl j\ J± ^ JTUS I*, j 9 jji j\ \~>j* jyo tfj* 

(pL»j> j ^jbxJl 0\ Jj) . til*? 

(1722/6) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah iH said: "Whatever believing bondsman grew a crop or 
planted a tree, and a bird, animal or man ate from it, it would be 
charity on his part." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The above Tradition indicates that the one who 
cultivates the land and grows fruit trees is blessed and entails 
reward from Allah as a Sadaqah. If any animal or a bird eats from 
that crop of his land or from a fruit tree. It is an incentive for 
Agriculturists and fruit growers. 



62 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

Legitimate Wealth is A Blessing 

juji ^ 33 cpji j JC*; ) & jl^. Jap J&tf o' 

cJJlL>\ j>Jj JUJt Jj?-i cJJL>t U Ai J j-ijG cJLSa i*JU? 2upj 
guilt JUJi j$ j^p U Jul Jfiu 6'j f&tf ^ % 



(1723/7) Amr ibn al-'Aas **$k> related to us, saying that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said to him: "I intend to send you, (on a 
military expedition), as the commander of the army, and, then, 
by the Grace of Allah, you return safe and sound (and 
victorious) and take the spoils of war (from the enemy), and 
recieve a good grant of wealth from God." Upon it, (amr ibn 
al-Aas went on to relate that he said): "O Messenger of 
Allah! I have not embraced Islam for worldly goods, but for the 
liking and attachment 1 have for it and for the reason that I am 
blessed with your company. "O Amr!" the Prophet lH replied, 
"clean and lawful wealth is a good thing and a blessing for a 
virtuous bondsman." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: It tells that weatlh acquired through legitimate 
means is a special favour of Allah. On the other hand, in the earlier 
volumes, we saw r Traditions, under the headings of 'Asceticism' and 
'Soft-heartedness', to the effect that poverty was preferable to riches 
and the poor of the Ummah were more blessed than the well-to-do, 
Both the view-points, however, are correct in their context. If 
contentment and willing acceptance of what has been decreed by 
Allah falls to the lot of anyone, alongwith poverty, it doubtlessly, is 
an enviable satate. It was preferred by the Holy Prophet £|| for 
himself, and he used to pray for it. At the same time, if Allah 
bestows riches on anyone, through lawful means, and he is, also, 
blessed with a grateful heart and the prudence to make a proper use 
of his wealth, it, too, is a special favour of God. 

Among the Messengers, the Lord had favoured Sayyidina 
Dawood (David), Sulayman (Solomon), Ayub (Job), and Yusuf 
(Joseph) f^LJt pfJl*, and many other with His grace in this matter, 
and among the leading Compainons there were Uthman, Sayyidina 



Book of Affairs 



63 



Abdul Rahman ibn 'Awf, Zubair ibn Awam etc. i$^>. 

Importance And Politeness in Monetory Dealings 

U AS jjjJ H iLj J^^JSj* J>\ j* ( \ V Y t/A) 

\ 

✓ y ^ / 5 / - y 3 y . y y 

.j^Ip U-3 J^P bUj <UAit U-3j <U^5 i jjI <UU j 0*>U 

(1724/8) It is related by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4§b that the 
Messenger of Allah g|l said: "On the Last Day (when people 
will be brought together for the Final Requital), no one's feet 
will move until he has been questioned about five things: about 
his life, and how he lived; about his youth, and wherein he 
wasted it; about his wealth, and where from he acquired it, and 
on what he spent it; and about what he did in what he was given 
the knowledge of." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: stressing the implorance of monetary affairs, it tells 
that everyone will have to render a full account of his conduct in 
that behalf on the Day of Judgement, as to how he earned or 
acquired wealth in his life and in what manner did he spend it. 

The Curse of Ill-Gotten Wealth 

' ' ^ ** J * & \ j y J y y * y 

' ' y ^ y 

t } . > ' -* « I y . y s. * * s . , -?* y 

' y ' ' ■ 

y ) y s y s * • s • 

(1725/9) It is related by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4^ that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "If a person earns or acquires 
anything (through dishonest means) and, then, give away a part 
of it in charity, the act of charity will not be accepted, and if he 
will spend from it on his needs, there will be no auspiciousness 
in it, and if he will leave it behind to his descendants, it will 
serve for him as provision for Hell. Believe it, God does not 
remove evil with evil, but evil with good. One impurity does not 
annul another. (It can not make it clean)." (Musnad Ahmad) 



64 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Commentary: It emphasises that charity given from illgotten 
wealth is not acceptable to God, and there is no real propitiousness 
in impure earnings. In the same way, should a person leave behind 
wealth obtained in an illegitimate way, it will be ruinous him on 
the Day of Final Recokoning. He will be guilty both of making 
money dishonestly and leaving it to his heirs and successors to eat 
of the impure while to leave behind wealth acquired cleanly and 
honestly is a kind of charity, and will fetch a reward in the 
Hereafter. 

The concluding part of the narrative explains why charity from 
illegal wealth will not find acceptance with Allah and prove 
harmful for the giver on the Day of Judgement. 

Charity serves as an atonement for sins and acts as a means to 
forgiveness provided that it is given out of goods acquired through 
lawful means, but if it is given from wealth earned by corrupt and 
fraudulent practices, there will be no such property in it in the same 
way as dirty water can not be expected to make dirty clothes clean. 

* St** , . y , . ) . 

(1726/10) It is nerrated by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah ill said: "O people! God is pure Himself, and accepts 
only what is pyre, and He has given the same Command, 
concerning it, to all Believers as He has to His Prophets 
f%J\, For them, the Commandment is: 

O ye Messengers! eat of the good (and lawful) things, and do 
right. (Al Mu'minoon 23:51) 

And for the Believers: 



Book of Affairs 65 

O mankind! Eat of what is lawful and wholesome is the earth, 
(and avoid what is impue). (Al Baqarah 2: 1 72) 

"After it," Abu Hurayrah 4k said, "The Messenger of Allah H 
narrated the story of a man who undertook a long journey (to a 
holy place) and arrived (there) in such a condition that his hair 
were dislevelled and his body covered with dust. He raised his 
hands towards the heavesn and cried: "O Lord! O my Preserver! 
'But his food was of the impure, his dress was impure, and he 
had been brought up what was impure: how his prayer can, 
then, be granted?" (Muslim) 

Commentary: The gist of the above Tradition is that God is pure 
and accepts only offerings that are pure, i.e., from goods acquired 
through legitimate means. It, further, denotes that the 
commandment to eat the good and lawful things was given to all 
the Prophets pfi*, in the same way as to all the Believers. A 
true Believer should, therefore, realise the significance of the 
Divine commandment and observe it scrupulously. The Holy 
Prophet iH has, also, emphasised that ill-gotten wealth is so hateful 
to God that even if a man went to a sacred place, like a miserable 
beggar, to supplicate to the Almighty, but his food and clothes 
were impure, his supplication would not be accepted. 

•>) J15 0 Jt >il & f IS IS * jU fi J Al J^l $ fa 

(1727/1 1) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar 4$> that the 
Messenger of Allah Hm said: "If a person buys a cloth for 10 
dirhams, and, among them, one is tained, i.e., it has been earned 
thorugh dishonest means; none of his Salah will be accpeted by 
God as long as he wears it." After relating it, Abdullah ibn 
Umar 4fe> put his fingers in his ear and said: "May both the ears 
of nine become deaf if I have not heard the Prophet of Allah i@> 
say so." (Musnad Ahamd and Baihaqi) 



66 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



(1728/12) It is related by Jabir that the Messenger of Allah 

iHl said: 'The flesh and body shall not go to Heaven which are 

raised on unlawful sustenance. Hell is more deserving of the 

flesh that has grown on one's body out of what is unlawful." 

(Musnad Ahmad Daarami and Baihaqi) 

Commentary: Apparently, it shows tha a person whose sustenance 
is of the impure will go to Hell. But the commentators have 
expressed the view, in the light of other Traditions as well as 
verses of the Qur'an, that such a man will not be able to enter 
Heaven without undergoing punishment for living on unclean 
income. He may, however, be forgiven without punishment if he 
has repented sincerely before death or some virtuous bondsman has 
prayed for forgiveness, on his behalf, and the prayer has been 
granted, or the Gracious One, the All Merciful, Himself, decides to 
absolve him of the consequences of his sin. 

(JLj dp %\ > jil jis ^ & ( w y m \ r ) 

(1729/13) Abu Hurayrah relates, saying that the Messenger 
of Allah Hi said: "A time will come when people will not care 
what they are acquiring is lawful or unlawful, legitimate or 
illegitimate." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The time, indicated, has come to be sure. How 
many are there, today, even among those supposed to be 
religious-minded, who cares to think or enquire about goods 
coming in their possession whether they are lawful or not. May be, 
even worse days are ahead. 

In another version of the same report, quoted in Musnad 
Razeen, it is added that prayers will not be accepted at such a time. 
Inability to distinguish between the pure and the impure, and the 
lawful and the unlawful is, in fact, the spiritual death of a Muslim. 

We will be giving below two incidents to illustrate what a 
profound effect the teachings of the holy Prophet Hi had produced 



Book of Affairs 



67 



in the lives of the Companions c$fe>. 

It is related, in Sahih Bukhari, about Sayyidina Abu Bakr <4&> 
that, once, an attendant placed something to eat before him of 
which he partook a little. After it, the attendant told him that, 
before the advent of Islam, he had, once, posed as a sorcerer and 
forecast the future for someone as sorcerers did. That man had met 
him, by chance, on the day, and given him the food, on that 
account, which he had offered to Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe>. As the 
latter heard of it, he made himself vomit by thrusting his fingers 
into the throat, #nd, thus, threw up the contents of his stomach. 

Similarly, Imam Baihaqi has mentioned the following incident 
regarding Sayyidina Umar 4<k>. It is stated that, once, a person 
offered some milk to him which he drank. Afterwards, he asked the 
man how he had got it, and he replied that he was passing by 
such-and-such a ghat 1 where some animals, including goats and 
she-camels which had been given away in Zakah were grazing and 
people were drawing milk from them as could be used for that 
pupose. They had given some of the milk to him as well which he 
had offfered to Sayyidina Umar 4^>. On hearing, Sayyidina Umar 
4^>, too, vomited the milk, like Sayyidina Abu Bakr 

Piety Demands Shunning, Also, What is Doubtful 

(1730/14) It has been narrated by Numan ibn Bashir 4fe that the 
Messenger of Allah HH said: "What is allowed is clear and what 
is forbidden, also is clear. But, between them, there are a few 
things that are doubtful, and many people do not know about 
them. (They are ignorant of their true position in the Shari'ah). 
ft. A landing place; a bathing place on ariver-side. 



68 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

Thus, whoever keeps away from doubtful things as well will 
protect his faith and honour and (his record will) remain 
unblemished, and whoever will indulge in doubtful things will 
land himself within the borders of the forbidden like the 
herdsman who grazes his cattle very close to the reserved area 
and there is every danger of the cattle straying into it and 
starting to graze there (which is prohibited). Know that every 
king has a pasture, (entry into which is forbidden without 
permission). The reserved area of the Almighty are the 
forbidden acts. (One must not go near them, i.e., avoid even the 
doubtful things). And beware, there is a lump of flesh in the 
human body, (the characteristic of which is that) if it is right, 
i.e., the radiance of Faith and the awareness of God and His fear 
are present in it, the whole body stays right, (its deeds and states 
are correct), and if it is in a bad condition, the condition of the 
whole body, too, is bad. Remember, that lump of flesh is the 
heart. " (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It is one of the Traditions that are regarded by the 
atuhorities as most important and expressing a fundamental ethical 
principle of Islam. 

First of all, it tells taht the position of what is lawful or 
forbidden in the Shariah is clear and free from doubt, but there are 
many other things or acts whose legitimacy or otherwise is 
uncertain, that is, they can be held lawful on the basis of one 
principle of the Shariah and unlawful on the basis of another 
principle. What becomes a faithful Believer in respect of doubtful 
things is that he avoids them out of piety and prudence. In it, lies 
the safety of his faith and honour. 

Proceeding from it, the above Tradition emphasises that anyone 
who is not careful enough to abstain from doubtful things runs the 
risk of being led into committing the forbidden acts as well like the 
shepherd who asks for trouble by grazing his cattle in the vicinity 
of a reserved ground. Hence, as it is advisable for the herdsman to 
keep his cattle well away from a reserved forest or grazing ground, 
so, also, should a true Believer avoid doubtful things, in the 
interests of his faith and good name. 

Lastly, it shows that the goodness or badness of a person 
depends on the state of his heart. If the heart of a man is sound and 



Book of Affairs 



69 



the light of Faith and Divine fear are present in it, his whole 
existence will be of piety and good-doing, and, conversely, if it is 
goverened by sinful and carnal desires, his entire conduct will bear 
the imprint. 

Some commentators have concluded from the arragnements of 
this Tradition that for the purification of the heart, it is essential for 
a man to abstain from doubtful things, alongwith the forbidden 
ones, in food and drink. 

(1731/15) It is narrated by Atiya S'adi if^i^j that the Prophet 
HI said: "No one can attain the state of being included among 
the righteous until he forgoes the lawful pleasures 1 in order to 
avoid the sinful." (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: There are many things which though lawful in 
themselves, are capable of exposing a man to sin. Prudence, 
therefore, demands that one kept away from them as well. 

Gentleness And Forbearance in Money Matters 

After belief and worship, a geat stress has been laid on the 
teachings of the holy Prophet iH on showing kindness to 
fellowmen, particularly, the weak and the needy. We have been 
exhorted, in various ways, to be kind and considerate to each other 
in monetary transactions, such as, buying and selling, lending and 
borrowing. The debtors, for instance, are told to do their best to 
pay off the debts as quickly as possible while the creditors are 
required to be lenient those who owe them a debt they should be 
lenient in the realisation of their dues. The bondsmen who carry 
out their business transactions in this spirit will be deserving the 
mercy of Allah. 

,\ ^ \ ■* m . S S S M 

*■ jt . y s s i s s- ) i s J ^ | * . | 3 J <r t . •» • » . s y s 



(c^jbUt oijj) . L5 ^il lit j til j lit 



O. The word Mubah occuring in the original denotes any indifferent action 
which incurs neither praise nor blame. 



70 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

( 1 732/1 6) It is narrated by Jabir 4^> that the Messenger of Allah 
s&b said: "Blessings of the Lord be on him who is mild and 
gentle in buying and selling, and in the realisation of dues." 

(Bukhari) 

.l^yViii ^jlJi jj-^ (^3^3 c5? 

(1733/17) It is narrated by Huzayfah 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah &§l said: "There was a man belonging to a community 
before you. When the Angel of Death came to take possession 
of his soul, he was asked if he had performed any good deed in 
his worldly life (which could lead to salvation). There is no 
such deed as far as I remember, he replied. Think again', he was 
told. 'I can think of nothing like if, he said, 'except that I used to 
have business dealings with people, and my attitude, (in these 
matters), was one of mildness and forbearance. I used to allow 
respite to the rich. (They could pay off when they liked). (As for 
the poor), 1 often wrote off debts.' The Lord, thereupon, decreed 
for him to be admitted to Paradise." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

This Tradition has been quoted in the same form in Sahih 
Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. In Sahih Muslim, however, it has, 
also, been reproduced on the authority of Sayyidina 'Aqba ibn 
'Aamir and Sayyidina Abu Mas'ud Ansari 4^ ' n which instead 
of "The Lord, thereupon, decreed for him to be admitted to 
Paradise," it is stated that the Lord, thereupon, observed that 
"the kindness and compassion you have been showing in your 
dealings with My bondsmen has a greater claim on Me (that I 
exercise clemency and compassion towards you)." The Lord 
told the Angels to let the bondsman go and treat him as if he had 
done no wrong. (He was forgiven). (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The holy Prophet lH would, obviously, have come 
to know of the incident narrated above through a Divine 



Book of A ffairs 



71 



Revelation. The man reffered to, in it, had died in such a state that 
even he could not think of a deed that could serve as an atonement 
for his sins except that he was kindhearted and accomodating in 
business transactions. If he lent money to anyone or sold anything 
to him on credit and the man could not clear the dues, he used to 
write it off, and even if the debtor was a well-to-do person, he did 
not insist on prompt payment. God forgave him because of this 
state or state of his mind, and he was admitted to Heaven. 

6* fa ^ • Jji 6^ ^ jt} 

(1734/18) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4^ that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "(Once) there was a man who used to lend 
money. (When he sent his slave to realise the dues), he 
instructed him to forbear if the creditor happened to be a poor 
person. (He would say). May be, Allah bore with me and 
absolved me of my sins because of it." On hearing it, the 
Messenger of Allah life observed: "When the bondsman died 
and appeared before the Almighty, (on the Day of Judgement), 
he was forgiven." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



. ' - < a •* * * ' ' 

y X . ^ »y j s s s . s y^ f f 

(1735/19) Sayyidina Abu Qatadah ^ relates that he heard the 
Messenger of Allah say; "God will protect him from the 
agonies of the Day of Requital who allows respite to a poor and 
indigents person in the payment of his debt or writes it off 
(wholly or partly)." (Muslim) 



(1736/20) Abu Yassar 4fe relates, he heard the Messenger of 
Allah HI say: "Whoever has a claim (like a debt) on a borther 
which is payable, and he allows respite to the debtor in its 
payment, he will be given the reward of charity, i.e., equal to the 



72 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VU 



reward promised on charity in return for each day of the 
respite." (Muslim) 

pj* # 6^ ^ 5** ^3 ^ 1 6^ <S* 

(1737/21) It is narrated by Imran ibn Husayn 4^ that the 
Messenger of Allah iSl said, "If anyone who has a right (loan, 
etc) over anogther brother and he allowed him respite then for 
every day he allows he will get he reward of a Sadqah." (Ahmad) 

Commentary: The Message of all these ahadith is very clear. May 
Allah cause us to abide by them. 

Excellence of Giving a Loan, And Guidance 

To give a loan to a needy person is to be helpful to him, and, in 
some Traditions, it is said that the recompense on it is even greater 
than that on charity. Sometime, severe warnings have, also, been 
given concerning the debt. 

" " & ,\ tS \ f m , s * s s s } *> 



&uL >^Jtj jiio iSJL^i jl* isV) fa 



^ 1 738/22) It is narrated, on the authority of Abu Umama 
that the Messenger of Allah said, "as a person entered 
Heaven, he saw that it was written on the Gate of Heaven that 
the recompnse on charity was ten-fold, and on giving a loan, 
eighteen-fold. (Tabarani) 

Commentary: It is not clear who the person spoken of in this 
Tradition was. The Holy Prophet $1 may have narrated what had 
been seen by some virtuous man in a dream or described one of his 
own visions in this form. The latter view is, to some extent 
supported by the fact that Ibn Majah, too, has quoted this Tradition 
with the addition that: 



Book of Affairs 



73 



"I, (the Messenger of Allah), enquired from Jibril o^feil what was 
the special merit in a loan that was superior to charity. He 
replied that 'a supplication (to whom cahrity is given) solicits 
alms and accepts chanty even when he has something, (money 
etc.,) on him, while a person who asks for a loan does so only 
when he is in need". (Jam'a-ul-Fuwayid) 

Sometimes, a person who, is also self-respecting and is in dire 
need of money, but he does not like to ask anyone for help or 
accept charity, and prefers to borrow. To give a loan to such a 
person will, evidently, be better than charity. 

Our own experience is that there are many people who though 
willing to help a needy person through Zakat or charity, do not like 
to advance him loan. This Tradition, particularly, contains a moral 
for them. 

Loan is A Most Serious Matter 

On the one hand, the Holy Prophet 0 exhorted the well-to-do 
persons to lend money etc., to needy brethren and allow them 
respite in returning it or forgo it altogether or in part if the debtor 
happened to be really poor while, on the other, he urged upon the 
borrowers to pay back the debts as soon as possible for if they die 
in a state of indebtedness, with the claim of anyone lying unsettled 
the sequal of it would be most lamentable for them in the 
Hereafter. Sometimes, the Prophet iH said that it was a most 
grievous and unforgivable sin to die without paying off one's debts, 
and, sometimes, if he learnt about anyone that he had died while 
being in debt, he declined to attend his funeral service which, 
perhaps, was intended to be a warning to others. 

(1739/23) It is narrated by Abu Moosa Ash'ari 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah $H said: "After the major sins (such as, 
Polytheism and adultery) from which God has strictly enjoined 
upon us to abstain, the greatest sin is that a man died in a state 



74 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



that he owed a debt to anyone and left behind no assets to pay it 
off." (Musnad Ahmad and Daarami) 

3 s 6 s , \ \ > , s s s s s s 

3 , s \ s S 3 t s 3 , I S i> , J / * • !•** — S 3 S 3 3 . 3 S . 

^ jJL. j 4Jp 4tt« JLp4«I Jj~.j Jl3 JlS fljiys^ljP (Wi ./Ti) 

<UP ^^afij <LjJU <Uaju> jaJi 



(1 740/24) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah III said: "The soul of a faithful Believer remains 
suspended in the middle owing to indebtedness, until the debt is 
paid off."(Musnad Shafae, Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Daarami) 

Commentary: It shows that if a person dies as a Muslim, and has, 
also, done good deeds which are a source of deliverance, but he is 
in debt and has not been careful enough to pay it back, he will not 
be admitted to Paradise until the debt has been paid back on his 
behalf. 

(1741/25) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn 'Amr ^narrated that the 
Messenger of Allah III said: "If a person is killed in the path of 
God, all his sins are fogiven, (by virtue of martrydom), except a 
loan." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Martyrdom is such a meritorious act that all the 
sins of a man are forgiven as a result of it. But if a person owes a 
debt to anyone and he falls a martyr in the way of God without 
having paid it off and has been negligent about it, he will remain 
caught in misfortune on account of it, since it is related to the 
Rights of Men, until the debt is paid on his behalf or the creditor 
himself decides to write it to off for the sake of God. 

^ ^ s s s 

uJJjIr ^Ui -ft ^ jiil Sii u y}\ £ti ft dp'ibi JU in 

J X s 



Book of Affairs 



75 



(1742/26) Sayyidina Abu Qatadah 4fe narrates that once a 
person said to the Messenger of Allah is§l, "Tell me, Messeger 
of Allah $fc 9 if I take part in Jihad with fortitude and 
staedfastness, and, solely, for the sake of earning the good 
pleasure of Allah and the reward of the Hereafter, and I am 
killed in the condition that 1 am not retreating, but advancing, 
will all my sins be forgiven owing to my sacrifice and 
martyrdom?" "Yes", the Prophet Hi replied, "(God wfll forgive 
your sins)." As the man was returning, after it, the Messenger of 
Allah called him back and said: "(All your sins will be 
forgiven) except a debt. This is what I have been told by Jibril 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that all the sins of a man are forgiven who 
is martyred for the sake of God, but if he dies with a debt still 
unpaid, he will be called to account for it. The Holy Prophet Hi 
told, further, that he was saying it on the basis of the Revelation 
brought to him by the Archangel Jibril f$$&. 



( y i ' " 6* y ' "* £ 1 ( y y y .' y y %\ * ^ * 3 } s ' ' y' 

3 6 y y y . \ • >■ N I £ ' ' 

y S" ^^^^ \ \ y y y 

3 i y G> 3 y s- s * y $ \ y } y A y y) 



(1743/27) It is narrated, on the authority of Muhammad ibn 
Abdullah ibn Jahash <4fe, "(once), we were sitting in the open 
space outside the mosque where the dead bodies are brought 
and the Messenger of Allah iHl, also, was sitting with us 
suddenly, he looked towards the sky, and saw something, and 
then, he looked his gaze, and sat (in a typically concerned and 
meditative mood), with his hand placed on the forehead, and 



76 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



remarked: "Good God! God be praised! What a stern warning 
and Commandment has come!'" The narrator, Muhammad III 
ibn Abdullah, goes on. "We kept quiet on that day and night, 
(and waited for what was to happen, but), when all went well, 
we asked the Messenger of Allah ill the next morning about the 
grave and depressing things that had been revealed yesterday. 
The Prophet Hi replied: 'A most stern warning and 
Commandment has been revealed about loan.' (Elaborating on 
it, he observed): 'By the Holy Being in whose control is my life! 
If a person is killed in Jihad, and he returns to life only to be 
killed again, in Jihad, and there is still a debt outstanding 
against him, he will not enter Paradise until the debt is settled. 1 " 

(Musnad Ahamd) 

Commentary: These Traditions and warnings seemingly, 
appertain to cases in which the debts remain unpaid owing to 
negligence or ill-intention. If a person wants sincererly to pay back 
a loan but can not do so owing to the adversity of his 
circumstances and departs from the world being in debt, it is 
confidently expected from the Mercy and Benevolence of Allah 
that he will be deemed excusable, the Tradition we are going to 
take up later will show it more explicitly. 

JU> ^tflp C>'JJr \£ JlS f^j>*i\ J> UJL ( \ V 1 I ft A) 

^ i^iis ^ jii^ ijliS 5jil^ J ii fa 

7$\')ii 1$ & ^iIjw ^ JUI ^;us iSis ^il 
siuS y\ Jil JLp i jU JVS i i Jill 3y ji Jia £ii j 

(tf jbUt .Up J^23 ^1p j 4« J^j b Up JJ? 

(1744/28) It is narrated by Salmah ibn Al-Akoo' 4b "we were 
sitting with the Messenger of Allah i§|l and was requested to 
lead the funeral Sa/a/z. The Messenger of Allah iil enquired: 
'Does he owe a debt to anyone?' On being told that the man had 
not died in debt, the Messenger of Allah Hi led the funeral 
salah. Later, another dead body was brought and the Messenger 
of Allah enquired if the person owed a debt to anyone. 'Yes', 
he was told, 'the man had died in debts.' 'Has he left behind 



Book of Affairs 



11 



anything out of which the debt can be paid?' asked the 

Messenger of Allah The people informed that he had left 

behind three dinars. The Messenger of Allah ic§l, then, led the 

funeral Salah. After it, a thrid dead body was brought and the 

Prophet i®, again, enquired if the person had died in the state 

of indebtedness. 'Yes', the people said. 'He owed three dinars'. 

The Messenger of Allah III, then, asked if he had left any assets 

(which could be used for paying the debt). The Prophet Hi was 

told that the man had left behind nothing. Upon it, the Prophet 

HHjfe told the Companions present to offer the funeral salah of 

their brother. At that time Abu Qatadah Ansari <4fe requested the 

Messenger of Allah to lead the salah, saying that he had 

taken upon himself the loan of the dead person owed. (He will 

pay it). The Prophet iH» thereupon, led the funeral salah." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: The action of the sacred Prophet apparently, 
was aimed at imparting to the people the lesson not to be neglectful 
in the payment of debts. The endeavour of everyone should, as 
such, be to depart from the world in the condition that he did not 
owe anything to anyone. 

Another Tradition quoted in Bukhari and Muslim, on the 
authority of Abu Hurayrah 4^, tells that the attitude of the Holy 
Prophet iHl towards the funeral salah of persons who, as indicated 
above, died being in debt, related to the early phase of Islam. Later 
on, when the Lord had opened the door of victories and abundance, 
and the period of poverty was over, the Prophet mt had declared 
that if a Muslim died in a state of indebtedness, and he did not 
leave behind assets that could be used to pay the debt, it would be 
his responsibility to clear it up. The aim, agian, was that the claim 
of anyone on a Muslim did not remain unsatisfied. 

If There Intention to Pay Back a Loan, 
God Will, Somehow, Have it Paid 

■ 

J* J 13 i^J *M J^> ^ a* ^ a* (W1o/y<\) 



(1745/29) Abu Hurayrah 4^> narrated that the Messenger of 



78 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Allah ia§l said: "whoever borrows (money etc.,) from anyone 
and has the intention to return it, God will make it possible for 
him to pay it bak, i,e., help him to clear it up, and if he cannot 
do so in his life-time, God will settle it, on his behalf, in the 
Hereafter, and, thus, release him of the responsibility. And 
whoever borrows (money etc.,) from anyone and has no 
intention to pay it back, God will have it destroyed, i.e., the 
money will not only prove a curse in After-life, but, in this 
world, too, it will be of no help or comfort to him." (Bukhari) 



s y ■ f « X y s 9 ^ .+ y } y s y s y s } y s , s y y <• . 

4>s \ s s & % s S % C- y \ & 

* y * f . * * . J I y ^* . > ' & , < * . * , > » t 3 ' \ ' ' * l ** * * i l " <" « " 

j^jl aj\ a\ pi*** j\Ju ^\ ja U Jj* pUj Up oil J^> ^Le 

(1746/30) It is relted by Imran ibn Hussayn 4^b, on the authority 
of Sayidah Maimoona At (wife of the sacred Prophet), 
that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever takes a loan and 
it is in the knowledge of God that he has the intention of 
returning it, God will have it repaid in his life-time." (Nasai) 

Commentary: It is, also, stated in the afore-mentioned narrative of 
Sayyidina Imran ibn Hussayn 4^£> that Sayyidah Maimoona &\ 

used to borrow much and often, probably with the object of 
giving it away in charity. Her near relatives, thereupon, spoke to 
her about it, and advised her not to be so reckless, but she did not 
give up the habit, and, to her support, related the saying of the Holy 
Prophet II we have just seen. What Sayyidah Maimoona l^pibi^j 
meant was that owing to it, she was confident that the Lord would 
have all the loans she took cleared up in her life-time. She placed 
an absolute reliance on the security and assurance of the Almighty, 
an such a conduct, of course, was worthy of a person of belief and 
trust in God like her. 



A , / s s s 



A* JL, y ,s 9 if s ' S + 

y s /r* . / y* y jrs > / ( y s s * , . £ » . ✓ . S>. 

(fcfU j>\ fll jj) . fljSj UJ jSo <U^ ^JM* ^ JJ*U1 £• 4»l 

(1747/31) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib 4^> 
that the Messenger of Allah lH said: "God is with the debtor 
until the debt is paid provided that it has not been taken for a 



Book of Affairs 



79 



wrong purpose. 



(Ibn Majah) 



Commentary: It shows that if a person takes a loan for a genuine 
need and a good and legitimate purpose, and he also sincerely 
desires to pay it back, there will be the special favour of the Lord 
on him until the debt is cleared up. It is, further, stated in Ibn 
Majah, in connection with the above report, that on its ground, the 
narrator, Sayyidina Abdullah ibn J afar 4^fe, always used to remain 
in debt. He would say that he wished that none of his days and 
nights were spent without the good graces of the Lord. From the 
record of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Jafar's 4& life it appears that he 
was a very generous-hearted person, and that was why he was 
always running in debts. 

Practice of The Holy Prophet Hi 



The Holy Prophet $H, too, had the need to borrow which he 
often did. As we have seen in an earlier volume, he used to take a 
loan, also, from non-Muslims like the Jews. While on it, we had 
further indicated what great wisdom lay behind it. Here, we will be 
taking up two Traditions apperraining to it. 



(1748/32) Sayyidina Jabir 4e£> narrated to us, saying, "I had 
advanced a loan to the Messenger of Allah 111. When he 
returned it, he gave me more (than what 1 had lent)." 

Commentary: For the debtor to give more than what was due at 
the time of the repayment of a loan is not only lawful, but also 
commendable, and in conformity with the pracitce of the Prophet 
iil. It does not amount to interest because no such condition is 
agreed to at the time of borrowing. It is a favour and a gift. 

It is among the practices of the sacred Prophet 1§I that need be 
popularised. 

pLj deft Jjfihb Sr>] is*& # ^^(Wt MXX) 





80 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



(1749/33) Abu Hurayrah 4^ narrates "(once) a person 
demanded from the Messenger of Allah Hi the payment of a 
loan he had made to him and used strong language upon which 
the Companions 4$> (present) thought of scolding him, but the 
Messenger of Allah ill checked them, saying: "Leave him 
alone. Do not say anything to him for a man who has a claim 
has the right to talk in that manner. Go and buy a camel to repay 
the loan and give it to him.' On returning, the Companions 4§t 
said that (a camel of the class of the animal the man had lent 
was not available). The only camel that could be had was better 
bigger than his camel. The Messenger of Allah III, thereupon, 
said: 'Buy it and give it to him for he is a better man who pays 
back better than what is due." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In the olden days, it was common in Arabia to 
borrow a camel. The deal was settled not in terms of cash, but that 
the borrower would return a camel of the same age within a 
specified period. The Holy Prophet iH had taken a camel from 
someone on the same terms, and, perhaps, the man had come to 
demand payment at the end of the stipulated time and had been 
rude which the Companions ^ wanted to rebuke him, but the 
Prophet Hi told them to keep quiet as he owed him a debt and the 
creditor was within his rights to be angry. The Prophet III, furhter, 
said to them to buy a camel of the same breed and age, and give it 
to him. The Companions $fe> looked for such an animal, but it was 
not available while a better one was. The Prophet iH, then, told 
them to buy and give it and added that a better man was he who 
paid more and of a superior quality than what was owed. 

(1750/34) Abdullah ibn Abi Rabi'ah ^> narrates "once the 
Prophet had taken a loan of forty thousand from him. When 
(enough) money had come to the Prophet Hi, he returned it, and 




Book of Affairs 



81 



blessed him saying: 'May Allah bestow abundance on your 
wealth and family. The recompense of a loan is that it should be 
repaid and the giver thanked and praised." (Masai) 

Commentary: As these Traditions show, the Holy Prophet IH 
used to borrow money etc., and when it came to returning a loan, 
he gave better and more than what was due, and, also blessed the 
giver. 

The above report, further, tells that the Prophet Hi, sometimes 
borrowed large sums of money. He would, obviously, have taken 
such loans for a religious need like Jihad, otherwise his own 
life-style, as well as of his family, was such that, in the word of 
Sayyidah Ayshah \#s> &\ they never ate even barely-bread to 
their satisfaction for two consecutive days, and often went without 
a meal, and the oven was not lighted in their homes for months 
during which they lived only on dates and water. 



Usury 



Usury was common among the Arabs, as it was in the other 
communities of the world. Its most pervalent form was that people, 
in their need, borrowed money, and it was settled, at the time of the 
transaction, that they would return it with such-and-such interest 
charge on its use, and within such-and-such time. If the borrower 
failed to repay it within the stipulated period, he begged for an 
extension, and the interest charge was increased in proportion to it. 
The load of the poor borrowers would, thus, go on multiplying, and 
the greedy money-lenders would be sucking their blood like a 
leech. 

The practice, evidently, was opposed to the spirit of Islam. The 
teachings of Islam, on the contrary, require that help was given to 
the weak and the destitute, and care was taken of their needs, and 
that all this was done not for a worldly gain or advantage, but 
wholly for the sake of God and gaining the reward of the Hereafter. 

Just as in the Quran and the saying of the Holy Prophet ®, a 
gradual course was adopted towards the forbidding of alcholic 
drinks and other intoxicants, the abolition of usury, too, was 
enforced by degrees. For a long time, in the beginning, stress was 
laid, in a positive way, on spending one's wealth in the way of God 
and fulfilling the needs of the less fortunate brethren and bringing 
succour to them, and on cultivating the virtues of kindliness, 
compassion, generosity and self-denial. Slowly and steadily, it was 
instilled into the minds and hearts of the people that death was 
inevitable; they were bound to die one day, and their worldly 
possesions, too, were not everlasting, They should, therefore, take 
lesson from the dreadful end of the worshippers of wealth like 
Pharaon, and try earnestly to make use of their riches as a means to 
earning the eternal joy and felicity of the Hereafter. 



84 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

This guidance and corresponding action paved the way for the 
total abolition of the heartless practice of lending money on 
interest. The concluding verses of Surah Al-Baqarah, i.e., from: 

a I f> j g$ ft >t j I jgft jta 0% TjilS JStt 

r 

%\ &X> o \& p ***** 

& 1 j#l L5^' U 'JJ^J 'J^ 1 '-P' J*^' *tf5 O Oj^i 
(YA»-XVo:Y o^AJt) o Oj*** 5 b\ jpJ l}3J^aJ jlj 

Those who devour Usury cannot rise except as he rises whom 
Satan has maddened by his touch. That is because they say, 
"Trade is just like usury." But Allah has permitted trading, and 
forbidden Usury, To whom so ever then an exhortation comes 
from his Lord and he desists, he shall have (the gains) of that 
which is past, and his affair rests with Allah. But whosoever 
reverts (to it) those are the Companions of the Fire, therein 
they shall abide. Allah blots ant Usury and augments Charity. 
And Allah loves not any ungrateful sinner. Those who believe 
and do righteous deeds, and establish the Salah, and pay the 
Zakah, for them is their reward from their Lord, and no fear 
shall be on them, nor shall they grieve. O you who believe! Fear 
Allah and give up what remains from the Usury, if you are (true 
believers). And if you do it not, them be notified of war from 
Allah and His Messenger ill; and if you repent, then you shall 
have your capital sums, not wronging (anyone) nor being 
wronged. But if the debtor is in difficulty, let there be respite till 
it is easy (for him). And if you remit it as a charity, that is better 
for you, if you but know (Al Baqarah 2:275-280) 



Book of Affairs 



85 



Were, consequently, revealed, proclaiming, in clearest terms, 
the forbidding of the lending and borowing of money etc., at 
interest. 

In the above verses, also, it is made clear that if, as a result of a 
previous transaction, interest on a loan is due to anyone, it will be 
treated as defunct and will not be payable or recoverable after the 
commandment had been reveald: 

The warning, further, is given, at the end, that if, after the 
revelation of these verses, people persisted in usury and 
transgressed against the law of God, they should consider 
themselves at war with Allah and His Messenger 

"And if ye do not, then be warned of war (against you) from 
Allah and His Messenger. (Al Baqarah 2:279) 

Such a severe admonition has not been administered in the 
Qur'an in respect of any other major sin, such as, adultery, 
gambling, and murder. It denotes that usury is more repugnant 
in the sight of God and His Prophet iH than all the other sins. 
As the Traditions given below will show, the Prophet has 
condemned usury as a sin of the highest order and spelt the 
curse of God not only on those who take or offer loan on 
usurious terms, but, also, on those who write the deed of it or 
act as witnesses to the transaction. In some narratives, usury, in 
fact, has been characterised as seventy times a greater sin than 
adultery and fornication. 

6» / - \ (5 \ S s s s s s . s 

A-JlP 4111 JUo 4»l Jj-ij Jl3 Jti tjijA ^1 JP (WM/To) 

(1751/35) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah ^> that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "Keep (strictly) away from the seven moral 
sins." 'What are the seven sins?" the Companions asked. "To 
partner anyone with God (in worship, in His attributes, and in 
His Functions); to practise sorcery; to kill person unlawfully; to 
lend money on usurious terms; to eat of the property of an 



86 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



orphan; to desert the Muslim army and run away from Jihad 

(for fear of life); and to accuse falsely pious and innocent 

bondsmen of the Lord of adultery," the Prophet replied." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The seven sins mentioned in it are the worst forms 
of evildoing. The Holy Prophet icH has described them as Mubaqat, 
i.e., fatal to the spirit of his faith, and specified usury as next to 
Polytheism, witchcraft and murder. As the physicians tell about the 
properties of herbs, minerals and foods, on the basis of their 
knowledge and experience, so do the Prophets inform 
concerning the effects and properties of beliefs, moral deeds of 
men on the basis of the knowledge vouchsafed to them by God, 
with the difference that while there is the possibility of an error in 
the knowledge or judgement of the physicians, what the Prophets 
j»*>LJi jt^JLtf- tell is beyond the shadow of a doubt or fallacy, at least 
for men of faith, for the simple reason that it stems from Divine 
Revelation. But, strengely enought, although people follow the 
advice of the physicians and take the medicines prescribed by them 
without questions, no patient can justifiably insist upon knowing 
the pharmacology of the medicine before using it, when the Book 
of God, the Qur'an, and His Messenger iSl inform about a thing 
like usury that it is a grievous sin and ruinous to the soul and a 
fearful punishment awaits them in the Hereafter who lend money 
on interest, many a claimant to Faith and intellect are reluctant to 
believe and its philosophy must be explained to them before they 
are convinced. 

(1752/36) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4S§£> that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "The night I was taken on the (Calestial) 
Journey, I passed by a group (of persons) whose bellies were 
like houses full of snakes, and the snakes could be seen from 
outside. 1 enquired about them from Jibreel and he said 
that hey were the usurers." (Musnad Ahamd and Ibn Majah) 



Book of Affairs 



87 



Commentary: On the night of the Prophet's f%J< ascension to 
Heaven, he was shown many things that belonged to the Invisible 
World, including some glimpses and objects of Heaven and Hell in 
order that from Haqqul Yaqeen (certainly relating to truth) he 
attained the stage of Ainul Yaqeen (certainly relating to seeing 
could), and, also instruct and inform the people with regard to 
Divine reward and punishment in the light of personal observation. 
Among these was the scene described in the Tradition that owing 
to the extraordinary pains they took, we, too, have come to know, 
through authentic compilations, of the supernal experiences of the 
Prophet HI during the Journey by Night. 



(1753/37) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4^ that Messenger of 
Allah $fc said: "There are seventy parts of usury. Of them a 
most ordinary part is like committin incest on one's own 
mother." (Ibn Majah and Baihaqi) 

Commentary: As alaready stated, in the Arabic idiom and the 
language of the Quran and the Traditions, the word 'seventy', often, 
denotes the abundance of a thing, and not the exact number. 
Anyway, what the above Tradition seeks to emphasise is that usury 
is a more detestable crime than committing incest to one's own 
mother. 



(1754/38) Sayyidina Jabir 4& narrated to us, "the Prophet S 
cursed him who lends money on interest, and him who recieves 
it, and him who writes the deed thereof, and those who are 
witnesses to the transaction, and said that (they) all are equal 
partners to the sin." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It tells that usury is such a grave sin that all those 
who are associated with it in any way are doomed to the eternal 
punishment of the Hereafter, and the curse rest equally on the 



88 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



borrower, the writer of the deed and the witnesses thereof. 

(1755/39) It is narrated by Sayyidina Anas 4$b that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: 'Whoever of you gives a loan to 
anyone and the borrower gives him something as a gift or offers 
him an animal to ride, he should not accept the gift or use the 
animal for riding except that there have been such relations 
between them from earlier days." (Ibn Majah and Baihaqi) 

Commentary: Meaning usury is so hinous in its cosequences that 
one should be careful to avoid a situation bearing even a trace of it. 
When a person gives a loan to anyone, he should refrain from 
recieving the least worldly gain or advantage from him and allow 
not even a suspicion of it to come near himself. 

(1756/40) It is narrated on the authority of Umar ibn Al-Khattab 
who said: "The verse of usury, i.e., the verse of Surah 
Al-Baqarah forbidding usury is among the verses which were 
revealed during the last phase (of the Holy Prophet's III life). 
The Messenger of Allah lH departed from the world without 
explaining fully its implications to us. So give up usury 
altogether and guard yourselves even against a trace or 
suspicion of it." (Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: The word Riba, which has been used in the text of 
the above Tradition for usury was current in the Arabic language 
before the revelation of the Qur'an, and carried the same meaning 
as we have stated in the introductory lines. Thus, when the verse 
relating to it was revealed, it was believed that the pracitce of 
lending money on interest had been forbidden There was no 
question of a doubt or confusion with regard to it. But in some of 
his sayings we shall be discusing later, the Holy Prophet 



Book of Affairs 



89 



expressed the view about certain forms of trade which were not 
considered objectionable that too, amounted to usury. He ? however, 
did not explain the various implications of it, but as the philosophy 
of the Shariah would demand, furnished on the doctrinal guidance 
and left it to the jurists to work out the details. The same is the case 
with all the heads and sections of the Shariah. But Sayyidina Umar 
4fe who was among the leading Jurist of the Ummah, was so over 
awed by the warnings of punishment on usury that he felt it would 
have been better had the Prophet IH enunciated the details of the 
commandment as well, and not left it to the jurists to decide on 
their own. It was on account of this extremely God-fearing and 
cautious attitude that Sayyidina Umar 4$b remarked that the better 
and wiser course for Believers was that they kept strictly aloof 
from every thing which bore the least suggestion of usury. The 
irony of fate, however, is that some intellectuals of our times who 
claim for themselves the right to interpret the Shariah on the basis 
of Ijtehad\ conclude, from the above utterance of Sayyidina Umar 
4fe ? that the position of usury is vogue and uncertain, and, from it, 
proceed to justify various forms of it that are in vogue today. 

b\ (JJUjj us> &\ 4»i J}^>3 J 1 * zj**"* erf} j£ 0 v o v/ 1 \ ) 

(1757/41) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4$> that the 

Messenger of Allah all said: " However plentiful the interest 

may be, its end is want and scarcity." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Majah and Baihaqi) 

Commentary: If the word r Aaqibatahu f ( *s3ip) occuring in the 
original is taken to mean the ultimate end of the Hereafter, no 
believing person can have a doubt concerning it for the Hereafter 
everyone will see with his own eyes that the people who had made 
immense gains through usury will rise as paupers on the Last Day 
and the wealth they had so acquired will prove curse for them, as 
set forth in the Qur'an and the Traditions. Should, however, the 
Tradition be supposed to signify that however much a person may 

O. The word literally means 'to exert.' In the Islamic theological usage it denotes 
to exert with a view to forming an independent judgement on a legal question. 



90 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



add to his wealth through usury, it will, ultimately, avail him 
nothing and he will end up in poverty, the superificial observers 
may find it hard to believe but those who are capable of taking a 
deeper view of things will understand. Insatances are not wanting 
of people accumulating a lot of wealth throug usurious means, and, 
then, the whole wealth evaporating, as one would say, into thin air 
through a sudden turn of events, in their own lifetime or after 
death. It is also a common experience that people who live on 
usury seldom enjoy real peace and happiness which is the chief 
advantage of being wealthy. It will, as such, not be incorrect to say 
that a man who acquires wealth by money-lending is, virtually, a 
pauper, all his worldly possesions notwithstanding. Says the 
Qur'an: 

(Y WY 5 JlA\) \ jQ\ AJJl 

"Allah blots out usury (Al Baqarah 2:276) 

J* oSA f^>3 ^ *»' J^P S Jj-J u* 'S.J* is*' J* ( Wo A/i Y) 

(1758/42) Abu Hurayrah 4fe narrated that the Messenger of 
Allah ^ said: "A time will come when everyone will be a 
usurer. (No one will be safe from usury). If a person will not be 
taking or recieving it himself its dirt will, surely, be reaching 
inside his body." (Musnad Ahmad, Abu dawood, Nasal and Ibn Majah) 

Commentray: Its prupose is not merely to make a prediction, but 
to warn the Ummah that there will come a time when the practice 
of usury will become so common that no one will remain safe from 
it. The Believers and men of piety should, therefore, be vigilant. 
Our own times are no different, and even persons who consider 
usury a sin and abstain from it buy their provisions from 
shop-keepers who, directly or indirectly, are connected with the 
business of money-lending. In fact, it is particularly impossible, 
now-a-days, to keep any business free from the effects of usury. 



Book of Affairs 



91 



Miscellaneous 




1 y ' ^ 

(1759/43) It is narrated by Ubadah ibn Saamit 4£> that the 




Messenger of Allah Urn said: "The sale of gold in exchange for 
gold, and of silver in exchange of silver, and of wheat in 
exchange for wheat, and of barley in exchange for barley, and of 
date§ in exchange for dates, and of salt in exchange for salt 
should be equal and alike, and from hand to hand, but when the 
commodities are different, you can sell them as you like 
provided that the transaction is from hand to hand, i.e., straight 
and expeditious." (Muslim) 

y j \ (y \ f ^ y y s s } } y ^ 

k\ JL> Sis J^->3 J 15 J 15 4*-^ (Wi *ftt) 



(1760/44) It is narrated by Abu Saeed Khudri 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah iSl said: "Gold in return for gold, silver in 
return for sliver, wheat in return for wheat, barley in return for 
barley, dates in return for dates, and salt in return for salt should 
be bought and sold at par with each other. Whoever paid or 
demanded more carried out a usurious transaction. Both the 
buyer and the seller, the one who gives and the one who 
recieves, are equal in this respect." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Traditions having the same meaning have, also, 
been related by Sayyidina Umar, Sayyidina Ubaidullah ibn Saamit, 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah and many other 



Companions u^p^i^j. 

In the above narrative, it is told that if any of the six 
commodities mentioned in it, gold, sliver, wheat, barley dates and 
salt, is sold in return for the same commodity, as for instance, 



y y y y y s s ' 





92 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



wheat is exchanged for wheat, the transaction will be fair and 
lawful if it is equal in measure, value and quality, and conducted 
from hand to hand. If, however, what is exchanged is of a greater 
or lesser weight or value or the business deal is not carried out 
from hand to hand, but by way of borrowing and lending then it 
will be a usurious transaction and both the parties will be guilty of 
usury. 

The sum and substance of the comments offered on Traditions 
by Shah Waliullah <Jp &\ in Hujjatillah-il Baligha, is that the 
form of usury practised in Arabia during the time of the Holy 
Prophet III and even earlier, and for which the term, Riba was used 
was that people, in their need, borrowed money from those who 
did the business, of lending on interest and it was settled at the time 
of the transaction that they would return it within a fixed period, 
alongwith the agreed interest charge and if it could not be paid 
back on time, they obtained a respite and agreed to pay an 
additional amount. This was the Riba that was directly forbidden 
by the Qur'an. Later, at the behest of Allah, the Prophet H 
included some other kinds of business deals too, in the sphere of 
application of the Commandment concerning usury, and enjoined 
upon the Ummah to abstain from them as well. The Traditions, we 
have jsut seen contain the same promulgation, and their purport is 
that if any commodity among the six mentioned therein is 
exchanged for the same commodity, it should be of an equal 
weight and quality, and the transaction carried out from hand to 
hand, otherwise it will be a usurious deal and both the parties will 
stand condemned before Allah. 

Only six articles are mentioned in these Traditions, but the 
Jurists are almost unanimous on the point that other articles 
belonging to the same catagory, too, are covered by the 
Commandment although there is some difference in their views on 
matters of detail 

jJLj d*%\ J^> J\ ;ur JlS Jl^ 'J} (m \/io) 

u& & jis fiik $ # fa j&fr y< Jtal ^ ^ 



Book of Affairs 



93 



(1761/45) Sayyidina Abu Saeed Khudri 4^ narrates that once 

Bilal 4<k> brought some high quality dates for the Messenger of 

Allah lH. The Prophet enquired how he had come to 

possess them upon which Bilal *s§k> said that he had exchanged 

Sa'as 1 , of poor quality dates for 1 Sa'a of the finer ones. "Ah," 

the Prophet exclaimed." It is pure usury. When you want to 

buy dates (with dates), first sell your dates, and, then, buy the 

other dates with the money you, thus, obtain." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Bilal 4fe> would, certainly, not have been 
unaware that Riba had been forbidden by God, but he did not know 
that the manner of his buying the dates, too, was a usurious 
practice. He thought that only the taking or giving of a loan on 
interest was usury. But the Prophet III explained to him that the 
exchange of the dates on unequal terms also was similar. 
According to Shah Waliullah <uAp &\ 5-*^, Riba relating to a loan is 
real Riba while what has been described as such in the narratives of 
Sayyidina Saeed Khudri 4fe etc., is equivalent in significance to it. 



(1762/46) Ata ibn Yasaar (Tabi'ee) narrates that once Mu'awiya 
sold a cup (or jug) of gold (or silver) in return of the same 
metal of a greater weight. Upon it, Abu Darda told him that 
he had heard the Messenger of Allah forbidding a sale like 
that except that the articles exchanged were of an equal wieght. 
But Mua'wiya 4fe> said that he saw nothing wrong or sinful in 

O. A measure of five pints and a third used for measuring corn etc. 



94 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



what he had done. (With great sorrow), Abu Darda 4§£, 

observed that, "I should be considered helpless where Muawiya 

is concerned. 1 told him what the Prophet ^ has 

commanded, and he told me what he thinks." Abu Darda 4fe, 

afterwards, told Muawiya 4fe that "I will not live in the territory 

in which you live." He, (thus), came to Umar 4fe in Madinah 

and narrated the whole matter to him upon which Umar 4fe 

wrote to Muawiya 4^£> to keep clear of such deals, the exchange 

of gold, silver etc., for the same goods or articles was 

permissible only when both the things were of an equal weight. 

(Malik and Nasai) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Muawiya 4^ was the Governer of Sirya 
during the Caliphate of Sayyidina Umar 4fe, and Sayyidina Abu 
Darda 4^, also lived there. It was in those days that Sayyidina 
Muawiya ^ sold a drinking vessel of gold or silver in exchange 
for the metal it was made of, though the metal weighed a little 
more than the vessel, but he thought that there was no harm in it. 
Sayyidina Abu Abu Darda 4sfe, thereupon, told him that the Holy 
Prophet iH had forbidden such a deal and commanded that if the 
same metal, the two should be of an equal weight, neither more nor 
less. Sayyidina Muawiya 4fe, perhaps, was under the impression 
that if an article — a vessel or an ornament — made of gold or 
silver was sold, it would not be unfair to charge at a higher price, 
taking into consideration the cost of manufacture. That was why, 
he remarked that he saw nothing wrong and unlawful in the 
transaction. Sayyidina Abu Darda 4^, however, was extremely 
shocked at it as he believed that there was no question of one's own 
view or judgement in what he had heard from the Prophet j^. 
Anyway, he left Sirya for good, and came to Madinah where he 
related the incident to Sayyidina Umar 4^£>. Sayyidina Umar 4^>, 
then, wrote to Sayyidina Muawiya 4^> that the correct position was 
what Sayyidina Abu Darda 4^ had stated, and, therefore, no such 
deals could be permitted. 

It shows how firm and uncompromising the holy Companions 
4b> were in their attitude even on the second category of Riba. They 
were not ready to tolerate even the least deviation or error of 
judgement in that regard. 



BUYING AND SELLING 



A Fruit-Crop Should Neither be 
Sold Nor Bought Until it is Ready 

c^- ir^ J**- 1 ' c^J J*? 15** (f^i 4**JJ i*!J 

(1763/48) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe "The 
Messenger of Allah iH forbade the selling of a fruit-crop until 
the fruit had begun to ripen. He forbade both the seller and the 
buyer." (Bukahri and Muslim) 

(In another version of it, appearing in Sahih Muslim, it is stated 
that the Messenger of Allah forbade the selling of the crop 
of dates until the dates had begun to turn red, and the selling of 
spikes of corn until the spikes had begun to turn white, and 
there remained on danger of their destruction). 

Commentary: Just as in our country, the mango-crop is, often, 
sold much before it is ready, in Madinah and other cultivable parts 
of Arabia too, the corps of dates or grapes were sold before the 
fruit had begun to mature, and likewise, the standing crops of grain 
were sold before the grain had ripened. The Holy Prophet ill 
forbade it because it was quite possible that, after the transaction, 
the crop was destroyed owing to a natural Alamity, like a squall or 
hailstorm, and the poor buyer was put to serious loss. A quarrel 
could moreover arise in such a situation between the buyer and the 
seller over the payment of dues. Hence, the Holy Prophet H? has 
enjoined his followers not to be a party to such deals. 



96 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



%s £ sis cJj Jllj ^ JIS Uj J3 ^jj ^ juSn 



(1764/48) It is narrated by Anas 4l> "The Messenger of Allah 
iHl forbade the selling of fruits until lusture appears over the 
fruits, the Prophet replied that it meant that the fruits had 
begun to turn red. 1 The Messenger of Allah Hi, (then), 
observed: Tell me, in return for what will the seller realise the 
dues from his brother, (the buyer), if the Lord withheld the 
fruits, i.e., the crop was destroyed, by the Command of Allah, 
before it was ready for the market?' (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: According to authorities, the owner or seller of the 
grove should forego the price altogether if the whole of the crop 
was destroyed and return the money he might have recieved in 
advance. If however, the loss has been partial an appropriate 
allowance should be mde for it. The aim and object of these 
allowances should be made for it. The aim and object of these 
regulations is give due regard to eachother's interest and all 
business transactions were carried out in a spirit of good will and 
compassion. 



(1765/49) ft is narrated by Sayyidina Anas 4fe> "The Messenger 
of Allah iil forbade the sale of (the crop) of graps until the 
grapes had begun to turn black, and of a standing agricultural 
crop until the grains had become hard and were ready to be 
harvested." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Perhaps, during the days of the Holy Prophet 
only the grapes that turned black on maturing were grown in 
Madinah. That was why, he forbade the sale of the crop % of dates 
until the fruit had started turning black. Now, both the white and 
black varities of grapes are produced over there in abundance. 

Together with grapes, the command has also been given in it 
about the standing crops of agriculrural field that these should not 
be sold before the crop was ready for harvesting. 

O. The colour of the dates becomes pinkish when they begin to ripen. 



Book of Affairs 



97 



Crops of Fruit Orchards Should Not be 
Given on Contract for a Number of Years 

(1766/50) It is narrated by Jabir 4fe> 'The Messenger of Allah 
iH forbade the sale of the crop of orchards for some years, and 
he told that allowance be made for loss suffered through a 
sudden calamity." (Muslim) 

Commentary: To sell the crop of orchards for a number of years 
has been forbidden because no one could tell whether the crop 
would be good or bad during that period of time, or if it would 
endure or affacted by a natural disaster. It would, infact, be more in 
the nature of a gamble which apart from being an evil in itself, 
could , also give rise to other difficulties and problems. 

Another commandment contained in the above Tradition is that 
the owner of orchard ought to make suitable reduction in the price 
if the crop was adversely affacted by an unforeseen happenings. 

An Article Which is Not In One's 
Possession at The Time of 
The Deal Should Not be Sold 

Sometimes, a trader has not an article in his possession or 
stock, but he settles the deal concerining it in the hope that he will 
buy it and supply. The Holy Prophet Hi has forbiden such a 
transaction for it is quite possible that the article was not available 
at that time, and even if it was, the buyer might not like it. 

3 ^ y ^ s ^ s ^ s 

(tf-kjslWjj) (£±* JJl* 

(1767/51) It is narrated by Hakeen ibn Hizam "The Messenger 

of Allah IH forbade me from entering into a deal with anyone 

for something that was not in my possession (at that time)." 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The narrator, Hakeem ibn Hizam, was a wealthy 
merchant. It is reported in Sunan Nassai and Sunan Abu Dawood 



98 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



that, once, he asked the Messenger of Allah III about the 
legitimacy of the practice that, sometimes, as a person came to him 
to buy something which was not in his stock, he settled the deal 
with him and supplied the article by producing it from the market. 
The Prophet H>, observed, "Do not sell a thing which is not in your 



possession. 



If Grain etc., is Bought, it Should Not be 
Sold Until Delivery Has Been Taken of it 

V 

(1768/52) Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe narrated to us, saying that the 
Messenger of Allah iHl said: "Whoever buys grains should not 
sell it to anyone until it had come into his possession." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: Though only grains is mentioned in it, it includes 
all moveable goods. 

Forbidding Buying and Selling With 
A Man Who is in Extreme Need 

Sometimes, a person is compelled to sell his property out of 
extreme need or anything in distressing circumstance. The buyer, 
in such a case, can exploit his need and make an unfair profit from 
the deal. Such a transaction has been called Ba f iMuztar ] in this 
Tradition, and it has been forbidden. 



£ J+jk\ J* ^ <S* 0 vWor> 

s ^ % _ s s s 6 s> * 3 . 9 

(1769/53) It is narrated by Sayyidina Ali that the Messenger 
of Allah iil "forbade buying and selling with a person who was 
in dire need or difficulites, and he forbade the selling of an 
article the availability of which was not certain, and of fruit 
before it was ready for harvesting." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: What is emphasised is that the need of a person 
made desperate by poverty should not be put unfairly to advantage. 
On the contrry, he should be helped. The other thing which it tells 

O . Selling by a person reduced to need or necessity. 



Book of Affairs 



99 



is that an article like a bird or deer in the forest or fish in the pond 
ought not to be sold in the hope that one will catch and supply it 
for it is neither in the possession of the seller nor is its availability 
assured, and further, a difference can also arise over he quality of 
the thing. 'As for the selling of a fruit-crop before the fruit had 
ripened, we have already discussed it. 

Warning Against Concealing The 
Defect of a Commodity Offred for Sale 

^uy» 3> ji i i»i j>i>: tuJji toU-i jia 

(1770/54) Abu Hurayrah narrates "the Messenger of Allah 
£§^, once happened to pass by a heap of corn (which belonged to 
a trader). The Messenger of Allah ® thrust his hand into it and 
his finger felt wetness. On being asked, the trader replied that 
rain had fallen upon it. (So, he had placed the wet corn that was 
on the top under the dry corn), The Messenger of Allah HH, 
thereupon, observed: 'Why did you not let the wet corn remain 
on the top so that the buyers could see it? (Listen), he who 
deceives is not from us. M (Muslim) 

Commentary: Another version of the same incident quoted by 
Tabarani in Mo'jam Kabeer-wa-Sagheer, on the authority of Ibn 
Mas'ud 4& has it that the Messenger of Allah iH, lastly, said: "The 
sequel of such deceit is Hell." 



(1771/55) Wasila ibn Asqa 4^> narrates "I myself heard the 
Messenger of Allah ® say: "Whoever sold a defective thing to 
anyone without disclosing the defect to the buyer would be 
cought, permanently, in the wrath of God.' (Or was it) (that) 'he 
would always be cursed by the Angels?" (Ibn Majah) 



100 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Commentary: Sometimes, a narrator is not sure of the exact 
words spoken by the Holy Prophet lH, and by way of caution, he 
indicates his lack of certainty while relating the event. In the above 
Tradition, too, Hazrat Wasila ibn al-Arqam 4fe was caught in two 
minds and could not decide whether the Prophet had said about 
the deceitful seller that "he would be caught, permanently, in the 
wrath of God," or that "he would always be cursed by the Angels." 

Undue Advantage Should Not be Taken 
of The Ignorance of The Buyer or Seller 

(1772/56) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4sk> that the Messenger 
of Allah HH said: "Do not go forward and meet the caravan 
carrying grain etc., (for trade), (before it had reached the 
market-place). The trader who went ahead and bought the goods 
in the way, the owner would, then, have the right to cancel the 
deal, (if he wished), on reaching the market/' (Muslim) 

Commentary: It was common, in those days, for people to bring 
the articles of trade from the outlying areas to the towns for selling 
them in the market. They used to travel in groups, both large and 
small, and were called Jalab. Clever trader would go on and settle 
the deal much before the caravan had arrived at the maket-place. 
This practice, evidently, was not to the advantage of the sellers 
because they could, thereby, be cheated into selling the goods at a 
lower rate owing to the ignorance of the price current in the 
market. Another disadvantage was that all the grain and other 
articles of trade coming from outside went into the hands of skilful 
merchants and they sold them at a much higher rate to the ordinary 
consumers. Were the goods sold in the market, they would have 
fetched a better price and the consumers, too, would have got them 
at reasonable rates. It was for these reasons that the Holy Prophet 
is§l forbade the buying of goods on way, before they had reached 
the market, and, further, indicated that if anyone did that, the seller 
would be entitled to cancel the deal if, on reaching the market, he 
felt that he had been cheated. 



Book of Affairs 



101 



(1773/57) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "Do not go forward and meet, (in the way), the 
caravans bringing grain etc., for sale; and none of you should 
interfere in the selling transaction of his brother by offering his 
own goods for sale; and do not try to raise the price of a 
commodity (by pretending to be a buyer); and the merchants of 
the towns must not store the goods of the bedouins with 
themselves for future sale; and do not keep the milk in the udder 
of a goat or she-camel intended for sale, and if a person buys 
such a goat or she-camel, he will be free to keep the animal or 
return it, as he likes, after milking it, and in case he returns it, he 
will give a Sa'a ( — 4 Kilograms) of dates to the owner (along 
with it)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Among the instructions given in it, the first is what 
has, already, been stated in the preceding narrative, i.e., grain and 
other essential commodities should not be bought by traders from 
the caravans, bringing them from the countryside, before they had 
reached the market. 

The next requires that if a person is buying an article from a 
shopkeeper, the other shopkeeper should not interfere in the 
transaction and try to persuade the customer to buy from him. 

The third is concerinig the practice of raising the price of a 
commodity by posing as a buyer and offering a higher price, while 
a person was engaged in settling the deal with the seller, in order 
that the real buyer agreed to pay more. 

The fourth instruction is that city merchants should not collect 
grain etc., brought by the village peasants or traders for selling, and 
keep them, for future sale when the prices will rise. The goods, on 
the other hand, should be sold when villagers bring them to the 
market so that artificial scarcity is not created and the prices do not 
soar. Moreover, when peasants or trader bringing the goods from 



102 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



the countryside will get the price of their commodities promplty, 
they will be encouraged to bring in a fresh stock of goods, and, 
thus, the trade will flourish, and they will also earn more. 

The fifth and the last instruction is that anyone who wanted to 
sell a milk cattle should not cease milking it for a time so that the 
buyer was decieved by the inflated size of the udders and agreed to 
buy it at a higher price. 

The Tradition, further, tells that whoever bought such an 
animal will be within his rights to return it if he felt dissatisfied on 
milking it at his place. The buyer, in that case, will also give a Sa'a 
of dates to the owner. 

In another version of the same narrative, quoted in Sahih 
Muslim, it is stated that animal ought to be returned within three 
days of the deal after which the buyer will forefeit the right, and 
also that a Sa'a of wheat or barely can be given in place of dates. 

The object of the commandment requiring the buyer to give a 
Sa'a of dates, barely etc., alongwith the animal if he decides to 
return it, probably is that he kept the animal with him for a few 
days and made use of its milk, but he had also fed the animal 
during that time, and thus, the account was settled, but if anything 
was still left wanting, it should be made good in that way. Besides, 
it will be a consolation to the owner. 

Selling By Auction 

(1774/58) Sayyidina Anas ^ narrates "(once) the Messenger of 

Allah is§l sold a piece of sacking, (used as a mat) and a cup in 

this way that (addressing those present), he said: 'Who wants to 

buy this mat and cup? (He should make the offer of price)'. 

Someone, then, said that he could take the two articles for a 

dirham. "Who is willing to pay more?' the Prophet $jl enquired. 

Another person, then, offered to pay two dirhams upon which 

the Prophet gave both the articles to him/' 

(Tirmizi, Abu dawood and Ibn Majah) 



Book of Affairs 



103 



Commentary: It shows that auction is permitted by the Shariat. 
The event reffered to in the above Tradition has been described in 
detail, in Sunan Abi Dawood and Sunan Ibn Majah. It is stated that 
once an extremely poor Ansar Companion came to the Messenger 
of Allah, and after relating his misery, begged for something. The 
Holy Prophet iH>, on seeing that he was in a fit condition to work 
for a living, asked him if there was anything in his house. The 
Ansar said that he had only a piece of sacking, a part of which they 
used to cover themselves with and a part of which they spread on 
the ground to sleep on, and there was a cup from which they drank 
water. The Prophet H>, thereupon, told him to bring the two things 
which he did. The Holy Prophet H, addressing the people who 
were present at that time, then, said, "These things are for sale. 
Who is going to buy them?" A Companion offered to buy the 
mat and the cup for one dirham. Upon it, the Holy Prophet 0 
enquired if anyone was willing to make a bid of more then one 
dirham. (It is stated in Abu Dawood that the Messenger of Allah 
said it twice or thrice), another Companion 4k then took out two 
dirhams from his pocket and placed them before the Prophet 0. 
The Prophet Hi gave him the two articles, and handing over the 
dirhams to the Ansar said, "Buy some foodstuff for your family 
with one dirham, and an axe with the other, and bring it to me." 
The Ansar Companion c$k> did as he was told, and came back to the 
Prophet of Allah iH with the axe. The Prophet iH fixed a strong 
handle to it with his own hands, and said, "Take it, and go to the 
forest, and cut wood, and sell it, and do not let me see you for 
fifteen days." The Ansar, thus, went away, and fetched wood from 
the forest, and sold it as the Prophet iH had told till he had earned 
ten dirhams with which he bought some cloth and foodgrains for 
his family, and then, went to the Messenger of Allah Hi. The Holy 
Prophet Us observed, "This earning by hard work is much better 
for you than stretching your hands before others, like a beggar, and 
rising on the Last Day with the mark of begging on your forehead." 

The moral of the above Tradition is too obvious to need an 
explanation. 



104 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Hoarding and Excessive Profit Disallowed 

The Holy Prophet lH has strictly forbidden the hoarding of 
essential commodities with a view to creating conditions of sacrity 
in the market and selling the goods when the prices had risesn. It is 
called Ihtikar in the Arabic language. 



(1775/59) It is narrated by M'amar ibn Abdullah 4^ that the 
Messenger of Allah III said: "The trader who resorts to Ihtikar, 
i.e., stores up foodgrains and other necessities of life, waiting 
for a time of dearness, is a sinner." (Muslim) 




(1 776/60) It is narrated by Umar 4^> that the Messenger of Allah 
iil said: "The trader who brings grain etc., from the countryside 
and sells it in the market is Marzooq, i.e., God is responsible for 
his subsistence, while Mohtakir, i.e., one who buys grain etc., 
and withoolds it in order that it may become scares and dear is 
accursed of God." (Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: The guiding principle of the Shariah in the 
economic field is that the common man should be able to live in 
reasonable comfort and security. The wealthier class, on their part, 
should, for the sake of God, pay greater attention to the welfare of 
the less fortunate brethren than to their own gain. 

Price-Control 

Circumstances occasionally, demand that the prices of food and 
other essential comodities should be kept within proper limits 
through administrative action so that the consumers were not left at 
the mercy of unscrupulous traders. The Arabic word for it is 
Tas f eer. 



1L*j ^ip 411 Jj? ^Jl j^p 'jk!S\ *te JlS jj\ ^ ( \ vvv/n \ ) 

* I,. ,. ^ ^ 

O. Meaning to collect and withold grain etc., wating for a time of dearness. 



Book of Affairs 



105 



^IL; ^ JU-t J* 6» j M' cM' 

s s 3 

(1777/61) Sayyidina Anas 4ib narrates "(once), during the days 
of the Messenger of Allah dearness increased, people 
requested him to fix the prices (and enforce them on the 
merchants). The Messenger of Allah i$i>, thereupon, observed: 
'To raise or lower the prices is in the hands of the Lord. It is He 
who grants increase or decrease. He is the Sustainer and the 
Provider of the daily bread to all His creatrues. And I wish to 
meet Him in the state that no one has a claim against me for 
doing a wrong to him or acting unjustly towards his life or 
porperty." (Tirmizi, Abu dAwood, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: From the above, it appears that the Holy Prophet 
H> declined to control the prices of the articles of daily need even 
though the Companions ej$z> had complained to him against 
dearness, and expressed the fear that it might be an act of injustice 
towards anyone. 

It should, nevertheless, be noted that scarcity of the essential 
commodities is of two kinds. Sometimes, it is due to natural 
causes, like a drought, and sometimes, it is man-made. From the 
Holy Prophet's reply, as it is mentioned in the narrative of 
Sayyidina Anas 4fe>, it appears that the dearness, at that time, was 
the product of some natural calamity and not owing to the 
excessive greed of the traders. Hence, the Prophet Hi did not agree 
to price-control, fearing that it might not be fair to the merchants. 
We may, thus, conclude that Government be convinced that the 
traders are taking advantage of the situation to make an 
unreasonable profit and they cannot be persuaded by argument or 
entreaty to correct their ways, it can enforce price-control. In the 
words of Shah Waliullah <uU ifci to give a free rein to profiteers 
will tend to spread corruption on the earth and bring misery to 
mankind. 1 

Be that as it may, the purport of the above Tradition is that 
price-control should be avoided as far as possible, and resort 

O.Hujjat, Vol. II; p. 113. 



106 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



should be taken to it only when the merchants are not amenable to 
good counsel humanitarian appeals, and they are fleecing the 
comon man without fear or shame. 

It is narrated, in Muwatta, by Imam Maalik, on the authority of 
Sa'eed ibn Mussaiyib taba'ee, that once as Syyidina Umar 4^ saw a 
Companion, Haatib ibn Abi Balta'ah, selling dried grapes (or 
bloom-raisins) in the market of Madinah at an unreasonably high 
rate, he said to him, "Either reduce the price or take away your 
goods from my market." 

In the light of the general principle of the Shariah and the 
afore-mentioned remark of Sayyidina Umar 4^>, authorities have 
concluded that if the circumstances demand, the price of essentail 
goods ought to be fixed within proper limits in order to save the 
people from exploitation by unprincipled merchants. 
Ibn-i-Taimiyah too has expressed the same view in some of his 
writting. 1 

Cancelling A Deal 

If any of the two parties to a business transaction, the buyer or 
the seller makes a condition at the time that he will have the right 
to un do the deal within two or three days, it will have the force of 
law, and be in accordance with the Shariat. In the special usage of 
Fiqh (Islmic Jurisprudence), it is called Khiyar-i-Shart and is 
specifically mentioned in the Tradition, and the Jurists, too, are 
agree on its legality. 

According to Imam Shaf ee and some other authorities, the 
parties are entitled to cancel a deal even without such a condition 
as long as they remain at the place where the transaction has taken 
place, but if anyone of them goes away the right will cease to hold 
good. It is called Khiyar Majlis in the Islamic system of law. But 
some Jurists including Imam Abu Hanifah, hold a different view. 
They believe that once a deal has been finally settled and 
transaction has taken place, it cannot be annulled unilaterally by a 
party provided that it had not been made a part of the agreement by 
the buyer or the seller. It can certainly be done by mutual consent 
for which the term used in Fiqh is Iqala. 

0. Jam'a-ul-Fuway id, Vol.1, p.262. ©. Meaning cancellinga sale by mutual consent. 



Book of Affairs 1 07 



. is iiu <^u> Jip jU^ib u^l* ^3 jr otitic 

(j^L^ jLSjbxJlotjj) 

(1778/62) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe that the 
Messenger of Allah iall said: "Both the parties in a business deal 
have the right to revoke or annul it until they cease to be 
together, excepting the deal of Khiyar Shart" 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that if the condition of annulment has not 
been set by any of the parties to a business transaction, the right to 
revoke the transaction or cancel it will be exercised only to the time 
that the buyer and the seller are together. 

According to Imam Shafee and other like-minded Jurists, the 
word, Maalam Yatafarraqa (15 je* ^ u), occuring in the text, signify 
Khiyar Majlis, but Imam Abu Hanifah etc., hold that both the 
parties to a deal have the right to withdraw the offer until the 
transaction is finalised, after which neither of them can do so. They 
argue that Tafarraqa denotes separation not in terms of space, but 
transaction and agreement, as it is borne out according to them by 
the Qur'an which has used to word to convey the same meaning 
with reference to divorce in the verse reading: 

j _ ^ 

And if they separate Allah will each of them out of His 
abundance (AI Nisaa 4: 1 30) 

s s s s 

j ^ jb y \ j &±AjA\ oijj) . 4 , 1 .8? .mi $1 K** Jj 1 * 

(1779/63) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas 4fe 
that the Messenger of Allah said: "Both the buying and 
selling parties (to a transaction) have the right (to cancel the 
deal) upto the time that they do not part company, (after which 
the right will end), except that it had been agreed to, (at the time 
of the transaction), (through laying down a condition to that 
effect); and it is not lawful for either of the two to depart for the 



108 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Iqala, and withdrawal of offer by the other party." 

(Tirmizi Abu Dawood and Masai) 

Commentary: The purport of the above Tradition is similar to that 
of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar's 4^0 narrative we have seen 
before it. Both the sides in a business transaction are entitled to 
cancel it until they part company with each other. After it, it can be 
annulled only when it had been settled beforehand between them as 
a condition to the deal. It further tells that neither the buyer nor the 
seller should leave the place where the deal is made with the object 
of thwarting the possibility of cancellation by the other party. 

Cancelling a Sale Owing To a Defecting Good 

We have, already, discussed two forms of the annulment of a 
business deal, Khiyar Shart and Khiyar Majlis, The third form is 
that the buyer can lawfully cancel a deal if, on buying an article he 
discovers some defect in it. It is known as Khiyar 'Aib in Islamic 
jurisprudence. 

i*r 'j p% *li>U OJLP f iSli liVtt £lsJl 5' O* ( W A * /1 1 ) 

j^Ji Jtfi dp oSji fa 4* ^ ^ J\ wui £p <u 

. juJjb -fa 43* Ai JU jia ^*>u jj k j 

(A^Ujil j^UJij ^i*jal»j ajb jjl) 

(1780/64) Sayyidah Ayshah i^^^j narrated that "once a 

person bought a slave from someone and the slave remained ' 

with him for (as many days) as Allah willed. Then he discovered 

that there was a defect in the slave, and took the matter to the 

Messenger of Allah who decided that the slave be returned 

(to the original master), (on account of the defect), the 

defendent, thereupon, said to the Messenger of Allah Hi: This 

brother of mine has profitted by the services of my slave. (1 

should , therefore, be compensated for it).' The Prophet Hi 

observed: 'Al-Khiraj-o-biz-zamaan. (He has the right to profit 

who is accountable for loss)."' 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The Holy Prophet's iH observation that "he has the 
right to profit who is accountable for loss" is among the 
fundamental principles of the Shariah from which the jurists have 



Book of Affairs 



109 



derived the law for innumerable propositions. 

To eloborate it, in the context of the above Tradition, suppose 
the slave had died or was crippled due to an injury or illness while 
he was with the buyer, the loss would have been his. The buyer, 
consequently, was entitled to the service he took from the slave 
during that time and the question of compensation did not arise. 

An incident relating to Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar <4^> which 
has been quoted by Imam Maalik, in Muwatta, is worth recalling 
here. Once Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe had sold his slave for 800 
dirhams to someone and assured the buyer that there was no defect 
in him. Afterwards, the buyer complained that the slave had 
such-and-such a defect which Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe had not 
disclosed to him. The latter, perhaps, said, in his defence, that the 
slave never suffered from the infirmity while he was with him. 
Anyway, the case came up for decision in the court of the Caliph of 
the day, Sayyidina Usman 4fe>, who after hearing both the sides and 
noting that the buyer could not produce witnesses to prove that the 
slave was ill when he had bought him, asked Abdullah ibn Umar 
4fe> ? as required by the Shariah, if he could swear that the slave was 
physically fit and healthy while he was with him, but the latter 
expressed his inability to do so, and took back the slave. It was, 
then, so willed by the Lord that the slave was restored to health and 
Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4#> sold him, again, for 1,500 
dirhams. 

The authorities are agreed that if a defect was discovered after 
it had been bought and it was proved that the defect was present 
even at the time of the transaction, the buyer could cancel the deal 
and take back his money. This is what Khiyar Aib denotes. 

Cancelling a deal after it had been completed 

Occasionally, after a deal has been completed between two 
persons, one of them, for his own reasons, wants to cancel it. The 
buyer, for instance, wishes to return the article or the seller wishes 
to have it back. In such a case, the other party is not compelled by 
the Shariah to agree to the annulment of the transaction, but the 
sacred Prophet iH has pleaded for it on moral grounds and 
described much virtue in it. It is called Iqala. 



110 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



(] 781/65) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4^> that the Messenger 
of Allah HH said: "Whoever carries out a deal of Iqala with a 
Muslim brother, i.e., agrees to return or take back an article 
bought or sold by him, God will forgive his lapses, i.e., sins on 
the day of Resurrection" (Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: A person wishes to return an article after he had 
bought it, or to have it back after he had sold it, only when he feels 
that the transaction had gone against him and he had made a 
mistake in buying or selling it. It will naturally be an act of 
sacrifice on the part of the other party to agree to the spirit of 
magnanimity and self-denial that the Holy Prophet iH has appealed 
in the above Tradition, and reinforced it with the tidings that, on 
the Day of Requital, the Lord will forgive the sins of the bondsman 
who will act like that . 

Forbidding Swearing By The Traders 

Some traders have the habit of swearing profusely in order to 
impress the customers. It is a most improper use of the sacred 
Name of Allah which the Holy Prophet 0 has forbidden. 

(1782/66) It is narrated by Abu Qatadah that the Messenger 
of Allah iil said: 'Abstain from swearing much while selling 
(your goods), for though it may help to push up the sales, 
ultimately it will destroy blessings." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The traders are warned against the evil habit of 
swearing and often in the course of a busines transaction. Even if 
the oath is true, it is a gross misuse of the exalted Name of the 
Lord, while if it is false, to take a false oath even once is a great 
sin. In a Tradition, quoted, again in Sahih Bukhari, it is stated that 
the trader who tries to promote his business by swearing falsely is 
of the sinners about whom the decision of the Lord is: 



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111 



(VY:roV*j') 

And Allah shall not speak to them, nor shall He look at them on 
the Day of Resurrection, nor shall He purify them, and for them 
is a painful Chastisement. (Aal-e-Imran3:77) 

Expiation For Swearing and Other 
Improper Things in Business 

s i> y 4 \ \ J _ . s s s s x 

3 3 3 3 ^ **" 3 ' S ' s 9 ( J ^ 3 < ' JS* 6 <>> ^ 

(1783/67) Qais ibn Gharazah ^> relates that the Prophet 0 
said: "O traders! "Vain and improper things take place in 
business, and oaths are taken. So, include charity for expiation." 

(Abu Dwood, Tirmizi, Nasai, and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Many traders swear and say or do other things in 
order to influence the customers which are undesireable in the sight 
of God. The Holy Prophet HI has advised them in this Tradition, 
to include Sadaqah in their businnes by way of and expiation. It 
will also cure them of excessive greed which induces businessmen 
to indulge in dirty and deplorable practices. 

The Trade Which is Not Carried 
On Cleanly is Extremely Bad 

jr IS ^ s } 3 S , S . , 

(1784/68) It is narrated by Rifa'ah ibn Raf? Ansari 4^> that the 

Messenger of Allah said: "The traders except those who ply 

their trade with piety and truthfulness will rise in the Hereafter 

as the wicked, the sinful and the depraved," 

(Tirmizi, Ibn Majaha and Daarami) 

Commentary: It warns that the trader who are heedless of the fear 
of God and injunctions of the Shariah and are interested only in 
increasing their wealth, by fair or foul means, will end up, on the 



112 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Day of Judgement, as wretched evil-doers, and it is in that state 
that they will appear before the Almighty for the Final Reckoning. 

A kindly Advice Regarding 
Sale of Immovable Property 

A peculiarity of immovable property, like a house, orchard or 
agricultural land, it that it cannot be stolen. It also remains largely, 
unaffected by the disasters that often overtake movable goods. 
Prudence would, therefore, demand that such a property was not 
sold without a speical reason, and if it became unavoidable, some 
other immovable property was purchased with its money. Out of 
the undbounded affection the Holy Prophet had for the Ummah 
he has also given a similar advice to it. 



3 t S 3 * . \ y + . t 3 > s 3 3 s » . — , 3 s 3 3 3 s 3 s . 

(1785/69) Sa'eed ibn Hurayth ^> relates that he heard the 
Messenger of Allah ill say: "Whoever of you sells his house or 
land, he deserves this act of his remained devoid of profit and 
propitiousness except, of course, that he invested the money 
thus made in a property of the same kind. n (Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: As stated earlier, it is an advice by the Holy 
Prophet iil, and not an injunction of the Shariah. 

Partnership in Business 

s s s 

s .s s s s , . s f s 

(1786/70) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah <4§£> that the Messenger 
of Allah iil said: 'The Lord to whom belong Might and 
Majesty says: 'When two persons run a business jointly, 1 am the 
third of them, i.e., My blessings are with them as long as any of 
them does not cheat his partner. When a partner defrauds and 
commits breach of faith, I part company with them (and 
withhold my blessings)." (Abu Dawood) 



Book of Affairs 



Commentary: It is a 'Celestial' Tradition, in the theolgical usage 
of Islam, for, in it, the Holy Prophet iS§l has, simply reproduced 
what the Lord had said. It also tells by the way. that partnership in 
business is permitted, or rather a source of auspiciousness. 

Under the heading. 'Partnership in Business', Imam Bukhari has 
stated, on the authority of Zuhrah ibn Ma'bad Taba'ee, that his 
grandfather, Abdullah ibn Hisham, was taken by his mother, 
Zainab bint Humaid, to the Messenger of Allah Hi in his childhood 
for ha'it. The Messegner of Allah H> remarked that Abdullah ibn 
Hisham was too young, and he caressed his head lovingly, and 
prayed for him. Afterwards, as Abdullah ibn Hisham set up his 
business, Zuhrah ibn Ma'bad used to accompany him to the market. 
He reports that, often, when his grandfather bought grain for trade, 
Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdullah ibn Zubair c^> would request him 
to make them his partners becuase, so they said, the Holy Prophet 
ill had made a prayer of abundance for him and he was sure to 
make much profit. His grandfather, thus, would let them have a 
share in the business, and the gain would, often, be so exessive that 
a full camel-load of grain was obtained as profit which they sent 
home. 1 

Appointing An Agent 

dfi%\ Jup ill J^j # ^J2\ J^*Jl 'J\ J> lyf tf> ( ^ VA V/V \ ) 
atfl j UaI^I 9 lid ji?U> <U ij'jLitti SLi (S 0^ °^ ap1 J^J 

s A s > 

(1787/71) Urwah ibn Al-Ja'ad Baariqi 4fe relates, saying that, 
once, the Messenger of Allah ill gave him a dinar to buy a goat 
for him. Urwah 4fe> bought two goats with it, and then sold one 
of the goats for a dinar, and, on returning, gave both, the goat 
and the other dinar, to the Holy Prophet (and told him what 
he had done). The Prophet made a special prayer for him for 
prosperity in trade. The narrator adds that owing to the 
propitiousness of the prayer his condition was that even if he 
bought dirt, it fetched him profit." (Bukhari) 

0. Sahih Bukhari : Kitabul Shirkat 



114 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Commentary: Urwah ibn Ali Ja'ad Baariqi 4S§£> had carried out the 
transaction, on behalf of the Holy Prophet iH in his capicity as an 
agent. It shows that such a thing is permissible. Moreover, as 
Urwah 4^ had sold one of the two goats without the permission of 
the Prophet iH and the Prophet lH had praised and blessed him, 
instead of holding his conduct unlawful and taking him to task for 
it, we conclude that an agent can sell the property of his client 
without obtaining his permission, and if the client does not 
repudiate the transaction, it will be legally correct and binding. 

y y y , y y 0 y y y y ? s. > 1 , s y -> s _ , 

y y • y y . y § y .y y , y i *. I i. I * *• 1 t ** , y t t J . * y y 

*s>r j$ jj juj*U APuj jLjJj ULjS (S jlZxB 4~»w?i 4j 4J & y*»**J jUjJj 4jl» 

y ' y y ' y ' y y f. y 

y y y f s 

(1788/72) It is narated by Hakeem ibn Hizam 1 that, (once), the 
Prophet icll gave him a dinar to buy an animal of sacrifice for 
' him, upon which he bought a ram for it, and then sold it (to a 
buyer) at that very place for two dinars. Hakeem ibn Hizam 4fe, 
later on, bought an animal of sacrifice for one of the two dinar, 
and came back and delivered the animal alongwith the 
(remaining) dinar to the Prophet iH\ The Prophet gave away 
the dinar in charity and prayed for Hakeem ibn Hizam's <*§jb 
success and prosperity in business. (Tirmizi, and Abu Dawood) 



Hire And Wages 

To engage anyone on wages for one's work or allow the use of 
something on hire or rent is a regular feature of community life. It 
is called Ijara in the terminology of Shariah. 

Z\*Jt\ jia j>] % di:u jis s>;> & ( \ v a wr> 

' y y 

O. Hakeem ibn Hizam was nephew of Sayyidah Khadijah & ^> He was 
among the prominent men of the Quraysh, and was rich as well as generous. 
He embraced Islam in 6 A.H., at the time of the Victory of Makkah, when he 
has about sixty, and lived for almost the same number of years after it. 
Hakeem died in Madinah at the age of about 125 years. 



Book of Affairs 



115 



} J s / s s 



(1789/73) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah §§* said: "All the Prophets f^Ji ^$-1* raised up by God 
have grazed goats." "And you, too Messenger ®?" asked the 
Companions "Yes, I, too, have grazed goats," the Prophet 
Hi replied. "I used to graze the goats of the Makkan for a few 
Qirats 1 ." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: It was during his childhood, when the Messenger 
of Allah 0 lived with his uncle, Abu Talib, that he used to graze 
the goats of the Makkans in return for a few Qirats to meet his 
needs. It was a common occupation in Makkah at that time. 

Goat-grazing is highly patience-testing work and depending on 
the aptitude of a person, it can also go a long way towards the 
diciplining of the self. Moral vices like vanity are removed or 
corrected through it, it promotes the habit of tolerance and 
self-restraint, and teaches a man to be kind and sympathetic. 

From the above Tradition, we learn that all the Divine 
Mesengers iH have completed this course of training and further 
that to work on wages was not only permissible, but also a 
confirmed practice of the Prophets 

_ S . s s s . s y 3 _ } s 

(1790/74) It is narrated by Abdullah Ibn Umar that the 
Messenger of Allah iil said: "Pay the worker his wages before 
the sweat dries (on his body)." (Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: It shows that wages should be paid to the labourer 
as soon as he finishes the work. 

Letting Out of Land on Rent or Division ofThe 
Crop Between the Cultivator And Landlord 

Another form of Ijara is to let out one's land to a person on the 
condition that he will cultivate it and pay a fixed amount as rent or 
the produce will be divided between the cultivator and the landlord, 
on a settled basis, in place of cash payment of the rent. 

O. Almost a twelfth part of a dirham. 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



j s 0 / j s & \ ' ) X $ ' X i 3 3 

9 . 3 . 3 S a % * ' m J 

f ' \ ' \ 3 3tS.S3 3s3SS. 3tS3V3.S-3>S». .S S3 

(1791/75) Abdullah ibn Umar narrates "(after the Victory of 
Khyber), the Prophet icll leased out the land of Khyber to Jews, 
(the erstwhile owners), on the condition that they will cultivate 
it and keep half of the produce with themselves." (Bukhari) 



, tf» <» x .3 3 s s % s . 3 % s s 



3 3t 3 s 3 s ft"*' 1. ' \ ' ' J| / ^ . I-' * t i C I s 3 % s 3 s 

Jj»* c± J 15 15** f>*-»J *9»* *J**ji 

& ' ,\ >■ ^ •* ^ . s s * 

S s s- } / s .s s , / s X s s s s s j .3 .3 ^ * 

. 3 3 \ s • .V 3 . 3 t » it 3 A . ,3 *• y . s 3 s 3 . % . — 3 ^ * s } s % s 3 » 

* 3* 3 s 

(1792/76) Anir ibn Dinar Taba'ee narrated to us, saying that, 
once, he said to Tavoos Taba'ee that it would be better if he 
gave up leasing of land on division of the crop (or rent) as 
people thought that the Messenger of Allah had forbidden it. 
Taboos Taba'ee replied that his practice was that he gave the 
land to the farmers to cultivate, and helped them in other ways 
as well, and the leading theologist of the Ummah, Abdullah ibn 
Abbas 4fe, had told him that the Mesenger of Allah had not 
forbidden the letting out of land on rent or division of the crop. 
The Holy Prophet iil, nevertheless, had said that it was better to 
give land for cultivation to a brother free of rent than to charge 
anything for its use." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It denotes that during the days of the Holy 
Companions and the Taba'een (plural of Taba'ee), there were 
some people who considered it wrong to let one's land on lease, 
whether in cash or kind, but the well-known pupil of Abdullah ibn 
Abbas Tavoos, explained, on the authority of his master, that 
the Prophet ^ had not declared it unlawful, but simply expressed 
the view that, morally, it was preferable to let out land to a brother 
for cultivation without rent, and with an eye on the recompense of 
the Hereafter, than to charge something from him, in whatever 
form, for its use. 



Book of Affairs 



1 17 



In the light of Abdullah ibn Abbas's 4fe> elucidation or fiat, 
Tavoos used to let his land on rent or division of produce and also 
give financial support to the tenants. 

Accepting Remuneration For Dam 
(Blowing), Taweez (Charm) etc. 

To accept payment for one's work or anyother service rendered 
is inclined in Ijara, and a form of it, also, is the doing of Dam 1 
over a sick person or the wirtting or giving of a T'aweez or 
incantation. Such incidents have taken place in the lifetime of the 
the Holy Prophet and the Companions c^> had accepted 
payment in return for those acts, and the Holy Prophet ^ had held 
it lawful. 



(1 793/77) Abdullah ibn Abbas 4fe narrated to us that "as a party 
of Companions was passing through a settlement (or village), a 
man came and enquired if any of them did incantation. A snake 
had bitten someone in the village. (Or was it a scorpion that had 
stung)? (The narrator is not sure). A member of the party got up 
and went with him, and on reaching the place settled some goats 
as his remuneration, and (then) blew over the sick person after 
reciting the Qur'anic Surah Al Fatihcu and the man recovered. 
As he returned to the party with the goats, his companions did 
not approve of it and remarked that he had taken payment for 
reciting the Book of God until they all returned to Madinah 

O. The act of reciting the Name of Allah or anyother prayer for the recovery of 

one who is sick, and, then, driving air over him through the mouth. 
0. An amulet or charm worn as a protection against evil. 




118 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



where the matter was placed before the Prophet aft, and he was 
told that such-and-such a member of the party had accepted 
remuneration for reciting the Book of God, i.e., Surah 
Al-Fateha. The Prophet iil said: "The Book of God was more 
worthy of remuneration being accepted on it." (Bukhari) 

Note: In another version of the same incident quoted again in 
Sahih Bukhari, it is added that the Prophet £ft observed: "You 
acted rightly. Divide the goats among yourselves and let me also 
have a share."- 

Commentary: The above incident is related even in greater detail 
in Sahih Bukhari and a similar even has also been mentioned in 
Musnad Ahamad and Sunan Abu Dawood which tells that, during a 
journey, some Companions ^ were asked to blow over an insane 
person, one of whom did it for three days, morning and evening, 
after reciting Surah AUFatiha, and by the grace of God, the man 
was cured of his illness. The Companions ^ accepted 
remuneration for the act latter on, he was caught in two minds and 
could not decide if he had done the right thing. He consequently, 
sought the advice of the Holy Prophet iH, on his return, who 
declared his action to be right and lawful. 

On the basis of these Traditions, the authorities have 
concluded, almost unanimously, that to accept payment for doing 
dam or giving an amulet is legitimte and allowable in the same way 
as it is fair and lawful for physicians to charge a fee from their 
patients. It will of course, be more commendable if a service is 
rendered to mankind for nothing and wholly for the sake of God, 
which indeed, is the way of those who bear relation to the Holy 
Prophet Hi as his deupties. 



BORROWING 



It is not unusual for us to borrow something from others with 
the intention of returning it to them when the need was fulfilled. It 
is called 'Aariyat\ which is also a form of service, and whoever 
lends anything to a needy person is positively worthy of Divine 
recompense. The Holy Prophet ill, himself, has taken things on 
loan, temporarily for his use, and also provided guidance in this 
regard, as the Traditions given below will show. 

Borrowing of A Horse By The Prophet 

(1794/78) It is narrated by Anas 4§£> "(once), panic spread in 
Madinah (as a result of a false report. Perhaps, it was remoured 
that the enemy was advancing toward the town and an attack 
was imminent). The Prophet borrowed a horse from Abu 
Jalha Ansari 4^> which was known as 'Mandoob' (meaning 
heavy-footed; slow in speed). He rode on it, (and want in the 
direction from which the attack was feared). When the Holy 
Prophet iil returned, he said that he saw nothing. (There was no 
need for alarm). (With it, the Prophet ^ remarked about Abu 
Talha's 4fe horse that) 'I found him Bahr Rawan. (Literally, a 
flowing ocean)." ' (In Arabic, a fast, light-footed horse of a good 
breed was called Bahr), (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It tells that the Messenger of Allah iH had 
borrowed the horse from Abu Talha Ansari 4fe and rode on it at a 

O. Lending or borrowing a thing which is itself tobe returned. Aariyat differs 
from Qarz (loan) inasmuch as in the latter term it is not understood that the 
identical article borrowed is returned, but simply its equivalent. 



120 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



time of need. We can also obtain from this incident, an idea of the 
high courage and sense of duty of the Holy Prophet He went 
out, alone, to enquire in the event of danger, and on return 
reassured the people that there was nothing to fear. 

.4J j* AjjIp Jj J 13 V*U^<» b UflPi JU3 jltf* Ajj API j^I 4^ jbtLui 

(1795/79) It is narrated by Umaiyyah ibn Sufwan, on the 

authority of his father, Sufwan ibn Umaiyyah, that the 

Messenger of Allah icll asked him for his chain-armours, at the 

time of the Battle of Hunain, i.e., he wanted to borrow them 

from him. Sufwan, (who had not embraced Islam till then), 

thereupon, said: M Do you want to lay hold of my chain-armours? 

(As you have been victorious, and are now in power, do you 

want to take them by force)?" "No," said the Prophet iH. "1 

want to borrow temporarily with the promise to return them." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Sufwan ibn Umaiyyah was a leader of the Quraish 
and an inveterate enemy of the Holy Prophet m. When Makkah 
was conquered in 8 A.H., and came under the sway of Islam, 
Sufwan fled from the town. Upon that, some Companions who 
were attached to him by blood or any other tie begged the Prophet 
£§l to pardon him to which he agreed. The relatives or friends of 
Sufwan, then, went out in search of him and brought him back to 
Makkah, but he remained an infidel. Later, when after the Victory 
of Makkah, the Prophet marched towards Hunain, many of the 
Makkans, including Sufwan, who had not yet embraced Islam 
joined him with his permission. It was, on that occasion, that the 
Holy Prophet &§l wanted to borrow his armour and Sufwan feared 
that the armour was going to be seized from him, and he would not 
get them back. The Prophet £H assured him that he was not 
confiscating the armour, but only borrowing them temporarily. 
Sufwan, then, lent the armour. 

During the journey of the Battle of Hunain, Sufwan had an 
opportunity to observe the Holy Prophet closely, and he was so 
profoundly impressed by his moral virtues, particularly, his 



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121 



magnanimity towards an Arch enemy like himself that he felt 
convinced that the Prophet iH was a true Messenger of Allah III, 
and embraced Islam. 

Sufwan, in any case is a Companion and so is his son, 
Umaiyyah. 

j^Lj d& %\ JU> i>t ciJ Jil iitfi ^ ( \ v <\ n/A * ) 

(1796/80) Abu Umama Bahili 4fe relates that he heard the 

Prophet iH? say: "An article of Aariyat, (which is borrowed 

temporarily), should be returned in any case; and an article of 

Minha, (given to a person to mke use of it), should be returned 

to the owner, (according to custom), after it had served the 

purpose; and Qard (loan) should be repaid, (according to the 

terms of the agreement); and the person who stands surety for 

the borrower shall be responsible for the payment." 

(Tirmizi And Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In it, four commandments of the Shari'ah have seen 
indicated: 

(i) When an article is borrowed for a time it must be returned 
without unnecessary delay. 

(ii) The giving back of Minha is a legal and religious 
obligation. In olden days, a custom in Arabia was that 
philanthropic and generous-hearted men freely allowed the use of a 
thing owned by them to a brother. As for instance, they gave him, 
free of cost, their camel to ride, or she-camel or goat to avail 
himself of its milk, or land or orchard to profit by its produce. It is 
called Minha. It was enjoined that the person who recieved such an 
article will not claim a proprietary right over it, but give it back to 
the owner, in conformity with the established usage, after it had 
served his need. 

(iii) Whoever takes a loan should earnestly try to pay it back. 
We have already seen the stern admonitory pronouncements of the 
Holy Prophet in this regard. 

(iv) Whoever becomes a surety for a person who borrows 
anything from anyone shall be responsible for its payment. If the 



122 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



debtor does not repay the loan, the surety will be called upon to 
repay or reimburse it. 

Misapporpriation 

If an article is bought from someone on a price, it is called Ba'i 
and Shira (Buying and Selling), in the special usage of the Shiriah; 
if it is made use on payment of hire or rent, it is called Ijara; and if 
it is borrowed for a time, without consideration, and on the 
understading that' it will be returned after use, it is called 'Aariyat. 

Another way of acquiring anyone's property is that occupation 
is taken by force or fraud. It is called Ghasab (Misappropriation; 
Usurpation; Embezzlement; Plunder) which is strictly forbidden. 

(1797/81) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever wrongfully occupies 
land belonging to someone else will be sunk into the ground 
along with the land on the Last Day until he reaches the bottom 
of the earth." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The above Tradition has been related to minor 
variations, by a number of other Companions as well. The 
substance of all of them, however, is that anyone who unlawfully 
occupies the smallest plot of land, even if it be only a baalisht as a 
report tells shall be sunk, in punishment, to the lowest part of the 
earth on the Day of Final Reckoning. 

An awe-inspiring incident has been quoted, in Sahih Bukhari 
and Sahih Muslim, in connection with the usurpation of land, 
which has a bearing on the narrative under discussion. It is related 
that during the Caliphate of Amir Muawiya a woman filed a 
complaint in the court of Marwaan, the Governer of Madinah, 
against Sa'eed ibn Zaid 4^>, who is included among the ten 
Companions of the Holy Prophet ^ about whom the tidings of 
Paradise were given, name by name, in their own lifetime, that he 
had wrongfully occupied her land. Sa'eed feeling extremely 

O. A span measured by the extended thumb and little finger. 



Book of Affairs 



123 



hurt, exclaimed, "I will encoach upon the land of this woman and 
occupy it unjustly! Have I not heard the dreadful admonition 

pronounced, in this regard, by the Messenger of Allah || ?" 

Sa'eed 4#> spoke with such feeling that even Marwaan was moved 
by it, and he said to him, "Now, I do not call for any proof or 
argument from you/' Sa'eed 4S§£>, then, made the following 
supplication from the depth of his heart: "Oh God: If You know 
that this woman has charged me with a false offence, deprive her of 
the vision of her eyes, and turn the land into her grave." The 
narrator, Sayyidina Orwah goes on to say that "it happened 
exactly like that. I myslef saw the woman; she became blind in old 
age and used to say that she had come to that state owing to the 
imprecation of Sa'eed ibn Zaid 4^>, and then one day, she tell into a 
ditch as she was going over her land, and the ditch became her 
grave." 

(1798/82) It is narrated by Imran ibn Husain that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "Whoever acquries anyone's property by force 
is not us." (Tirmizi) 

iLj &*%\ J^^J*&0* %jt 0 V WAT) 

(1799/83) It is narrated by Sa'ib ibn Yazid 4*>, on the authority 
of his father, that he Messenger of Allah lH said: "None of you 
should take even the stick of his brother, in jest or with the 
intention of laking. Anyone who does so should, therefore, 
return it." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that even an ordinary thing like a stick 
should not be taken without the owner's permission, even by way 
of a joke. In case it is done, the article ought to be returned, and no 
one should imagine that the giving back of an recith of little value, 
like a stick was not necessary. 



124 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



.\ & \ % . y y y y ' 

> ji . i y # . % y ) y | , ♦» » . «• u> y y y >*> . . •* v | . „ v X y . y y , 

4»1 JL*4»I Jld Jtt -UP jP ^Ali^l Oy- ^1 jP ( \ A • </Ai) 

(1800/84) Abu Hurrah Az-Zaqqashi relates, on the authrity of 
his uncle, that the Prophet said: "Beware! Do not be unjust 
to anyone. Bewre! To acquire anything belonging to anyone 
else, without his consent, is unlawful." (Bayhaqi and Dar Qutni) 

*f y y , tl.yy.y&y y | y y ytyfi* . * y & | & . . y y y . 

y ' y 0 y 

y t y y y y y & y i y y yy . y .y y y & & y .y y y 

. y y v y . • y y y y • * y * « ♦ • ' « ^ I 3 • ■ * I •* ✓ 

l^tl^j jl «Jar...o Jtf <UjU Jl>l3 UUb OJbxilj oLi ^ OjxjJU 

' ^ y ' ' 

(^i . Lo j j ^ J>U iU* 

(1801/85) Sayyidina Jabir 4fe narrated to us, saying that "the 
Messenger of Allah iH? (once), happened to pass by (the house 
of) a woman, with some Companions 4^, whereupon she 
invited him to dinner. (The Messenger of Allah accepted the 
invitation). The woman, then slaughtered a goat, prepared the 
meal, and placed it before the Holy Prophet Hi and the 
Companions cjfip. The Prophet took a morsel of food, but he 
could not swallow it. (The food did not pass down his throat). 
Upon it, he remarked: (It appears that) the goat was slaughtered 
without owner's permission.' 'We do not observe such 
formalities with Mu'ad's 4fe family (who are our neighbours)', 
the woman replied. 'We make use of their things and they make 
use of our things." '(Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: As it appears from the woman's reply, the goat 
belonged to the family of Mu'ad, and on account of the good 
neighbourly relations prevailing between them, and the customary 
behaviour, it was not thought necessary to obtain the owner's 
permission before slaughtering the animal. When the meal was 
ready and the Messenger of Allah iH sat down to eat, the very first 
morsel got stuck in his throat, and it became apparent to him, 
instinctively, that the goat had been slaughtered without the 
permission of its owner. 

Just as the Almighty Creator has endowed men with a peculiar 



Book of Affairs 



125 



power or means by which they respond to things through taste or 
smell and it becomes impossible for them to swallow anything 
which is abhorrent to the palate, so des He grant to the chosen 
bondsmen whom He Wishes to protect from unlawful food and 
drink special sensitiveness which keeps them from partaking of 
anything that is forbidden. The inability of the Holy Prophet to 
swallow the morsel of food was a distinct indication of the very 
favour of the Lord upon him. 

Incidents of a like nature have also been reported about Holy 
men, known, in comon parlance, as Aidiya Allah (Friends of God). 

It is worth remembering here, that the goat -had neither been 
stolen nor taken by force, only slaughtered without the permission 
of the owner owing to the close and friendly relations and order of 
things obtaining between the two families. 

From it we can deduce how careful should one be in making 
use of things belonging to others without permission or 
willingness. 



GIFT 



Gift too is a form of transaction in a civilized society. The Holy 
Prophet has laid a great stress on it in his Traditions and 
indicated that it is helpful in the promotion of mutual love and 
affection and conductive to growth of friendly relations which 
doubtlessly, are a great blessings. 

A gift is an offering made as a token of goodwill, and with the 
object of making the other man happy and winning the good graces 
of the Lord. If the present is made to anyone younger in age, it is a 
gesture of affection; if to a friend, it is a means of strengthening the 
bond of love; if to a needy person, it is a source of solace and 
comfort; and if to a superior, it is a mark of regard and respect. 

In case something is given to anyone for the sake of God and 
with the intention of earning the reward of the Hereafter, 
considering him to be poor and indigent, it will be charity {Sadqa), 
not a gift (Hadiya). It is only when an offering is meant to be an 
expression of love and fellow feeling, and through it the good 
pleasure of the Lord is to be sought, then it becomes a gift. If, 
however, a gift is made with sincerity, the reward, is less than 
charity, and sometimes even greater. 

It was owing to this difference between Hadiya and Sadqa that 
the Holy Prophet iSl accepted a Hadiya (gift) with prayer and 
thankfulness and made use of it, while in case of a Sadqa (charity), 
his practice was though he accepted it too, with gratitude and 
blessed the giver, he did not use it himself but gave to others. 

Unfortunately, the habit of giving presents to one another, in 
sincarity is rapidly disappearing among the Muslims as a whole, 
and though it is still done, to some extent, in relation to Holy men, 
it is seldom that one offers a gift to a friend, relative or neighbour 
despite the fact that it is an unfailing recipe handed down to us by 



128 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



the Messenger of Allah $H of happiness and good social realtions 
and a sure means to earning the countenance of the Lord. 

A Present Generates Love and 
Removes Malice From The Heart 

(1802/86) It is narrated by Sayyidah Ayshah that the 

Prophet Hi said: "Exchange presents with one another. Presents 
remove ill-will from the hearts." (Trimizi) 

(1803/87) Abu Hurayrah 4fe> relates, that the Messenger of 
Allah iil said: "Give presents to one another. Presents remove 
malice from the hearts, and a female neighbour should not 
regard the gift of a part of the trotter of a goat to another female 
neighbour as of no value." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The intention os Sayyidah Ayshah's if^^i^j 
narrative is self-evident. It requires no further elucidation after 
what we have said in the introductory liness of this chapter. 

As for the remark in Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah's a housewife 
should not feel ashamed to send the gift of a hoof part of goat to 
her nieghbour, what it apparently denotes is that it is not necessary 
for a present to be expensive or of a standard for, then, the 
opportunity to offer a gift will come only rarely. Thus, suppose the 
trotter of a goat have been cooked in the house, there should be no 
hesitation in sending some of them to the neighbour as a gift. 

It needs however, be noted that the advice applies to cases in 
which one is confident that the neighbour will accept the gift 
gladly and not regard it an insult. The social and moral 
environment during the time of the Holy Prophet ill was like that. 



Book of Affairs 



129 



The Guidance And Practice of The Prophet m> 
Concerning the Return for A Gift 

aJI^JI JjC j^Lo) JLp ^iT cJli lilt* (\ A * 1/AA) 

(1804/88) Sayyidah Ayshah i^p^i^j narrates "The practice of 
the Messenger of Allah was that he accepted a gift and offered 
(one) him self in return for it." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: It shows that when anyone offered a present to the 
Holy Prophet he accepted it with pleasure, and himself gave 
something to the giver as a gift, either at that very time or 
sometime later, in conformity with the Divine pronouncement: 

"Is the recompense of goodness anything but goodness? 

(Al Rahman 55:60) 

The Messenger of Allah has given the same advice to his 
followers, as we shall see in some of the Traditions we are going to 
discuss. But, alas, even among the people of quality and 
distinction, there are few in the Ummah who are to observe it. 

• s s * p f 

S . 3 M • «** ^0 3 y s s ^ 3 ^ • * % 3 s V * 3 t * 3 s 3 f 3 ■* s 3 s k » s S • 

\ 

( 1 805/98) It is narrated by Jabir 4fe that the Messenger of Allah 
^ said: "If a present is made to anyone, and he has something 
to give in return, he should offer it, and if he has nothing to give 
(in return), he should praise him (by way of gratitude), and say a 
good word in his behalf. Whoever did it, fulfilled the claim of 
gratitude, and whoever did not, and concealed a favour (done to 
him), was guilty of ingratitude, and whoever flaunts a virtue that 
has not been granted to him is like a man who wears a double 
cloak of deception." (Tinnizi and Abu Davvood) 

Commentary: It tells that if a person were to recieve a present 
from a friend, he should also offer him something in return, and 
should he not be in a position to do so, he should utter a word of 
goodness for him and speak of his kindness to others. It too, will 



130 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



be reckoned with the Lord as an expression of grtitude. 

As we are going to see in the next Tradition, the saying of 
Jazaak Allah (May God reward thee! God bless thee!) will suffice. 
On the contrary, person who recieves a gift and hides it from 
others and does not even say Jazaak Allah will be guilty of 
ingratitude. 

The last part of saying, it would seem, denotes that anyone who 
shows himself off, through his dress etc., as possessing a virtue, 
such as, learning or spirituality, which he does not really have is a 
cheat and an imposter. 

By adding it to the advice about a gift or offering, what the 
Holy Prophet Us probably, meant was to emphasise that if a 
person who is lacking in qualities owing to which people generally 
consider it an act of virtue to offer a gift to anyone, gives an 
impression through his clothes, conversation or way of life that he 
is endowed with those attributes in order to obtain gifts and 
presents from others, he is no better than a swindler. 

Grtefulness to Benefactors 



(1 806/99) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4p> that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "whoever failed to give thanks to anyone who 
did a favour to him failed to give thanks to God." 



Commentary: It shows that anyone who offers a gift or does a 
favour in any other way should be thanked sincerely for it and 
prayer made for his well-being. A person who fails to do so proves 
himself to be ungrateful to God as well. 

According to some commentators, what it seeks to stress is that 
anyone who does not feel indebted to his benefactors is sadly 
wanting in th sense of obligation, and will not be grateful even to 




(Musnad Ahmad and Tirmizi) 



God. 




Book of Affairs 



131 




(l£i*js)lo1jj) 

(1807/100) It is narrated by Usama ibn Zaid that the 
Messenger of Allah ^ said: "Whoever did a favour to anyone 
and the recited for his benefactor, Jazaak Allah Khaira (May 
Allah give a good reward for it), he also, praised him fully 
(thorugh it)." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Apparently, Jazaak Allah Khaira is a prayer 
formula, but when anyone prayes for his bnenfactor in these words, 
he, as it were, acknowledges his inability to repay the debts of 
gratitude he owes to him and declares that only the Supreme Being, 
the Gracious One, can requite him, and together with it beseeches 
the Lord to reward him bountifully for his goodness. It is, thus a 
prayer as well as an acknowledgement of the benefactor's 
kindliness and humanity. 



(1808/101) Sayyidina Anas *$k> narrated to us that when the 
Messenger of Allah iH migrated to Madinah, (and the Muhajirs 
had an experience of the hospitality and unselfishness of the 
Ansars), they one day said to the Prophet |§l: "We have not seen 
people like them, i.e., the Ansar of Madinah anywhere. (They 
spend generously on us) if they are well-provided, and even 
those who are not in good condition help us and take care of our 
needs. They have taken all the responsibilities for toil and 
labour upon themselves, and, (yet), made us a sharer in the 
profits. (As a result of the unique self-denial and liberality on 
their part), we fear that they took all the reward and and 
recompense, (and we reamined empty-handed in the Hereafter)." 
"No," the Messengr of Allah lc§l replied. "It will not be so as 
long as you pray for them and express a sincere appreciation (of 
their goodness." (Tirmizi) 




132 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Commentary: When the Holy Prophet H? had migrated from 
Makkah to Madinah, a large number of Muhajirs, too, had come 
with him. In the early days as is well known, the Ansars of 
Madinah had made all of them their guests, solely for the sake of 
God. They cultivated the fields and did all the work themselves, 
and ye, shared the income with the Emigrants. There were rich as 
well as poor among the Ansars, but they all joined ungrudgingly in 
the service of the Mahajirs. The well-to-do spent their wealth with 
open hands on the Mahajirs, while even those who were poor 
preferred to go hungry in order to help them. It was in those 
circumstances that the Emigrants thought if it was going to be that 
because of their unparalleled generosity and selflessness, the 
Ansars took all the reward on their, (the Emigrants'), good deeds 
like Migration and worship, and they themselves gained nothing, 
As they expressed the fear to the Holy Prophet ill, he assured them 
that it would not be so provided they prayed to God for their 
helpers, the Ansars, in return for their large-heartedness and 
hospitality, and acknowledged what they owed to them with an 
open heart and felt grateful. The Lord will accept it as recompense 
from their side for the benevolance of the Ansars and requite them 
from His own treasures for the bortherly love displayed by them. 

Articles Which Should Not be Refused As A Gift 

6 y .\ I? \ J . , s s s s s * 

(1809/102) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4*> that the 
Messenger of Allah said; "Whoever is offered a 
sweet-smelling flower should accept it, and not reject it because 
it is a very ordinary thing. Its fragrance is a thing of joy." 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: If an ordinary thing like a flower was refused, the 
giver might feel that his gift had been refused because it was an 
ordinary, and it hurt his feelings. 

In another Tradition, quoted in Tirmizi, it is stated that 
"whoever is offerred a sweet-smelling flower should not decline to 
accept it for a sweet-smelling flower is a gift of Paradise." 



Book of Affairs 



133 



In Sahih Muslim, it is further mentioned on the authority of 
Sayyidina Anas that "The practice of the Messenger of Allah 
ill was that he never refused a perfume." 

y £tt Up 'ill jU Jii J IS j^p jJt (U W^T) 

(1810/103) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "There are three things which, 
particularly should not be refused; a pillow, oil (used for 
applying to hair etc) and milk." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The peculiarity with the three things mentioned 
above, again costs little and the person who offers them is made 
happy. 

We can conclude about other articles of thesame class and 
category, as well, on the basis of this saying. 

To Claim Backa Gift is Highly Disgraceful 

y y & y . \ y. & S. ' y . 

< y y y y 

(181 1/104) (Both) Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdullah ibn Abbas 
U&jpii^j related to us, saying that the Messenger of Allah 
said: "It is not prorper for anyone of you to offer something to a 
person as a gift and then take it back. Of course, if a father 
gives anything to his children he is exempted from it. (He can 
take it back) for a father has every kind of claim on his 
children." (Explaining the wretchedness of the act), the 
Messenger of Allah further observed that "whoever claims 
back a gift after giving it is like the dog who ate something and 
when its stomach was filled to capacity, vomited it, and ate up 
the vomit." (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai and Ibn Mjajah) 

To Whom It is Forbidden to Accept A Gift 

\ ? y 



134 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



(1812/105) It is narrated by Jabir *$k> that the Messenger of 
Allah said: "gifts (accepted by) the ruler are Ghuloo, i.e., an 
excess and a transgression. (It is similar in a way to bribery, 
embezzlement and oppression)." (Tabarani) 

<~>\y} jfi UJaP blj J>\ Ji$ l^liis tgllp kai> A] <^*Uli ipU^ £jLi 

(1813/106) It is narrated by Abu Umamah 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah l§l said: "Whoever interceded for anyone, 
and the person on behalf of whom he interceded made him a 
present in considertion of the intercession and he acepted the 
present was guilty of a worst form of usury." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In the two afore-mentioned narratives, it is told that 
a gift is worthy of acceptance only when it is offered sincerely and 
no other motive or reason is attached to it. 



^£F(CharitableFund) 



Like charity, alms-giving and gift, Waqfi.e., dedication or 
making of a grant for a charitable or reiigous purpose too is among 
the monetary affairs and arrangements that are a means to the 
propitiation of the Lord. 

As Shah Waliullah a-Ip &\ u^-j says, the Arabs were ignorant of 
the institution of Waqf before the advent of Islam. It was the Holy 
Prophet ill who acquainted them with it, and advised them to 
make such endowments. What it denotes, in brief is that a grant is 
made of something like land or money which is of lasting value 
and yields a continuing income, for religious or charitable use, and 
its income or produce is spent on pious purposes, as desired by the 
Wacjifl i.e., the person who makes the endowment, and the Waqif, 
on his part, permanently, gives up all proprietary rights over the 
property. 

Basic Principles 

v t . . * s sy . y , s.s.sstv.s'* y + . y * y s . 

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✓ ••0 - y . s 1 > . * y 6 * s . y . ^ > > . . ^ > -* y ' ... » - 

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(1814/107) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4& narrated that his 
father, Sayyidina Umar 4fe, had recieved a plot of land in 
Khyber. He went to the Messenger of Allah ill, and said: "I 
have been given some land in Khyber (which is very good). It is 



136 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



the most valuable property 1 have. What is your command 
concerning it?" The Prophet replied: "If you like, you can set 
apart the land as a Waqfmd declare (its produce or income) to 
be sadaqah (charity)." Sayyidina Umar 4^>, thereupon, 
dedicated it as a Waqf (and) charity in the path of Allah, (as the 
Prophet 111 had advised), and laid down that the land was never • 
to be sold, nor given away as a gift, nor would inheritance ever 
open from it and that its income should be spent in the way of 
God, on the poor, the destitute and the kinsmen, and on buying 
freedom for the captives, and in connection with Jihad, and in 
the service of the guests and the wayfarers. And whoever was 
appointed its trustee or administrator, it would be lawful for him 
to eat of it himself and feed others, within proper limits, 
provided that he did not hoard wealth and get rich by means of 
it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This saying of the Holy Prophet !im contains a 
fundamental definition of Waqf and indicates its basic principles. 
The conquest of Khyber took place in 7 A.H,. Its land, on the 
whole, was most fertile, After victory, the captured land was 
distributed among the Muslim warriors taking part in the 
campaign, as provided by the Shariah. The plot of the land was 
allotted to Sayyidina Umar <4fe> was in his view the most valuable 
property he possessed, and since it was set forth in the Qur'an: 

You cannot attain virtue unless you expend of that which you 
love (AaI-e-Imran3:92) 

He thought that as it was his most precious possession, his 
endeavour ought to be to gain the countenance of the Lord by 
spending it in His path, but could not decide what was the best way 
of doing so. He, therefore, approached the Messenger of Allah Hi 
for advice who suggested it to him to dedicate the land as a Waqf 
so that it continued unchanged as charity. Sayyidina Umar 4^, 
thus, made a Waqf of it, and also determined the items on which its 
produce or income was to be spent. These items were virtually 
indentical to what had been laid down in the Qur'an. 1 

The Tradition, in the end tells that the person who held the 

O. Surah Tavvba 60. 



Book o f A ffairs 



137 



property in trust and administered it should not take anything from 
it to add to his wealth. He could, however, utilise it within due 
limits for his own sustenance and the sustenance of his family, and 
for entertaining the guests. It would be lawful. 

C-JU ^\ 4ttl J j~>j b Ci3 o^LP j> Jju* ( \ A \ of \ • A) 

(1815/108) It is narrated by Sa'd ibn Ubadah 4k "1 went to the 
Messenger of Allah ^ and said to him that my mother had 
died. (I wanted to give something as charity on her behalf). So, 
what charity would be the best and most rewarding for her? The 
Messenger of Allah £§1 replied: "Water. (Dig a well and 
dedicate it for public use so that everyone can profit by its 
water).' I, consequently, built a well and declared that it was for 
my mother, Umm Sa'd. (The divine reward on it may keeep on 
reaching her)." (Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: In some other versions of the same Tradition it is 
stated that Sa'd ibn Ubadah 4fe was in a journey when his mother 
died. On his return, he reported himself to the Holy Prophet and 
said that his mother had died during his absence. He felt that if he 
ws present at that time, she would have made a will regarding 
charity etc., which could be of advantage to her in After-life. Thus 
Prophet £§l advised him to dig a well. Sa'd ibn Ubadah 4fe>, thus, 
had a well dug at a suitable place and dedicated it to his mother's 
name for perpetual Divine reward. 

The dedication of an orchard, too, is mentioned in some 
narratives. It is possible that the well was dug in the orchard. 

It was the the second instance of a Waqf being created during 
the life-time of the Holy Prophet ill, on his advice. 

It further shows the soundness and validity of performing a 
virtuous deed on behalf of a deceased person and gifting the Divine 
reward on it to him. The technical term for it is tsaal-i-Sawaah, 
upon which there is an a agreement in principle, among the Jurists 
of Ahl-i-Sunnah.^ 



O. People of the Sunnah and t he way of the Companions 



138 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

Two Waqfs Created by Sayyidina Uthman 4^ 

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(1816/109) Thumamah ibn Hasan Qusairi narrated (Taba'ee) "I 
was present near the house of Uthman 4fe (when the army of 
the rebels had laid seige to it). Uthman looked at the crowed 
from the top of his house, and said: 'I ask you in the name of 
Allah and Islam, whether you know it (or not) that when the 
Messenger of Allah £§|f came to Madinah there was no well of 
sweet water here except Bir Roma (which was owned by 
someone). The Messenger of Allah III, thereupon, said: 'Is there 
anyone who could buy Bir Roma and dedicate it as a Waqf, for 
the common Muslims so that all the Muslims could freely draw 
the water from it?" I then bought the well with my money and 
made a Waqf of it in favour of the Muslims, as a whole, and 
today you are not allowing me to drink its water and forcing me 
to drink brackish water like that of the sea. The people replied: 



Book of Affairs 



139 



'Yes, O God, we are aware of it.' Sayyidina Uthman 4fe, after it 
said: 'I ask you in the name of Allah and Islam, do you know (or 
not) that when Masjid-i-Nabawi 1 had become too small for the 
devotees the Messenger of Allah is§l had said: 'Is there anyone 
who could buy the land of such-and-such family (that lay 
ajacent to the mosque) and attach it to the Mosuqe, and the Lord 
gave him a better reward, in return for it in Paradise?' I had 
bought the land with my own money (and attached it to the 
Mosque), and today you are preventing me from offering two 
Rak'ats of salah in it?' 'Yes, O God, we are aware of it, the 
people replied. After it Sayyidina Uthman 4fe> said: "Do you 
know that, (at the exhortation of the Messenger of Allah ^), I 
had provided (all) the equipment for the army raised for the 
Battle of Tabouk with my money?' Yes, O God, we are aware of 
it,' the people replied. After it, Sayyidina Uthman 4fe> said: "1 
ask you, in the name of Allah and Islam, do you know that once 
when the Messenger of Allah was on Mount Thabayr in 
Makkah, Abu Bakr 4^>, and Umar 4fe and myself, were with 
him, the mountain had begun to shake till some of the rocks had 
fallen down. The Prophet life had, then, struck the mountain 
with his blessed foot, and said: "O Thubayr! Be still, there is a 
Divine Prophet Hfe on you, and a true and sincere friend and two 
martyrs?' The people, again, replied, 'Yes, O God, we are aware 
of it.' Sayyidina Uthman thereupon, said: 'Allah-u-Akbar\ 
By the Lord of Kaba! These people, also testify that I am a 
martyr,' Sayyidina Uthman 4|b said it thrice." (Tirmizi and Nasui) 

Commentary: In the Tradition two Waqfs are mentioned which 
Sayyidina Uthman had created on the advice of the Holy Prophet 
iH (i) The Waqf of Bir Roma which, perhaps was the first Waqf in 
Islam as it had been created on the Migration of the Holy Prophet 
iH to Madinah. It is not possible to think of any Waqf in Makkah 
before it. (ii) The Waqf of the land Sayyidina Uthman had bought 
and given for the extension of the Prophet's Mosque. 

The above Tradition, ostensibly, appertains to the moral 
excellence of Sayyidina Uthman and in most of the compilations 
But since it tells of the two Waqfs Sayyidina Uthman 4^ had 
created at the wish and on the advice of the Holy Prophet HI, it 
seemed advisable to include it in this chapter. 

O. The mosque of the Holy Prophet in Madinah. 



140 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



It contains a great lesson for the Ummah. The people, in those 
days, were generally aware of the deeds and virtues of Sayyidina 
Uthman and the tidings the Holy Prophet Hi had given about 
him, and these things were so widely known that no one could 
deny them. Yet, in spite of all that, the henchmen of the Devil 
killed him in a most brutal manner, and, since then, the Ummah has 
been paying the penalty in the form of unending discord and 
conflict. 



\ WILL 

Will (Wasiyat), also forms part of monetary affairs. Through it 
a man who owns some property declares that such a part of it shall 
be spent on such a religious charitable purpose or go to such a 
person after his death. A Will of this kind commands a legal 
position in the Shariah, and precise rules and regualtions have been 
laid down for it some of which are indicated in the Traditions we 
are going to discuss below. Tor details the reader is reffered to the 
books of Islamic Jurisprudence. 

If a Will is made in the way of God and with the intention of 
gaining the reward of the Hereafter, it is a kind of Sadaqah 
(charity), and the SharVah has commended it. Moreover, in case 
anything is placed in trust with a person or he is in debt or there is 
anyone's claim on him of any sort, it is necessary for him to make a 
Will regarding its return, restoration or settlement. 

A Will should, further, be written down and kept safe. 

Now, to take up a few Traditions. 

A Religous Obligation 

(1817/110) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar 4fc> that the 
Messenger of Allah iSl said: "It is not proper for a Muslim who 
has anything (like land, goods, money, trust or debt) about 
which a Will ought to be made that he allows two nights to pass 
in the condition that its deed has not ben prepared and is not 
with him." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: What it stresses is that one should not put off the 



142 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



preparation of a regular Will thinking what was there to hurry 
about and he would have it done before dying. A Muslim should 
always imagine that death was near and have his Will ready. Even 
two days should not be allowed to pass without it. 

The purport of the above Tradition is that no one should delay 
or procrastinate in this matter. Who can be sure when death will 
strike? 

Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar's 4fe srevant, Nafey, who is the 
narrator of this Tradition, on the authority of his master, says that 
after relating it, Abdullah ibn Umar 4^> added that from the time he 
had heard it from the Prophet iH, he did not let a day pass without 
the Will being with him. 

(1818/1 1 1) It is narrated by Jabir that the Messenger of 

Allah iil said: "Whoever died in the state of Wasiyat, i.e., in the 

state that he had made the Will concerning his property and 

other affairs as he ought to have, and in accordance with the 

Shariah, he died on the right path, in the observance of the 

commandments of the Shariah, and his death will be the death 

of piety and martyrdom, and he will be forgiven (his sins)." 

(Ibn Majah) 

Claim ofThe Heirs Should Not Be Disregarded 

1 S f s y 

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t y y y i. H » /. / ****** y | . C * * v y * * * > * » * i %t * y * y *** 

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✓ y y y y y y * .6 . y . lb m ** , yX y 

^ 'tX&s £ Ju $1 ^Jj\ ^ dish ) dJsJi J15 ?dJsJl5 cJS '*i 

■*•<"■ y **y* * * & . * & <**' *** » ** . *• « 

✓ „N ^ . "t . .* ** 6 * y£ <Z> \*y (Z y 

+ y "* « ** y ** i' y y' s y y \ ' ' ^ & ' % s J "* y"* ' y"* y y 



Book of Affairs 



143 



(1819/112) Sa'd ibn Waqqas narrated that "(once) I (fell 

seriously ill) in Makkah and the Messenger of Allah &§l came to 

visit me. I thought it was very bad for me to die on the soil of 

Makkah from which I had migrated (and which I had left for 

good for the sake of God). The Messenger of Allah iHk then 

said (by way of prayer and consolation): 'May Allah have mercy 

upon Arfa'a's son'. (Afra'a was the name or title of Sa'd ibn 

Waqqas' mother). I asked him: 'Sir, what do you say: May 1 

bequeath all my property (for the sake of God (and) (to religous 

and charitable uses?' 'No,' the Prophet ^ replied. '(Don't do it).' 

'Then, the half of it?' I asked. 'No.' the Prophet S replied. '(Not 

even that)'. 'Then, one thrid?' I asked. 'Yes', the Prophet 

replied. 'You may leave one-third of it, by Will, for such 

purposes, and even one-third is much.' (After it), the Prophet W> 

observed: 'It is better for you to leave behind your heirs in good 

(financial) condition that in poverty so that they have to stretch 

their hands before others. (Moreover), whatevr you spend (for 

the sake of God and with the intention of earning the Divine 

reward) it will be Sadaqa (charity) on your part (even if it is 

spent on relatives and heirs), so much so that the morsel of food 

you put with your hand in your wife's mouth (will be charity in 

the judgement of God.' (In the end), the Prophet ill observed: 'It 

is hoped that the Lord will grant you recovery, and raise you to 

a high position in future, and then many people will be 

benefitted by you and many will be harmed." The narrator 

(Aamir ibn Sa'd) who narrated it, on the authority of his father, 

Sa'd ibn Waqqas 4&b, added that "at the time of this incident, 

Sayyidina Sa'd 4^ had only one daughter, (and no other child)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Waqqas 4^ had accompanied 
the Holy Prophet W> on the Farewell Hajj, and he fell ill in Makkah 
and his condition became so grave that, according to some reports, 
he felt he had reached the edge of the grave. Since he was a 
Mahajir, he did not like the idea of dying and being buried on the 
soil of Makkah which he had abandoned forever in the way of 
Allah. As the Holy Prophet iH came to visit him and learnt of his 
anxiety, he comforted him and prayed for him, saying, "May Allah 
have Mercy on Arfa'a's son." Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Waqqas 4^£> who 
was among the well-to-do Companions thereupon, enquired 



144 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



from the Messenger of Allah ^ about making his Will. (In some 
other accounts of the above Tradition it is stated that Sa'd ibn 
Waqqas 4& said to the Messenger of Allah SH: "The Lord has 
bestowed much wealth upon me and I have only one daughter. I 
think tht for the betterment of my prospects in After-life I bequeath 
all of my property to sacred and charitable uses." But the Holy 
Prophet Hi did not allow it. He did not allow him even to leave 
half of his possessions to such purposes. It was only one-third that 
the Holy Prophet Hi said he could declare for them, and added that 
even that was much. 

The Holy Prophet Hi, further explained to him that to spend on 
one's relatives and leave behind one's wealth to one's heirs too, was 
charity in the sight of God provided that it was with the intention 
of earning High countenance and the reward of the Hereafter is 
distinctly stated in some ersions of the above narrative. To bring 
home the point, the Prophet Hi remarked that even to put a morsel 
of food in the mouth of one's wife with one's hand, with that 
intention, was a virtuous act, meriting reward in life to come, 
although there was also an element of sensual pleasure in it. 

The Prophet's Hi observation that "it is hoped God will raise 
you to a high position in future, and then many people will be 
benefitted by you, and many will be harmed" contained a 
prediction about Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Waqqas 4& which no one 
could visualise at that time. What the Prophet Hm meant was that 
the Lord had yet to take much work from Sayyidina Sa'd He 
would, Insha Allah, get well and come to such power and 
eminence that the destinies of innumerable men would be made 
and unmade through him. The Holy Prophet Hi had said it at a 
time when Sayyidina Sa'd was hovering on the brink of death, 
and so marvellously was the prophecy fulfilled that the latter lived 
for about half a century after it, and attained to such heights that 
most of the territories of Persia were conquered and brought under 
the sway of Islam under his generalship, and millions of men came 
to be blessed with the wealth of Faith. He, then also served as the 
Governer of Iraq, and died in 55 A.H., and according to a report, in 
58 A. H. 

From this Tradition we again learn that it is not proper and 



Book of Affairs 



145 



lawful for anyone leaving behind heirs and successors to bequeath 
more than one-third of his property in the way of God and for pious 
uses. A consensus is found among the Jurists of the Ummah on this 
point. But in one's own lifetime one can spend as much on such 
acts and purposes as one likes. The condition of one-third applies 
only to the Will a person makes about the division of his assets 
after his death. 

A WillCannot Be Made In Respect of An Heir 

iL*j *j & & jpi jr ^kPi'Ai l\ ^ j\ ^ 4s££ ^ 

(1820/1 13) Abu Umamah 4fe narrated that "I heard the 
Messenger of Allah III delivering a sermon during the year of 
the Farewell Haj. In the course of it, he said: "The Lord has, (in 
His Holy Book), determined the share of everyone having a 
lawful claim (among the heirs). So, it is not allowable now to 
make a Will in respect of an heir." (Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: When, after the Migration, commandments relating 
to social and collective spheres of life began to be revealed, it was 
prescribed in the first place through the following verse of Surah 
Al-Baqarah that whoever owned some property should bequeath it, 
before his death, to his parents and other relatives: 

It is prescribed for you when death approaches any one of you 
and if he leaves behind some wealth, to make a bequest to 
parents and near kindreds in an equitable way; (Al Baqarah2:180) 

Sometimes later, a complete law of inehritance was revealed in 
Surah-cm-Nissa, which repealed the earlier command of Wasiyat 
(Will), at least in respect of legal heirs. Moreover, while the 
Messenger of Allah ill announced many other essential rules and 
principles in the semon of the Farewell Haj he also declared that 
since by sending down the law of inheritance, the Lord had 
determined the share of all those who were legally entitled to 
inherit, no Will should, after it, be made in respect of an heir. It is 



146 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



this commandment that Sayyidina Umamah 4#b has spoken of and 
in Mishkaatid Masabih, after quoting the above Tradition from 
Sunan-i-Abu Dawood and Ibn-i-Majah, it is added that "in Dar 
Qutni it is related that the Messenger of Allah said: "Now, a 
Will is not (valid) and lawful in respect of an heir except that the 
other heirs wish it and are agreeable to it." Or, in oehr words, if the 
heirs of a person were agreed that he left his possessions by Will to 
an heir, in excess of his lawful share, and they had no objection to 
it, the Will would have the force of law provided that the other 
heirs were major and of a sound mind. 

Punishment of Hell For Those Who Are 
Un j ust to Rightful Heirs in Their Will 

i*V\. 9.*-\S«r 7 \ S 3 * . | * J . L33S3SHS3S3 3.3S . 

ck> 0! ^ J^> J>«o 0 A U / \ \ 1) 

s m s 3 „ > , % f s Hi \ s >i 9 > S 

(1821/1 14) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah that the 

Messenger of Allah Wt said: "Sometimes, it is so that a person 

leads a life of obedience to God for sixty years, and then as the 

time of his death approaches, he acts unjustly towards his 

rightful hieirs in his Will, (and), in consequence of it, Hell 

becomes inevitable for him." 

(Musnad Ahamd, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Occasionally a person has legal heirs who are 
entitled by the Shariah, to inherit the property left by him after his 
death, but owing to one reason or another he makes his Will in 
favour of an outsider or for a particular use, with the object of 
depriving the heirs of their justful calim or takes some other steps 
of a like nature. According to this Tradition, it is such a grave sin 
that life-long devotion and obedience comes to nothing as a result 
of it, and he Divine Chastisement. 

As we have seen earlier, in Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqa's 
narrative, a person is permitted to bequeath his possessions to the 
extent of one-third to pious and charitable uses, provided, of 
course, that his inention is pure and free from vindictiveness. 



LEGAL ADMINISTRATION 



Judiciary is an important branch of government, and serves an 
essential need of a civilized society. The holy Prophet $1? has 
furnished a complete guidance in respect of it as well. 

There was no judicail system as long as the Prophet 
remained in Makkah, but after he alongwith his Companions 4k 
had migrated to Madinah, and the Muslims had begun to live as a 
community, an order was set up for dispensing and administration 
of justice, in an elementry form. The Messenger of Allah ^jfe 
himself was the judge and arbiter, in addition to being the Divine 
Mesenger HHjfe. Disputes were brought to him and he decided them, 
and awarded punishment to the guilty in accordance with the Holy 
law. The following verses are addressed to him directly in the 
Qur'an: 

And judge (O Prophet) between them according to what Allah 
has revealed. (Al Ma'idah 5:49) 

Surely, We have revealed the Book to you (O Prophet) with 
truth so that you may judge between people by means of what 
Allah has shown you. (Ai Nisaa4:105) 

The Holy Prophet III, thus, himself decided the cases between 
Muslims. From some reorts it appears that Sayyidina Umar 4fe>- 
too, used to hear and decide cases, in the Prophet's Hi lifetime in 
Madinah at his command. Later also sent Sayyidina Ali and 
Sayyidina Mu'ad u^p^i^j there to act as judges. The Holy 
Prophet 111 strictly enjoined on those who were charged with the 



148 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



duty of dispensing justice to perform it to the best of their ability, 
and acquit themselves with honesty and fairness, and fearing of 
God. He gave the tidings of Divine help and guidance and an 
immense reward in the Hereafter to the bondmen who strove 
earnestlty to observe these instruction, and also make a mistake in 
the interpretation or application of law, they would not be called to 
account for it, but rewarded for good faith and eagerness. 

As against it, the Prophet ill administrered a severe warning of 
Divine wrath and punishment to bad and unfair rulers and judges 
and also laid down that only such men were to be appointed to 
such a position who were not solicitious of it. 

Just And Un j ust Rulers And Judges 

S S 0 s 

(1822/1 15) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Amr 4® that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "The bondsmen (among the rulers, 
judges and other officers of the Government) who exercise their 
authority with fairness and justice will in the Herefter be on the 
pulpits of light, (and) on the right-hand side of God — and both 
of His hands are rith hands — and these will be the men who 
are just and honest in thier decisons, and in the exercise of their 
powers with regard to afairs and concrns of the members of 
thier families and other persons associated with them." 

Commentary: In this, the great good tiding is given to rulers, 
judges ect, who take due care to be honest and impartial in their 
acts and judgments that in the Hereafter they will be treated with 
unique honour and ceremoney, and seated on puplits of light, on 
the right-hand side of the Almighty. 

One can be misled into believing from the above Tradition that 
just as we have a right hand and a left hand, and the left hand is 
inferior to the right, the other hand of the Lord, too, will be the left 
one. The Prophet iH, therefore, has made it clear that both the 
hands of God are right hands. He has no left hand. 

It further goes to show that the words, Yameen (right) abd Yadd 



Book of Affairs 



149 



(hand), used in this and some other Traditions, and Qur'anic verses, 
with relation to God, do not denote hands like ours. As it has been 
set forth candidly in the Qur'an: 

"There is nothing whosoever like unto Him." (Al Shurah 43:1 1) 

As for what do words like Yadd, then, signify in that context, 
prudence lies in the acceptance and affirmation of the way and rule 
of conduct of the earlier Jurists seeing that we by our very nature 
are incapable of comprehending the essential meaning and reality 
of the Being and Attributes of the Lord. 

The tidings contained at the end of the above Tradition are for 
the just and upright bondsmen who are honest and impartial in 
their judicail decisions as well as attitude towards the members of 
their families and other persons connected to them in realtionship, 
social affairs, business etc., and conduct themselves in a like 
manner if they happen to be the guardians of anyone or trustees of 
some property or institution. 

It shows that the commandment of justice and uprightness and 
the reward promised on it does not relate merely to rulers and 
judges, but to everyone in his own sphere of activity. 

l\ JU Al J^j JlS Jli^^l^ OAYYVm) 

h\3 }^\ & pfc^j 9^4 S f>l Ai J\ 4*^ 

(L $jL. yi\ at jj) .jl? f Ui dilp ^iiij lZJoi\ ^ jj Al J\ ^Ui 

(1823/1 16) It is narrated by Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "The most beloved of men in thde 
sight of God, on the Da> of Resurrection, and the nearest to 
Him will be the just rulers, and the most hateful of men in the 
sight of God, on the Day of Resurrection, and farthest removed 
from Him will be the unjust and tyrannical rulers." (Tirmizi) 

dp Al jU> At Jli Jli Jj\ ^ y Allp ^ ( ^ A T 1/ U Y) 

. jikisJi JUjj j & Jl*j juf iSii ^ jjiti ^ Ai ji ^3 

(1824/1 17) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa that the 



150 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



Messenger of Allah said: "God is with the judge, i.e., His 
help and guidance is reaching him as long as he is just and fair, 
and when he (departs from the path of justice and fairness) and 
becomes unjust and tyrannical, he Lord leaves man alone and 
the Devil attaches himself to him." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It tells that as long as a judge or ruler honestly 
desires to act justly and imparatially, the help and guidance of the 
Lord is available to him, but when his intention is changed and he 
adopts the course of injustice and tyranny, the Lord withholds His 
help, and he becomes a of the Devil. 

Honest Error of Judgement 

" * ' 

S H 3 ^ & ol^U JL^ll ^ \l\ faj %\ 

(1825/118) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas 4&> 
and Abu Hurayrah 4^>, they both relate, saying that the 
Messenger of Allah iH said: "When a ruler has to decide a case, 
and, (in order to decide justly and correctly), he exerts himself 
and applies his mind, and decides correctly, he will get a double 
reward: (one of the intention and effort to decide justly, and the 
other for giving a fair and correct decision), and when he tries 
sincerely to get to the truth of the matter and decides correctly, 
and yet gives a wrong decision, he will get one reward (for 
endeavouring to arrive at a just and correct decision)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Of primary importance in this Tradition, in the 
principle that if a judge, Jurist or ruler tries his level best to find 
out where the turth of the matter lies and what is the correrct legal 
position with regard to it, and even then fails to decide properly, he 
will still be deserving of reward in the judgement of God, for his 
intention was pure and he really wanted to decide with justice 
anyone can after all do. But, clearly it appertains only to people 
who are worthy of it, and the permission of Ijthead can evidently 
not be given to everyone irrespective of the qualifications. 

As it is distinctly stated in the next Tradition, anyone who 



Book of Affairs 



151 



proceeds to judge between people and give decisions without 
necessary knowledge and ability will go to Hell. 

Rulers And Judges Who 
Deserve Heaven And Hell 

j^Ji jJr'J J> ^ill iTli jllll ^ j ^"^J ^ 

cr^ ckjJ ^ 15? J«* is! J 1 ^ 3 J^ 1 ^-V tk>J *< er^ 

(1826/1 19) It is narrated by Baridah 4& that the Holy Prophet 
^ said, There are three classes of Judges. One of them is for 
Heaven and two for Hell. The Judge who understood the truth 
and pronounced his Judgement accordingly deserves Heaven. 
The one who did understand the truth but gave adverse 
Judgement, he deserves Hell. Likewise the Judge who is not 

capable but enforces his judgement also deserves Hell. 

(Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 



To Bribe and To Accept Bribe Is a Curse 

There are people who hire the Judges in Their Judgements 
through bribes. The Holy Prophet ^ has denounced both the giver 
and the recepient of bribe. 

i 0 i % / s s \ 

&\ Jj? Jjt JlS j^-U J> &\ xs> ^ (UYVM Y •) 

3 ' ) % ' 3 6 ' s s 

( 5 jo* if) 01 j j j ^ u oih*}^^ 61 j j) ts^yA 1 J 1 J 

(1 827/120) It is narrated by Adullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas ^> that 
the Messenger of Allah l§l cursed (both) the giver and the taker 
of bribes." (Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

(Tirmizi has quoted it, also, on the authority of Sayyidina Abu 
Hurayrah <*^>, in addition of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr *$b). 

Commentary: The imprecation of anyone by God or His 
Messenger is an expression of extreme displeasure, and a most 
severe punishment. Condemnation by God shows that He has 
decided to deprive the wrong-doer of His benevolence while by the 
Prophet or Angel is in the nature of a prayer against him that he 



152 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



may be excluded from Divine mercy. The Tradition would, thus 
mean that the Messenger of Allah iH has indicated an excessive 
dislike for those who give or recieve bribes and invoke the wrath of 
God against them. 

In some accounts of the same narative, it is stated that apart 
from the giving and taking of bribe, the holy Prophet $H also, 
condemned the tout who acted as a middle-man between the two. 

To Be A Ruler or Judge is A Severe Test 

(1828/121) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the 
Messenger of Allah iH> said: "Whoever was appointed a judge 
to decide the disputes between men was stabbed without a 
knife." (Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: A person who is stabbed with a knife will die in a 
few minutes while if an attempt is made to stab anyone without a 
knife, it will naturally prolong the agony. The substance of this 
Traidtion is that to function as judge is to put oneself to a severe 
trial, and whoever accepts the offer should know that he wears a 
crown of throns. 

(1829/122) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah that the 
Messenger of Allah iaH said: M A time will come when you will 
covet public offices, and it will be the cause of regret and 
repentance in the Hereafter. Very pleasing looks power and rule 
which takes one in the arms and suckles, and very displeasing 
does it look when it ceases to nurse from the breast." 

Commentary: It had been revealed to the Prophet iH that in time 
to come his followers will become greedy of the loaves and fishes 
of office and in this Tradition, he has warned that they will be 
grieved on the Day of Judgement. 



Book of Affairs I 53 

It, further tells that when a person comes in power and 
authority it looks very nice and agreeable to him. as the nurse looks 
to the child who suckles it, and when he is divested of it owing to 
one reason or another it looks awfully bad, as the nurse looks to the 
child who stops feeding it from the breast and accustoms it to take 
nourishment otherwise than by nursing. 

The moral is that seekers of power should not be unmindful of 
the sequel of the Hereafter. On the Day of Reckoning they will 
have to render a full account regarding the rights of countless of 
men over whom they ruled or exercised authority in one form of 
the other. 

An effect of saying like these of the holy Prophet Hi was that 
the Companions 4fe> preferred to keep away from public offices. As 
Tirmizi tells, during his Caliphate, Sayyidina Usman 4fe wanted to 
appoint Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe a judge, but the later 
declined. 

Divine Help And Guidance is Withheld 
From The Seekers of Power 

613 01 ^3 & ^ b\ ^ 'ipi* * <&» J & 

(1830/123) Abdul Rahman ibn Samurah 4fe narrated to us, 
saying that the Messenger of Allah iH? said to him: "Do not ask 
for a public position for if it is given to you at your request (or 
solicitation), you will be turned over to it, i.e., left to discharge 
the responsibility without help and guidance from the Lord, 
while if it is given to you without asking, you will be helped by 
God." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

^I^JLj *0S>%\ JU &\ Jj-V> JlS J IS jJl (\AY\/\V t) 

(1831/124) It is narrated by Anas 4^ that the Messenger of 
Allah 111 said: "Whoever, will be desirous of the office of a 



154 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



judge and obtain it through soclicitation will be handed over to 

himself. (He will be left to discharge his responsibilites on his 

own which is most difficult and dangerous). And whoever will 

be persuaded to accept the office, (against his desire). God will 

appoint a special Angel for his guidance." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Davvood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The sum and substance of both the Traditions is 
that one should not covet public offices and positions. Anyone who 
will do so, will not be favoured with Divine help and guidance in 
the discharge of his duties. On the contrary, a person who is 
entrusted with power or responsibility without a request or effort 
on his part, and accepts it. putting his trust in God, it is the promise 
of the Lord that His support and guidance will be made available to 
him. 

Some Guidelines For The Judges 

s > s s s y ' 

^Jf^j UJ 4JAI Jj^j JjMj <3*J ^ JliAJl Jlij OjJLi? ^Ip -iJLij 

(1832/125) It is narrated by Mu'az ibn Jabal that when the 
Mcssermer of Allah Wk sent him out as the Governer of Yemen, 
he asked him how he would decide matters coming up before 
him." 1 will decide matters according to the Book of God, (the 
Qur'an)," replied Mu'az "What will you do if the Book of 
God contains nothing to guide you?" the Prophet W? asked, 
Then,' said Mu'az, "I will act on the precedents of the 
Messenger of Allah W> (the Sunnah)." And if the precedents 
also fail, what will you do?" asked the Prophet ja§l. "I will, then, 
do IjtheacL i.e., exert to form my own judgement, and spare no 
effort to arrive at a correct decision/ Mua'z <$$k> replied. On 
hearing the reply, the Prophet life patted Mu'az 4fe and said: 
"Praised be the Lord who granted wisdom to the envoy (or 
agent) of the Messenger of Allah that is pleasing to the 



Book of Affairs 



155 



Messenger 




(Tirmizi Abu Dawood and Daarami) 



Commentary: Sayyidina Mu'az ibn Jabal 4fe> was one of the 
Companions who were distinguished for their knowledge of the 
Quran and the Sunnah and possessed a deep understanding of 
Faith. He was appointed the Governor of Yemen by the holy 
Prophet Hi. Owing to the education Sayyidina Mu'az 4fe had 
recieved at the hands of the Prophet and as a result of the close 
observation of his ways and practices, he had learnt and sought 
from the Qur'an, and, if it was not found in it, recourse should be 
taken to the practice of the Prophet iH, and if it, too. did not help, 
one should try to form one's own judgement in the light of the 
Qur'an and Sunnah. Thus, when Sayyidina Mu'az 4fe was going to 
Yemen to take charge as the Governor, the holy Prophet ill asked 
him, by way of a test, on what basis would he govern and decide 
matters that would come up before him. The reply Sayyidina Mu'az 
4fe gave has been seen in the above Tradition. 

The main significance of this Tradition lies in the fact that it 
provides the clearest and most explicit foundation of the principle 
of Ijlhead, and the Jurists of all ages, have sought guidance from it, 
and decided thousands of legal questions on the basis of it, 
regarding which no precise directions were available in the Qur'an 
and the Sunnah. 

It may be noted that the documentary evidence of the 



transmission of this Tradition is not firm, but weak, according to 
the canons laid down by the authorities, yet the Muslim jurists have 
unanimously accepted it as reliable, and the institution of Ijlhead 
in Islam is founded upon it. As scholars like Ibn Qaiyyim have 
remarked, it would be futile to look for a further proof of its 
authenticity after the Jurists had accepted it as true and reliabe. 

It also denotes that Ijlhead on a legal matter is called for only 
when no clear guidance is available in the Qur'an and the Sunnah. 



Messenger of Allah a@l said that "both the parties in a case 




(1833/126) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Zubair 4fe that the 




156 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



should sit in front of the judge. "(Musnad Ahmad and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that both the parties in a law-suit, the 
plaintif and the defendant, ought to be treated equally by the Court, 
and no preferential treatment shown to anyone, whatever the 
consideration. The seating arrangement for them should, also, be 
the same. 

tit j&ij $*%\ it Sr>] Ji5 Ji5 ^ ( ur 1/ u Y) 



(1834/127) Sayyidina Ali 4pb narrated to us, saying that the 
Messenger of Allah iaH said to him: "When two persons come to 
you (with a dispute) for decision, do not pronounce the 
judgement on hearing the first party alone, until you have also 
heard the statement of the other party. If you act accordingly, 
you will know and understand how and what you are going to 
decide." Ali 4fe added that "since then 1 have always been 
acting as a judge." (Tirmizi) 

Commentray: The bove narative of Sayyidina Ali has, also, 
been reproduced in Sunan Abu Dawood and Ihn Majah, and, in 
these versions of it, it is stated that when the holy Prophet iH 
decided to send Sayyidina Ali to Yemen as the judge, the later 
submitted that he was young in years and had no experinece of 
hearing and deciding cases. The Prophet i® thereupon, assured 
him that the Lord would help him in the discharge of his 
responsibilities and cause him to decide justly. He, further, advised 
him not to form an opinion until he had heard both the sides in a 
dispute. 

What the holy Prophet iH had said about Sayyidina Ali 4fe in 
this Tradition manifested in itself the manner that the latter was 
prominent among the Companions in the decision of disputes 
and his judgements were believed to be the last word. 

aIIp At JJp At Sj^J CjuJj J 13 5j£> ^t (\\Tof\ Y A) 







Book of Affairs 



157 



(1835/128) It is narrated by Abu Bakrah 4p> that the Messenger 
of Allah ill said: "No judge should give his decision (in a 
matter) when he is in a state of anger." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: A man is not in a proper frame of mind when he is 
angry, and that is why, the holy Prophet £§l has told the judges to 
avoid deciding cases when they are enraged. It requires a cool and 
balanced mind to hear and decide as a judge. 

Evidence is Essential For A Claim 

If a person files a suit against anyone, however trustworthy, 
virtuous or distinguished he may be, the case cannot be decided in 
his favour simply on the basis of his claim. In the Islamic law, a 
plaint or charge must be supported by proof of required standard. If 
the plaintiff fails to produce adequate evidence, and the defendant 
denies the charge, the latter must declare on oath that the complaint 
is false and, in case he declines to take such an oath, the complaint 
will be regarded to be founded on truth, and the case will be 
decreed against him, and if he declares on oath that the complaint 
is untrue, the suit will be decided in his favour. 

J* J^J J** * (^J^W J^ 1 

(1836/129) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4fe that the 

Messenger of Allah ill said: "If judgement is given in favour of 

persons simply on the basis of complaint, they will begin to sue 

others (freely), and make all sorts of charges (against them), in 

respect of life and property. But no case can be decided in 

anyone's favour (simply on his complaint). (Evidence will have 

to be produced, and, in case it is not forthcoming), the 

defendant will be called upon to deny the charge on oath." 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: That the plaintiff will be required to produce 
evidence is not mentioned in Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas's 4& 
narrative appearing in Sahih Muslim, but Imam Nawavi, in his 
Tradition, with authentic evidence of transmission, and it includes 



158 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Par! VII 



the provision. Imam Nawavi's remark has also been reproduced in 
Mishkaat, alongwith Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas's 4fe narrative. 
It is for this reason that we have added the passage under review 
with in brackets in the translation of this Tradition. 

Traditions bearing the same import have been related y a 
number of other Companions 4& as well. 

m J^j a* J &*i ^ ji V» o Ar ya r . ) 

cJU> IcZ v_>Ji jLSa ILij ajIp 4it l J^» as* uii j>3&J?i jp'j 

iii jjTii 4^1; uU^J iSi Jji j^j u; dii ja^-i jis v 

(1837/130) Ash'ath ibn Qays narrated to us, saying that "a (plot 
of) land was jointly owned by me and a Jew, The Jew 
repudiated my claim (and became the sole owner). 1 took the 
Jew to the Messenger of Allah (and presented my case 
before him). The Messenger of Allah lH asked me if I had any 
evidence, (a witness etc.,) to support my claim to which I 
replied in the negative. He, thereupon, told the Jew that (if he 
did not admit my claim), he should declare on oath that the land 
belonged solely to him and I had no share in its ownership. 1 , 
(then), said to the Messenger of Allah $^ that the Jew will take 
a (false) oath and arrogate my property. Upon it, the following 
verse (of the Qur'an) was revealed: 

j $ %ti ila ^uft Aujif £ifi & 

Surely those who barter Allah's Government and their oaths, for 
a small price — there shall be no share for them in the 
Hereafter; and Allah shall not speak to them, nor shall He look 
on them on the Day of Resurrection, nor shall He purify them 
and for them is a painful Chastisement. (Aal-e-Imran3:77) 

(Abu Davvood and Ibn Majah) 



Book of Affairs 



159 



Commentary: It tells that even if in a law-suit the plaintiff is a 
Muslim and the defendant a non-Muslim, the same law will apply, 
and in case of plaintiffs failing to produce evidence in support of 
his claim, the denial, on oath of the defendant will hold good. If the 
defendant has, really, been dishonest and taken a false oath, his 
affair rests with God, and a dreadful penalty awaits him in the 
Hereafter. 



cj r rtw&b*) ^ j*J?'j j*0*™/^) 

> j^j jul jikia JsaiS <fi & 33 j4 jil ^ ^ £;;>; 



(1838/131) Alqama ibn Wa'il narrated, on the authority of 
his father, that a citizen of Hadrmaut and another person 
belonging to the tribe of Kinda, brought up their dispute before 
the Messenger of Allah iH (for decision). The Hazrami, who 
was the plaintiff, submitted that the Kindt (meaning the person 
belonging to the tribe of Kinda) had unlawfully occupied his 
land while the Kindi (who was the defendant), pleaded that the 
land, actually, belonged to him and was in his possession. The 
Prophet $§1 enquired from the Hazrami if he could produce any 
evidence in support of his claim to which he replied that he 
could not. The Prophet ill, then, told him that in that case, all 
that he could do was to take an oath from the defendant. The 
Hazrami said the defendant was a wicked person; he did not 
care for what he was swearing and would not stop at anything. 
The Prophet ill observed that (whatever it might be), (when the 
plaintiff could not produce any proof or evidence), the only 
course open to him was to take the oath from the defendant. As 
the Kindi Proceeded to take the oath, the Messenger of Allah 
(warned him), saying that if he swear a false oath in order to 



1 60 Adeeming and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

usurp the appellant's property, he will appear before God, on the 
Day of Reckoning (in such a condition that the Lord will turn 
His face away from him in anger." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It is not mentioned in the above report, as quoted in 
Sahih Muslim, whether the Kindi took the oath or not, but in 
Ash'as ibn Qais's account of the same incident, appearing in 
Sunan-i-Ahu Dawood, it is added that the defendant, at last, 
admitted that the land belonged to the plaintiff, and the Messenger 
of Allah decided the case in Hazrami's favour. 

The Ultimate Abode of Those Who Lay A 
False Claim or Swear a Flase Oath is Hell 



)| / ^ . \ S . | 3 t y y f . jl 



* ^ ( y y * y 3 6 y' y* ^ s " {" * & 

(1839/132) Abu Zarr Ghiffari narrated that the Messengr of 
Allah all said: "Whoever laid a claim to a thing that was not his 
is not from us. He will do well to make his home in Hell." 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: Can there be a more woeful punishment for anyone 
claiming to be a Muslim than that the holy Prophet Urn may say 
about him "he is not from us", and his ultimate resting-place is 
Hell? 



6 _y t >>> cZ 's X , y y y y 

3 y y i y y 3 \ y 3 | | . I y ^ a 3 3 y 



y yy y G> 3 ^ y s ^ & \' }^ ' ' j f ' £ 3 ss3s 

Jlfi3 i^Jl f ^-j jLJl U 4)1! CJ:'^ 153 <ulw jJL^ iy>\ ^ ^JaJl 

(1840/133) It is narrated by Abu Umamah 4&> that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: "Whoever appropriated the right of 
a Muslim by swearing a false oath (and acquired his property 
without right), (from a court), God made the Fire of Hell 
inevitable for him and debarred him from entering Paradise." 
On hearing it, a Companion enquired: "O Messenger of Allah 
£H ! Even if It was a minor thing?" "Yes," the Prophet &§l 
replied. "Even if it was a twig of piloo." 1 

€1. A plant that grows wild and the twigs of which are used for cleansing the teeth. 



Book of Affairs 



161 



Commentary: It shows that even if a person acquired a most 
ordinary and low-priced thing belonging to someone else by taking 
a false oath in the court, he committed such a grave sin that he will 
undergo the punishment of Hell for it. 

The words "appropriated the right of a Muslim" have been used 
in this Tradition for the simple reason that the society of Madinah 
was a Muslim society, and it were the disputes between the 
Muslims that were, generally brought before the Prophet ^ for 
decision. Otherwise, to obtaining the property of a non-Muslim by 
swearing a false oath is as much a sin as obtainin the property of a 
Muslim, a clear proof of which is available in the Qur'anic verse, 
quoted in an ealier narrtive, (No. 1590), about punishment on 
swearing a false oath. 

Even The Prophet' s Decision Cannot 
Make Anyone Else* s Property Lawful 

Someitmes, a clever litigator lays his claim on someone else's 
property and mainpulates the evidence in the truth and gets his case 
decided in his favour. But the property in dispute does not become 
lawful for such a plaintiff or defendant by the decision of the judge. 
It remains unlawful and the deceitful litigator makes his way to 
Hell. 

As the Mesenger of Allah Hi has said, he too was a mortal and 
could after all be misled by a skilful and glib-tongued person and 
give a wrong judgement, but even his judgement could not make 
an unlawful thing lawful. 

*y y y c y , y y y y ,3 * y _ y i . y * y 

& S & LS^; d O** <J U ^ if* ^ &f*^ 

(1841/134) It is narrated by Umm Salmah if* b\ that the 
Mesenger of Allah ill said: " I am a mortal and you bring your 
disputes to me (for decision). It can be that one of you is a more 
eloquent and convincing pleader (of his case) than the other, 
and, then, I am influenced by (his skill), and decide the case in 
his favour. So in that case the person in whose favour I decide 



162 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



that his brother's property belongs to him must not take 
possession of it. What I give to him (by my decision), (as a 
result of a flase oath or claim), is for him a portion of Hell (from 
the point of view of the sequel). 11 (Bukhari and Muslim) 



False Swearing is The Worst Form of Sin 

u j j&yJ* M* ^'A** jS s hth\ 

(1842/135) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Unais 4& that the 
Mesenger of Allah said: "The greatest (and most loathsome) 
of the major sins are: to associate anyone with God; to disobey 
parents; (and) to swear a false oath consciously (before a judge 
or officer). Whoever takes an oath in a court and violates it even 
to the extent of the weight of a gnat, i.e., mixes falsehood with 
it in the smallest degree, a scar is made on his heart in the 
preparation for the Day of Judgement. (The punishment of it 
will be made manifest on the Day of Resurrection)." (Tirmizi) 

jjjJi Sdl*& cJji JUS UJVS ftf Ud ^^flli 5jJU> 

(1843/136) Khuzaym ibn Fatik <^> narrated that (one day) the 
Mesenger of Allah ill offered up the morning (Fajr) prayer, and 
when he had finished it, he got up and said: 'Fake swearing has 
been made the equivalent (in significance) of Polytheism.' 
Mesenger of Allah iH said it thrice, and, then recited the 
following verse of the Qur'an: 

s s ✓ / y 

(n<r* :rr £*Jt) 

So shun the abomination of the idols, and shun the speaking of 
falsehood, being upright man of pure faith, not associating 



Book of Affairs 



163 



anything with Him. (Al Hajj 22:30,31) (Abu Dawood) 

People Whose Depositions Are Not Worthy of Trust 

p jb j-i oijj) . c43 » 8Sl$A £M Jl* 

(1844/137) Amr ibn Shu'ayb narrated to us, on the authority of 
his father, Shu'ayb, and he on he authority of his grandfather, 
Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas saying that the Mesenger of 
Allah isll said: 'The deposition of a man who is guilty of breach 
of faith, and in the same way, of a woman who is guilty of 
breach of faith is not dependable, and the deposition of an 
adulterer or adulteress is not dependable, and the deposition of a 
person who bears enmity will not be reliable against the brother 
against whom he bears enmity, and the depostion of a person 
who is dependent on a family (for his livelihood and other 
necessities of life) can not relied upon in support of its 
members." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In the first place, it speaks of men and women who 
are guilty of breach of trust and adultery that their evidence cannot 
be relied upon. The two sins have been mentioned here by way of 
an example, otherwise the basic law and principle is that the 
evidence of anyone who has committed grave and hateful sins like 
these is not reliable. The commission of such misdeeds shows that 
there is no fear of God in his heart, and hence he cannot be 
depended upon for veracity and truthfulness. The reason for the 
unreliability of the evidence of anyone against a person with whom 
he is on unfriendly terms is self-evident. Similarly, the evidence of 
anyone who is attached to a family and relies on it for support will 
not be acceptable if he deposes in its favour. Thus we can conclude 
that the evidence of persons belonging to the same family, in 
support of one another, is even more unworthy of reliance. 



SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT 



Islam, as we know, is comprehensive of all the departments of 
life, both individually and collectively. Like fundamental articles of 
faith, worship, morality, social behaviour and monetary 
transactions, it deals with government and administration as well 
and furnishes necesary guidance with regard to them. In fact, 
government forms a most important branch of it it for it exercises a 
profound influence on many other spheres of human existence also. 

When, after the Migration, a Muslim society was formed in 
Madinah, an informal type of Government, too, had come to be 
established, and the Mesenger of Allah iH, together with being the 
Mesenger of Allah iH, also, acted as its head. The Prophet m lived 
for about ten yeaers after the Migration and during it, the frontiers 
of the Islamic State expanded so steadily and quickly that the 
whole of Arabia, and even Yemen and Bahrain, were under its 
control and authority in his own lifetime. During those ten years, 
had all the functions as the head of a State, as were then 
understood, were carried out by him as the Almighty wanted him to 
perform. He did Jihad for the Victory of the Word of God and 
fought wars against the forces that were opposed to the 
establishment of the sovereignty of the Lord over His bondsmen 
and put impediments in its path, as well as made peace, set up a 
system for the realisation of Jizyah\ Khiraj 2 , and Zakat, and 
appointed governers, judges and other officers for territories 
accepting the Muslim rule, and gave instruction regarding all these 
affairs. 

The ten-year rule of the holy Prophet iH and his sayings on the 
su bject contain a full provision for the basic guidance of Muslim 

O. A supplementary tax levied on non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic State in 

exemption of military service. 
©. Meaning a tax, tribute or revenue. 



166 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



States and their rulers. The four Companions, Sayyidina Abu Bakr, 
Sayyidina Umar, Uthman, and Sayyidina Ali cjfc, who one after the 
other, succeeded the Prophet iH as his deputies and heads of the 
Islamic State did their best, paying due attention to the peculiar 
needs and conditions of their time, to follow, in all respects, his 
ways, manners of conduct and instructions while discharging their 
duties, and it is for this reason that they are known as 
Khulfa-i-Rashideen, (the Rightly-guided Caliphs). Only a 
government which wholly abides by the teachings and example of 
the Prophet Hi, to the best of its ability, deserves to be called 
Khilaft-i-Rashida. 



(1845/138) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the 
Mesenger of Allah H|l said: "Whoever obeyed me obeyed God, 
and whoever disobeyed me diobeyed God, and whoever obeyed 
the Amir 1 obeyed me, and whoever disobeyed the Amir 
disobeyed me; and the Amir is the shield; fighting is done 
behind him, and guarding (against an opponent's attack) is done 
with him. Thus, if he (the Amir) gives the command of piety 
and be God fearing and follows the path of justice, there is an 
immense reward for him, and if he acts otherwise, he will have 
to pay the penalty for it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Says the Qur'an: 



Whosoever obeys the Messenger he indeed obeys Allah. 

(AlNisaa4:80) 

O. Literally, 'one who holds authority'. In Arabic and in the speical phraseology 
of the Quran and the Traditions, it denotes the 'ruler'. 



Exhorting The People To Obey The Ruler, 
And The Ruler to Observe Piety And be Just 





Book of Affairs 



167 



The reason is plain. Whatever commands the Prophet III gives 
are from Allah, and it is His Will and Command that these should 
be obeyed. Hence, compliance with the commands of the prophet 
denotes compliance with the commands of God, and violation of 
the commands of the Prophet iil denotes violation of the 
commands of God. Again, as it is by Allah's command that the 
Prophet iH 5 has declared that the Amir should be obeyed and his 
order and instructions carried out faithfully, provided, of course, 
that these are not opposed to Shariah, obedience to the Amir will 
mean obedience to the Prophet JSl, and, conversely, disobedience 
to the Amir will man disobedience to the Prophet £s§k 

The aim of the above Tradition, apparently, is to emphasise the 
importance of rendering obedience to the ruler in what is lawful 
and legitimate, by indication that to obey or disobey the Amir is to 
obey or disobey Prophet and, indirectly, God Himself 

It, further tells taht the ruler is like the shield which is used for 
protection and defence. The Amir, thus, is the defender and 
custodian of Faith and protector of Muslims. It is a special function 
and responsibility for which he may, sometimes, even have to take 
up arms. Consequently, it is essential for Muslims to obey the Amir 
and carry out his order for, without it, he cannot fulfil the duty of 
defence and protection. 

Lastly, those who are in power and authority are told to observe 
piety and justice, and keep it always in the mind that Allah is 
watching over them and they will have to appear before Him on the 
Day of Judgement and render a full account of the things done by 
them as rulers. For them, there is a vast reward in the Hereafter if 
they act and behave like that, or else a grevious penalty awaits 
them. 

SA i# & J* 1 J4*'jfr $ 6! 

(1846/139) It is narrated by Mua'wiya that the Messenger of 
Allah iHl had once told him that if he was-appointed as Amir, he 
should make the fear of God, and justice and fairness his 



168 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



practice. Mua'wiya 4p> says that "owing to this edict of the 
Prophet ill, I had a constant feeling that I was going to be 
entrusted with the responsibility of government until I was, 
from the side of God." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: The moral of this Tradition for the rulers is the 
same as of the earlier one. They should govern with justice and 
make the fear of God the rule with themselves. It, also, shows that, 
perhaps, it had been revealed to the Holy Prophet iH that Mua'wiya 
will come into power one day. Thus, he served as the Governer 
of Syria during the reigns of Sayyidina Umar and Sayyidina 
Uthman 4fe, and later, rose to be the Head of the Islamic State after 
the Treaty with Sayyidina Hasan 

(1847/140) Umar ibn Al-Khattab 4^ relates saying that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "The best of men, in the sight of 
God, on the Day of Resurrection, will be just and benevolent 
rulers, and the worst of men, in the sight of God, on the Day of 
Resurrection, will be unjust and tyrannical rulers." (Bahiahqi) 

Commentary: It shows that, in adition to being just and 
God-fearing, a ruler should also, be kind and considerate in the 
exercise of his powers. 

Enjoining Upon The Rulers to 
Be Well- Wishers of The People 

^ V\ ***** (U* J <*S 4-PjS~-[ ^jfUJ^. fl-j 

(1848/141) M'aqil ibn Yassar 4^> narrated to us: "1 heard the 
Messenger of Allah Hi say: "Whoever is made the ruler of a 
people by God, and does not, sincerely, look after their welfare, 
he shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise/' (Bukhari & Muslim) 

• 

Commentary: It tells that the ruler should take keen and sincere 



Book of Affairs 



169 



interest in the welfare of his people. If he failed to do so and was 
neglectful of their needs and comforts, Paradise, and even its sweet 
smell would be denied to him. 

In it, and some other Traditions, the ruler is described as Ra'ee 
and the subjects as Raiyyah, In Arabic, Ra'ee denotes the shepherd, 
and Raiyyah, the herd he guards. The two terms are enought to 
show what the concept of leadership and government is in Islam, 
and what are the duties of a leader or ruler. 

The Doors of The Rulers Should Always 
Remain Open for The Petitioners 

(1 849/142) It is narrated on the authority of Amr ibn Murrah *$k> 
that he told Mu'awiya that he heard the Messenger of Allah 
iH say: "The ruler who will shut his door to the weak and needy 
bondsmen, God will shut the doors of the heavens at the time of 
his distress and privation. Help will not reach him from God in 
the hour of his need." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The doors of the holy Prophet iH, and, after him, of 
Khulfa Rashideen, always remined open for the suppliants and 
petitioners. They had a free access to them and could meet and 
place their difficulties before them without any trouble. But when 
the Kharijis took the terrorism and Sayyidina Uthman was 
martyred by them and an attempt also was made on the life of 
Sayyidina Mu'awiya the latter placed restrictions on visitors. It 
was, then, that Sayyidina Amr ibn Murrah 4fe> related the above 
saying of the holy Prophet III to him. It is furhter mentioned in the 
same report that after it Sayyidina Muawiya 4fe appointed an 
officer who used to listen to the needs and grievances of the people 
and pass them on to him. 



170 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



The Order ofThe Ruler Should be Carried Out 
Provided That it is Not Against The Sh ari 'ah 

>' iSii j^u e^Tj Q J* fe&'j 

(1850/143) It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar that the 

Messenger of Allah Hi said: "It is is the duty of a Believer to 

listen and obey (the commands of) men in authroity, in matters 

he likes a well as in matters he does not like as long as he is not 

told to do a thing that is sinful. When, however, the person in 

authority, gives an order for something that is against the 

Shariah, the command to listen and obey will not apply." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It emphasises that if the ruler tells anyone to do a 
thing that may not be to his liking, but is not against the Shariah, it 
is his duty to carry it out, irrespective of his own inclintion or 
judement. there will, ostensibly, crop up difficulties and confusion 
at each step if it is not done. But if the ruler gives an order that is 
inimical to the letter or spirit of Shariah, the should not be obeyed. 
The commandment of God and his Shariah must prevail. 

(1851/144) It is narrated by Sa'eed Khudri that Messenger of 
Allah said: "To say a just word before a tyrannical ruler is 
the best of Jihad." Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and 

Ibn Majah 

Commentary: Though in a war there is the danger of defeat and 
death, there is, also, the hope of victory. But one, positively, risks 
his life or at least invites punishemt if one dares speak out boldly 
before a cruel and unjust ruler. For this reason, perhaps, it has been 
called "the best of Jihad" 



Book of Affairs 



171 



It is Not Wise to Have A Woman as Ruler 

(1852/145) Narrates Abu Bakrah 4fe that when the news 
reached the Messenger of Allah ill that the people of Persia had 
made the daughter of Kisra (Cyrus 1 ), their ruler, he remarked: 
"That country will not prosper which makes a woman its ruler." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: The difference between the physical, biological and 
mental charracteristics of the two sexes shows that the woman has 
not been created to perform the functions of a sovereign or Head of 
the Gvernment. If a woman is in power anywhere, it is contrary to 
the aim and design of Nature, and should be regarded as one of the 
many unnatural things that have been and are taking place in the 
world around us. 

A Ruler Appoint His Successor or Leave 
it to Men of Influence And Discernment 

Under the influence of the Western democratic system, some 
people have begun to imagine that there is no place of the 
nomination of his successor by the ruler under the Islamic scheme 
of things. This however, is the result of pure moral and intellectual 
servility and imitativeness. The correctness or otherwise of 
nomination depends, primarily on men and circumstances. If the 
ruler, honestly feels about a person that he is more suited to the 
high office, and the people, too, will accept him willingly, his 
appointment as the successor will not only be just, but also, 
expedient. Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4§b had appointed Sayyidina Umar 

to succeed him as the Caliph in a similar situation, and the holy 
Prophet iil, too, had resolved to appoint Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^ as 
his successor, during his last illness, but then, it was revealed to 
him and he attained certitude that the latter was going to be the 
Caliph after him, it was the Will of God, and the choice of the J - w 

O. The surname of several Kings of Persia. It is, commonly, applied to 
Nausherwan who lived in the time of Justinian. ; 



172 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 



people, too, would fall upon him, and, hence, he refrained from 
making a formal announcement, yet by asking Sayyidina Abu Bakr 
4e^> to lead the prayers, in his place, during the last days of his life, 
he had given an ample indication of it. 

Be that as it may, should the ruler be sure in his mind that the 
designation of anyone as his successor will be better and wiser 
from the viewpoint of Faith and the Ummah, he is entitled to do so, 
and the person so named will be the rightful Caliph. Nevertheless, 
if he feels that instead of making the nomination himself, it will be 
more expedient to entrust it to a council of leding men of the 
Ummah, as Sayyidina Umar had done it too will be correct. The 
range of choice can also be enlarged if needed. From the practice 
of the holy Prophet iH and the illustrious Caliphs who followed 
him immediately, it appears that it is the aim and purpose that 
matters. There is no fixed rule or method for the nomination or 
selection of the ruler. It can be decided upon as the circumstances 
require, and in accordance with the objectives of the Faith and the 
commandments of the Shariah. 



9 9 



(1853/146) Sayyidah Ayshah i^ii^j narrated to us, sying that 
during his illness, the Messenger of Allah said to her: "(O 
Ayshah)! Send word to your father, Abu Bakr 4sk>, and brother, 
(Abdul Rahman ibn Abu Bakr 4^), to come and see me so that I 
may have the deed (concerning the Caliphate) written. I fear that 
someone, (desirous) of the Caliphate, will express the desire for 
it, and someone will claim that he deserves while he will not be 
deserving; and no one will be acceptable to God and the 
Believers except Abu Bakr 4^>." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that when the holy Prophet iH was 
mortally ill, he had decided to nominate Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4& as 
the Caliph after himself and have the instrument of Caliphate 
written, and he had also wanted to send for Sayyidina Abu Bakr 
<4fe, and his son Sayyidina Abdul Rahman ibn Abu Bakr i>t ^ J? 



Book of Affairs 



173 



for that purpose but then it was revealed to him that it had already 
been settled by God and the Believers were not going to choose 
anyone as the Caliph except Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4s&. He, 
consequently changed his mind thinking that it would be better if 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ became the Caliph by the choice of the 
Muslim and without being named by him. 

Anyway, this much is clear from the above Tradition that 
nomination of the successor by the ruler was one of the ways the 
Holy Prophet lH had thought and he had also spoken of it. When 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4& designated Sayyidina Umar as his 
successor, he, perhaps was guided by it. Later, when Sayyidina 
Umar entrusted the task to a council of advisers instead of 
makking the nomination himself he too had taken the inspiration 
from the conduct of the Holy Prophet £§k 

To sum up this Tradition tells both the methods of nomination 
and selection are correct for the appointment of the Caliph or ruler. 

Caliphate on The Lines of 
Messengership Only for 30 Years 

(1854/148) It is narrated by Safinah 4& that the Messenger of 

Allah ^ said: "The Caliphate i.e., Leadership of the 

government in accordance with the rules, standards and 

practices of Messenger will only last for thirty years. After 

it, the Lord will bestwo Kingship upon whosoever He likes. M 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It had been revealed to the holy Prophet ill that, 
among his followers, the system of government based, as far as 
possible, upon his ideals principles and course of conduct was 
going to endure only for 30 years after him and then monarchy 
would be established. The prediction proved to be true to the letter. 
Within thirtieth year of the Prophet's w death, Sayyidina Ali 
was assassinated. After him his eldest son, Sayyidina Hasan 4fe 
became the Caliph, and in a few months, he made peace with 
Sayyidina Muawiya for the sake of ringing to an end the civil 



1 74 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VII 

war among the Muslims, and relinquished Caliphate in his favour. 
If the few months of Sayyidina Hasan's 4^ rule, too were included, 
it would make full thirty years. The Caliphate on the lines of 
Messengership, or Khilafat Rahsida, which has been described as 
Caliphate of Messengership in this Tradition, thus lasted only for 
30 years, after which things began to change and gradually 
Caliphate took the form of Kingship. 

Like the other prophecies of the holy Prophet H>, this Tradition 
too is regarded a miracle of his, and a clear sign of his 
Messengership, 

Proper Way of Counselling Kings And Rulers 

(1855/149) It is narrated by Ayaad ibn Ghunm 4^ that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "Whoever wants to give advice to 
a ruler should not do so publicly, i.e., in the presence of others, 
but taking his hands, he should tell him what he wants in 
privacy. Now, if he accepts the advice, well and good and if he 
does not, the adviser will have done his duty." (Musnad Ahamd) 

Commentary Prudence will demand that advice tendered, 
particualarly to those who occupy a high position and have the 
power to affect others in privacy, it will evoke trust in them and 
make them feel that the person giving the advice is a sincere 
well-wisher and has no axe to grind. On the contrary, if the advice 
is given in the presence of others, the person spoken to may feel 
hurt and h&miliatgd a*id his reactipn may be the worse of what is 

described;;.'.:; j.O K-aO b r U: -^MO.rVO(;M ?.{t:r/\:\ 



i i \.c'. ; :■.;> ; . t i i .-; 



Own Eyil^ing,^njdlL Punishment From Allah 




Book of Affairs 



175 



UlUj aLUji^ ^jll cJ> bi SC*Jt o!j ** f >j 

j^Jj ^Lii j£ *t*l)u (^Lliii i^kij ^tli 

.'^'p^L^\' < £^ J ^\' 3 /ajb t^kit 

(1856/150) It is narrated by Abu Darda that the Messenger 
of Allah siad: "God says: "I, alpne, am God, and there is no 
Deity save Me. I am the King of Kings, the Lord of the Lords. 
The hearts of the sovereigns of the world are in my Plan, (and), 
(My practice is) that when My bondsmen obey Me, I incline the 
hearts of their rulers with love and compassion towards them 
and when they take to the path of transgression and 
disobedience, I turn the hearts of their rulers with anger and 
punishment against them, and then, they oppress them severely. 
Thus, do not engage yourselves in cursing the ruler, but turn to 
Me in remembrance and earnest repentance so that I may suffice 
for you in deliverance from the tyranny and despotism of the 
rulers." (AbuNa'eem) 

Commentary: For everything that takes place in the world, good 
or evil, there are some apparent and some hidden reasons. In this 
Tradition, the holy Prophet Hi had declared, in the words of the 
Lord Himself, that the type of rulers people get, and the way they 
govern is, in fact, the outcome of their own deeds and actions. The 
standing command and proclamation of the Supreme Being, the 
Author of all things, is that "I am the King of Kings, the Lord of 
Lords. The hearts of the rulers are in My control, and My practice 
is that when people, on the whole lead a life of submission and 
obedience, I produce affection and benevolence for them in the 
hearts of their rulers, while if they, in general, take to the path of 
intersigence and wrong doing, I give rise to feelings of anger and 
cruelty in their rulers hearts. In fact, it is My Wrath and 
Displeasure, and the rulers are, only, the instruments. So, when the 
rulers are unjust and curel, do not curse them as it will avail 
nothing, but remember Me, feel genuinely sorry for your misdeeds, 
seek My forgiveness, and reform your ways. It is the only way to 
obtain relief from oppression and injustice of the rulers. 1 ' 



PREFACE (TO THE URDU) 

(By: Mawlana Muhammad Zakariya Sanbhali, Teacher of 
Hadith at Dar ul-Uloom Nadwat ul-Ulama, Lucknow) 



JU-?x^> UJL^j ^JLp ^*>L*Jlj OjJLoJlj j-woJWi Uj J-o^xJl 

The first volume of Ma'ariful Hadith was published in 1373 AH 
while this last (8th) is being published in 1421 AH, four years after 
the death of its compiler Mawlana Muhammad Manzoor Nu'mani. 
The delay in compiling it was caused by the illness of the Mawlana 
and his religious occupations. The 7th volume was published in 
1402 AH, which means that there is a gap of nineteen years 
between the 7th and 8th. 

In the first volume of Ma'ariful Hadith (which was the Kitab 
ul-Eeman) those Ahadith were presented which the scholars of 
Hadith include in the chapters of Faith in their books. These 
Ahadith are about faith and matters related to it and are presented 
here in a particular angle and order and are then explained. Ahadith 
concerning qiyamat (the Day of Resurrection) and Hereafter, 
Paradise and Hell, etc. are also included in this volume because 
they also concern faith and belief. 

In the second volume, Ahadith are presented from the Kitab 
al-Riqaq and Kitab al-Akhlaq. The word riqaq means softening of 
hearts and this section includes the sayings, sermons, actions, 
conditions and events in the life of Allah's Messenger 0 which 
soften the heart. The Ahadith on Zuhd (piety) are included in the 
same section. These promote a disinclination for the world and a 
fear of the Hereafter. Riqaq and Zuhd have a very close 
relationship with Eeman and Ihsan, so they are presented just after 
the Kitab ul-Eeman. 



178 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



In the Kitab ul-Akhlaq (Book of Manners) those Ahadith are 
presented first which disclose the importance of good manners in 
Islam and how bad a crime bad manners are. Then follow Ahadith 
on the different branches of good manners. They are generosity, 
kindness, self-sacrifice, mutual affinity, religious fraternity, 
mildness and polite speech, truthfulness, humility, modesty, 
patience and gratitude, sincerity and devotion. Then the Ahadith 
are mentioned that condemn bad manners and its different 
branches. 

The third volume includes Kitab Ut-Taharah and Kitab 
as-Salah. The former comprises of Ahadith that place importance 
on purification and condemn impurity, and Ahadith on the different 
sections of purity like istinja (obstersion), wudu (ablution), bath, 
tayammum (dry ablution), etc. 

Kitab as-Salah includes a section on significance of Salah 
(prayers), times of Salah, again congregational Salah, importance 
of mosque, correct observance of salah, prayers apart from the five 
prescribed times Friday, ed, on eclipse and drought, janazah 
(funeral), etc. In addition to the rules, there are Ahadith on the 
manner of the Prophet lH observance of salah. 

The fourth volume comprises Kitab az-Zakah, Kitab us-Sawm, 
and Kitab ul-Hajj. The Kitab uz-Zakah begins with an article by 
the Mawlana on the importance of Zakah. It also points out that the 
companions, cjfa had agreed that jihad and fighting should be made 
against the rejectors of Zakah and this was the first unanimous 
ijtihad (interpretation of law) of the ummah. Thereafter, Ahadith 
are presented on importance of Zakah on, injunctions concerning it 
and on optional charity. 

Kitab us-Sawm begins with an article on the special position of 
fasting among the four duties in Islam. This is fllowed by Ahadith 
on merits of Ramadan and fasting therein, injunctions, i'tikaf 
(seclusion), taraweeh salah and optional fasts. 

A brief introduction of Hajj begins the Kitab ul-Hajj telling us 
about the pilgrimage which is an imitation of the rites performed 
by Sayyidina Ibrahim 383. Then Ahdith follow. They are on the 
obligation and merits of Hajj and on precautions which the 
pilgrims must observe. Then the Ahadith are mentioned on 



Preface 



179 



injunctions which if read carefully give a full picture of Hajj, on 
the Hajj performed by Allah's Messenger which is called Hajj at 
ul-Wada (Farewell Pilgrimage) and finally on the merits of the 
Harmayn (the two scared mosques) the Rawdah (the grave of the 
Prophet iH) and visit to it. 

The fifth volume is entitled Kilab al-Azkar wa ad Da'wat. It is 
made up of supplications, words of remembrance, repentance and 
seeking Allah's fogiveness and recital of the Qur'an, and it shows 
their position in religion, their merit and etiquette. 

The truth is that no other book (apart from those in Arabic 
language) presents such a heart warming introduction to these 
subjects as this does. 

The subject-matter is preceded by a brief Foreword by 
Mawlana Nu'mani highlighting a particular aspect of the 
supplication of Allah's Messenger iil. It is that his supplications 
are evidence of his prophethood and we can invite non-Muslims to 
Islam by pointing this out to them. This is also instrumental in 
satisfying the Muslim heart. The Ahadith in this volume reflect 
upon the merits and blessings of Zikr (remembrance) of Allah, 
virtues of certain particular words of remembrance, reality of 
supplication and its etiquette. This is followed by prayers of the 
Prophet iH on different occasions, and the book concludes with 
Ahadith on invocations on the Prophet iH and the different forms 
and words of invocation on him. 

The sixth volume has within its two covers Ahadith on social 
manners, family life and rights of different people. The Mawlana 
has stressed in the Foreword the importance of rules of social life 
and giving right of fellow-men. He has warned of punishment that 
awaits those who lag behind in this regard. In fact, apart from 
rights of society, there are Ahadith on rights of animals too. The 
discussion then centres round etiquette of meeting people and of 
assemblies encompassing salam (greetings), handshake, 
embracing, entering the house, mutual conversation, laughing, 
humour, sneezing and yawning, eating, drinking and clothing. The 
last includes hijab (veil) and how much of a person's body need be 
covered. The seventh volume continues the subject of social living 
like marriage and divorce, economic factors, culture and everyday 



180 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



issues. These are explained in detail. The sphere of Kitab 
ul-Mu'amlat (mutual dealings) is very wide. There are Ahadith on 
benefits of lawful earnings, on inauspiciousness of unlawful 
livelihood and interests or usury and on buying and selling. 

The subject extends to gifts and merits thereof, waqf 
(endowment) in the cause of Allah, discharge of justice, 
management of government, etc. 

Now, the eighth volume is in your hands. Its first content is 
Kitab ul Ilm made up of the Prophet's Ahadith on the worth and 
merit of religious knowledge, and on the ultimate fate of those who 
seek religious knowledge with worldly ends in mind or who do not 
put their religious knowledge into practice. 

Next after Kitab ul-Ilm is Kitab ul-Ftisam bil Kitab wa 
as-Sunnah^ (firm attachment with the Book of Allah and the 
Prophet's sunnah and it includes staying away from bid'ah or 
innovative practices). The Prophet's Hi Ahadith in this regard are 
explained in detail and difference between sunnah and bid'ah is 
pointed out. The position of Sunnah and the need to observe it as 
rigidly as the Book of Allah are also mentioned. 

There are, therefore, Ahadith on 'commanding good and 
forbidding the disapproved,' showing the reward that awaits those 
who walk this path, and the account-taking from those who shun it 
although they have the ability to discharge this duty. There are also 
Ahadith on the merits of jihad as an effective tool to command the 
good. The honourable author has penned down an effective essay 
on jihad in the light of the Qur'an and Sunnah. 

Kitab ul-Fitan follows. It includes Ahadith on the future plight 
of the ummah through depletion of religious knowledge and trials. 
This is, as it were, an admonition to the ummah to be ready to 
protect themselves from the trials before they face them. The 
ummah may try to create conditions that are not conducive to 
depletion of knowledge etc. But, if they happen to face such a 
situation then they are shown how they may tackle it. This kitab 
also includes signs of the last day. Thus Ahadith in this section also 
tell us about the mischief of dajjal, coming of Imam Mahdi 
and descent of Sayidina Isa $331 These Ahadith are explained very 

O. Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an & The Sunnah 



Preface 



181 



well so that they view of the ahl ul-Sunnah is vouchsafed and the 
false notions are rejected. There is an excellent exposition of the 
belief of ahl us-sunnah correct in relation to the shi'a beliefs about 
Imam Mahdi There is also a clear rejection of the Qadyani's 
baseless ideas about Sayyidina Isa It is very essential to study 
this in order to counter the Qadyani mischief throughout the world. 
Indeed, it would benefit the scholars, too. 

Kitab ul-Manaqib and fada'il follows. It includes the Prophet's 
sayings on the excellences of some people and their virtues which 
Allah revealed to the Prophet iH and his high station which 
Ahadith he has related in rder to proclaim Allah's favours on him or 
to let the ummah know the truth. 

There are Ahadith, and explanation thereof, on the subject of 
his birth, commissioning and age. The scholarly angle of the 
discussion should help the students of higher classes and, in fact, 
the ulama too. 

There also are Ahadith on the Prophet's is§l excellent manners, 
his illness and death. His valuable instructions on death bed illness 
are also mentioned. 

Ahadith on the virtues of Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe are also 
reproduced and explained. They also mention him as the Khalifah 
of Allah's Messenger iH. Then, Sayyidina Umar's 4fe virtues are 
mentioned and these Ahadith are explained. Thet are followed by 
Ahadith on the virtues of both these Sahabah (companions) 
together. 

Next are Ahadith on the virtues of the Prophet'siH two 
sons-in-law. Sayyidina Uthman 4^ and Sayyidina Ali 4fe 
respectively Ahadith on the virtues of the rightly guided caliphs are 
in the order of their succession to that office and also the rank and 
station they are held in by the ahl us-sunnah. The wrong notions 
held by the Shia about Sayyidina Ali 4fe are also rejected in easy 
and clear to understand language. 

They are followed by the Ahadith on the virtues of the 
remaining six companions of the ashrah mubashshirat (the ten who 
were given glad tidings). They are: Sayyidina Talhah, Zubayr, 
Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas, Sa'eed ibn Zayd 
and Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah 4e>. The Ahadith are then explained. 



1 82 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

The virtues of the ahl-bayt nabavi (Prophet's household) come 
after that. Here are included the noble wives and the noble 
daughters of the Prophet III. The Mawlana has discussed the word 
ahl bayt from a high scholarly angle. Here, the Mawlana could 
cmpile Ahadith on only these Mothers fa of the Faithful: 
Sayidah Khadijah \#s>fa^^ Sayyidah Sawdah i&s-fa^^ Sayyidah 
Ayshahif* fa and Sayyidah Hafsah^ fa . This much, too, 
he could execute after long delays because of numerous reasons 
and illnesses. Only Allah knows how he did it and He will reward 
him in accordance with His Exalted station. 

After that, the Mawlana instructed' me to complete this work. 
Although this is a great honour for me yet if he had finished the 
task himself then reader would not have detected the difference 
they now observe. 

The Mawlana' s knowledge and understanding enabled him to 
present the most difficult of subjects in very simple, easy to 
understand manner. Allah had blessed him with that. It seemed as 

though it was a representation of 

{And We softened for him iron} (Saba, 34:10) 
As for me, I cannot hope to match that. 

In the begining, I wrote down my work and showed it to him but 
even that soon became difficult because of his illness. So, the 
merits of the remaining wives of the Prophet all his daughters 
and other people of his house are penned down by me. After that I 
have mentioned the companions 

I have selected the companions and the sequence of listing 
them according to how they are known and according to the frame 
of my mind. It is very possible that some of those whom I have not 
mentioned may happen to be of a higher status than those I have 
selected. 

It has been the Mawlana's practice that he concluded his 
Preface to the Ma'riful Hadith with these instructions. 

"The Prophet's Ahadith should not be studied merely to gain 
the knowledge. Rather, it should be done to refresh one's faith and 
to seek' guidance for one's deeds. At the same time, one must 
arouse love for Allah's Messenger HI and his greatness. One must 
read the Ahadith as though one is seated in the Prophet's assembly 



Preface 



183 



and he speaks while the rest listen to him. If we do that, the heart 
and soul will certainly get some share of the light and blessing and 
the faithful conditions that were the lot of those fortunate people of 
the Prophet's HI time whome Allah had favoured with opportinity 
to listen to him directly and gain spiritual wealth therefrom. 

I have seen my teachers and religious elders perform ablution 
out of respect before undertaking lessons in Ahadithu or pursuing 
them. May Allah enable me and readers of this book to observe this 
part of the etiquette." 

I believe that if the Maulana had written this Preface then he 
would have repeated the foregoing two paragraphs in this volume 
too. So, I request readers to observe the Maulana's instructions. 



\ 



FOREWORD 



PERFECTION OF 'MA'ARIF' 

(O Our Lord, praise belongs to You) 

The 'Ma'arif ul-Hadith has been completed. Allah Ta'ala has 
favoured us by enabling us to publish the last volume. The writing 
down of this book commenced in 1361 AH (1942 CE). Allah put 
down in the heart of one of His slaves that just as someone was of 
service to the Qur'an in the Urdu language according to the needs 
of this time so too the Hadith should be served keeping needs of 
these times in mind. The thought proved to be auspicious and 
Divine enablement helped along. In spite of long intervals, the 
series was carried on and in 1373 AH (1954 CE), the first volume 
was brought out. Thus, with long and short intervals — for, the 
compiler Maulana l+**J\*Js> found little time to sit still and 

compile the work the subsequent volumes did turn out until in 

1402 AH (1982 CE) the seventh was published. But, this eighth 
took a lot of time, a delay of twenty years, so that even the traveller 
lost his life, meanwhile. But, finally, it did arrive! 

In short, this last volume is being published after the death of 
the compiler (1417 AH, 1997CE). If he were alive to see this 
volume out, only Allah knows in what words he would have shown 
gratefulness to Him. What would have been his sentiments in 
writing down this Foreword? There could hardly be any of his 
readers who would not have realised that Allah had bestowed the 
Mawlana with a high sense of gratefulness. Just as he wrote of 
himself as 'worthless and humble', in practical life too. he regarded 
himself just that! Hence, whenever he accomplished a task, he 
considered that as Allah's favour and offered deep gratitude. To be 
thankful was the cherished food of his soul and if he had lived to 
see this work completed, he would have seized the opportunity of 



1 86 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

being thankful. He wrote in the Preface to the Fourth volume that 
in every era and according to the needs of time and people, Allah 
has enabled lovers of Hadith to be of service to it. Then, in 
acknowledgement of his being able to put in some effort he praised 
and thanked Allah in these words: 

'The tongue is unable to thank Allah who caused His 
unworthy and sinful slave to join those people who have 
done some service to Hadith. Glory be to Allah, even a poor 
old woman had the opportunity to stand in the queue with 

her life savings yarn spun by herself as one of the 

contenders! Praise belongs to You, O Lord!" 

Anyway, thanks are offered to Allah thousands of times that 
we did not let His slave's task to go unaccomplished but caused the 
Mawlana' s successors to finish it and be thankful: 

* 

(O Household of Dawood! Work you with thanks!} (Saba, 34:13) 

Praise belongs to You, O our Lord! 

Some of the reasons for the delay in completing the book are 
worth mention. Apart from unsound health in the four years 1982 
to 1986 CE, he had to face extraordinary emergent tasks. There 
were some problems in the Dar uLUloom, Deoband, of whose 
council he was a member. When that was solved to some extent, 
the Islamic world faced a revolution at the hands of Ayatullah 
Khumayni and the Mawlana had to do what his age and health did 
not allow: He engaged in constant research for a complete year to 
prepare a book that every literate Muslim might have seen. 1 

In 1986, however, he resumed work on Ma'arif ul-Hadith. But 
the speed of work was much slow. There were too many breaks 
and a complete year's break in 1990, Something was done in 
1991-92 but since 1993 onwards there was a complete suspension 
of work. No more was there strength. The traveller struggled to 
cover the ground, the last few steps, and die at the destination. The 
last chapter of the book was almost complete but two years were 
lost in hope. The will of the Creator has its own secrets. It was 
destined that the final touches be put by Mawlana Muhammad 

O. Irani Inqilab Imam Khumayni aur Shi'at. 



Foreword 



187 



Zakariya and the Mawlana gave up hopes of finishing the book 
himself so entrusted to him in 1995. He was the most suitable of 
our family members to take over this task. He did complete the 
work. 

A glance at the contents of this last volume told me how 
terrible the Mawlana may have felt at being unable to complete it. 
The last chapter begins with the virtues of the Prophet is§l the four 
Khalifas, the Mothers of the faithful and the Prophet's offspring 
ending, with the cream of the companions c^>. This last volume is 
made up of four books but the last of these is twice the length of 
the remaining three. One who reads it seems to travel through 
Paradise. For, he reads about the beginnings of prophethood, about 
his rank in the sight of Allah and about meeting him on the day of 
Gathering, about his intercession, his sermons, his leadership in 
Salah and in governance, about his lofty manners and praiseworthy 
qualities which are a practical example of the Qur'an, and, finally, 
about his departure from this world to companion of High. The 
readers also read about the caliphs, their ranks in the sight of the 
Prophet iH>, their nearness to him and their characteristics. Then, 
the lives of the remaining six companions are traced to make up the 
ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise. They are the 
respected men: Talha Sa'eed ibn Zubayr 4fe, Abu Ubaydah ibn 
Jarrah 4^>. Then, the reader is told about the pure life of the People 
of his house — his wives and children; that is his family life. In the 
end, some memorable events are narrated of these great people 
which are reproduced from the chapters of Manaqib in the Books 
of Sahah. 

In short, the author must surely have gone through much mental 
agony on being unable to pen down these final but faith reviving 
parts of his book. He could not write beyond the virtues of 
Sayyidah Ayshah tf^iiit^j but that was Divine Will. 

Let not these lines leave an impression that this chapter 
contains life events alone. There are important issues too which are 
treated herein. In the portion describing the Prophet's final illness 
and death there is also a scholarly discussion on Hadith Qirtas, 
also the issue of the Khalifat of the Prophet which distinguishes 
the limits of shiasm and sunnism. 



188 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



There are other discussions. The pattern of this volume is not 
different from the previous and the reader will throughout come 
across scholarly diversions which provide the answer without 
going into cumbersome debates. A disputed point is not presented 
as such and a reader who is not aware of differences of opinion on 
an issue will not even realise that he has read a solution to it. It is 
like a doctor treating a patient without letting him realise that his 
illness was mortal. In fact, the author had himself touched on this 
point in the third volume in its foreword he had said: 

'The aim before me in translating and explaining Ahadith 
in this volume is the same that had motivated me in the first 
two volumes. It is that the minds of the age should 
comprehend the greatness of the Prophet's teachings and 
be moved to abide by them and thry should receive their 
portion of light as the companions djfe> had from his 
teachings. Hence, I have by-passed purely technical and 
scholarly debates intentionally and have sufficied to 
mention the spirit and aim of the Hadith as best as I could 
and to observe the method of Shah Waliullah <Up & in 
describing the main point and wisdom where necessary." 
The third volume had Ahadith about Salah. Under this subject, 
there are many juristic and disputed issues but the author — the 
honourable Mawlana — has tried to keep away from a discussion 
even here. His words are: 

"In order to save readers from mental confusion and 
exertion, I have done my best to refrain from debate-style 
arguments even where something had to be said," 

* 

Some More Peculiarities: 

As already stated, this series of Ma'arif id-Hadith is a selection 
of Ahadith on the basis of present-day needs. The other peculiarity 
is the sequence and arrangement of the Ahadith selected. In every 
chapter, the Ahadith are placed in such a sequence that if one 
Hadith contains something that should be elaborated upon and 
there is another that elaborates it then they are placed together, the 
explanatory following the one that is explained. Thus, the need to 
explain the Hadith separately is done away with but if that is 



Foreword 



189 



necessary then a short note is found to be enough. The Mawlana 
did this very adeptly. He has written in the foreword to the third 
volume: 

"The Ahadith were selected and put in arrangement after 
much contemplation. Those who have an insight on 
Ahadith and who are aware of present day demands on 
learning and religion will observe that, besides translation 
and explanation, the selection of Ahadith and their 
arrangement by themselves became a task." 
Even the translation and explanation of Ahadith is a peculiar 
kind of service to Hadith. The peculiarity lies in the selection of 
words of translation and style of writing to suit the demands of 
time. The same foreword spoke about it thus: 

"The most significant peculiarity of our times is that man's way 
of thinking and scholastic temperament are influenced very much 
by the advancement in western learning and ideology. Therefore, 
there lies a responsibility on the trustees of the teachings of the 
Prophet iH to present those teachings to the masses keeping in 
mind the changes and demands of the twentieth century. 

Apart from that, the provision of appropriate headings has 
made it very easy for the present mind to understand Ahadith. The 
headings by themselves convey the message of the Ahadith. 
Another feature which is helpful to all readers but more so to the 
scholars are the initial introductory notes to every chapter. These 
are helpful in understanding the Ahadith in the chapter and prepare 
the mind to comprehend what follows. These notes are more 
helpful when the subject concerns a field beyond our experiences 
and observation in this world. These subjects are among those 
things that have been ridiculed by the western mind. The notes do 
not question the western thought. They merely arouse the simple 
nature in man whereby he should not find difficulty in 
understanding and believing in the sayings of the ProphetSpfi* 
f^LJi. If man's nature has lost ability to accept Truth then no 
argument can be helpful. These notes ase also a complete example 
of J* Uj Ji u (what is said and what is pointed out). They are a 
mirror of the honourable Mawlana's ability and insight. 

However, the Mawlana does not take credit for the 



190 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



distinguishing features of the book. He leaves that for Shah 
Waliullah Up &\ . The Mawlana was exceptionally influenced 
by the two great pious men of India: Shaykh Muhammad Sarhandi, 
Mujaddid Alf Thani dPiil^j (1034 AH) and Shah Waliullah 
a> &\ Dehlavi (1 176 AH). In the very beginning of his magazine 
al-Furqan which was launched in 1934 corresponding to 1353 AH, 
he published two special numbers (editions) on each of these two 
righteous men. The Mawlana has been influenced by these two 
pious men in all fields of his life but we may say about the 
Ma'ariful Hadith that it bears a stamp of Shah Waliullah's 
influence. The same may be said of his work Irani Inqilab, Imam 
Khumaini aur Shi' at that it bears the stamp of the Mujaddid. We 
have seen a hint to the influence of Shah Waliullah on Ma'ariful 
Hadith in the foregoing selection from the third volume. In the 
same volume at the same place, he refers to Shah Waliullah's 
Hujjat idlah al Baligah and says, 

"(In my view,) the material that is found in this book to 
convince the minds of our times is not found in any other book 
of the libraries of Islamic world." 

And he goes on to say: 

"Since I have kept before me the twentieth century in mind and 
the peculiarities of this era in writing the exposition of Hadith in 
this series so relative to other commentaries, I have 
borrowed more from Hiijjatullah al-Baligah" 

The singular position of Shah Waliullah and his book is 
recognised by scholars but, generally, this book is regarded as a 
work on Islamic philosophy. It was for the first time that the book's 
value above all other expositions of Ahadith was known through 
the pages of Ma'ariful Hadith. This means that the respected 
Mawlana is not only attached naturally and deeply to the philisophy 
of Shah Waliullah but he was careful also to go deep into the 
labyrinth of the sciences. 

I do not possess the ability to pass judgement on the Ma'arif id 
Hadith and confirm that the Mawlana had the insight into those 
sciences. This is for someone well-versed in the philosophy of 
Shah Waliullah to examine the Ma'arif and pass judgement. 
However, I can cite as evidence an endeavour by the Mawlana to 



Foreword 



19! 



master these sciences. When Mawlana Ubaydullah Sindhi &\ 
*~Ip was allowed to return to India after being exiled, he visited us 
very soon thereafter in 1939 or 1940 when we resided in Bareli and 
I was about 12 years old. He resided with us many days. The 
background was that Mawlana Muhammad Manzoor Nu'mani a**- j 
Up &\ (my father)had met Mawlana Ubaydullah &\ Sindhi at 
a function in a Madrassah and had learnt that he was well-versed in 
Shah Waliullah's philosophy. So, my father requested him for an 
appointment to get explanation from him of some portions of the 
Hujjatullah al-Baligah which he could not fathom well. Mawlana 
Sindhi had promised to visit him in Bareli and discuss the book. 
This incident is evidence of the Mawlana's (my father's) deep 
interest in Shah Waliullah's philosophy. Anyway, this was also an 
example of the well going up to the thirsty! 1 

Therefore, apart from other things, it is a distinction of this 
book that all the Ahadith have been explained in the light of the 
philosophy of Shah Waliullah. We can thus say that it is a new 
kind of experience in teaching Ahadith which has the means of 
curing the mind of our times. In fact, there is an aspect of the light 
and guidance of the Hujjatullah about which the respected 
compiler ^JpJuju^j has lamented that our religious institutions 
neglect it. Further, though he had learnt at these very institutions 
yet he could reconcile himself to abide by this above guidance 
when he wrote down this book. He lamented in these words in the 
third volume: 

"The method employed by Shah Waliullah in this book to 
explain the Ahadith and disclose the wisdom thereof is enough 
to convince the modern mind. The second peculiarity is that it 
brings to lime light the juristic and interpretive differences of 
the juristis and scholars of this ummah so that it becomes 

O. Talking of Bareli makes me think that my father had much consideration for 
the modern mind and he was also careful to accommodate it as far as possible. 
This was perhaps the result of his fourteen year residence in Bareli. Our stay 
in Bareli was at a place where only two or three families of relatives resided 
close by. All of them were connected in some way to the elite of Deoband but 
had been educated in English-medium schools and colleges. There were 
among them professors, teachers and government officers. In contrast, my 
father was a preacher who had first hand opportunity to study the mind of this 
strata of society. And he found the remedy of this illness in the thought of 
Shah Waliullah. 



192 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



obvious that the different approaches of the scholars are but 
branches of the same tree, or tributaries of a single large river. 
The source is one and there is no contradiction or real dispute. It 
is sad that our institutions of learning have not yet adopted the 
Waliullah approach although that is the most appropriate 
blessing of Allah for these modern times." 

In other words, search for common ground in the varying 
opinions of our scholars is that to which Shah Waliullah has 
guided us. The Mawlana then used this opinion in this book when 
he came across those differences in explaining the Ahadith herein. 
He has thus shown practically how we can benefit from Shah 
Waliullah's guidance. 

Turning now to the peculiarities of this book, it is its simple 
approach which allows people to benefit from it in large numbers. 
However, there is also a strong fear that this same simple approach 
may have bacome a barrier for our scholars who do not seek from it 
the advantage that is possible to gain although the brain-taxing 
book the Hujjatullah is its bascis source, and the author himself is, 
without doubt, a widely learned and farsighted scholar of his times. 
In truth, this book is useful and worthwhile for the common 
scholar, and it is deserving of study. It is an essence of the 
knowledge of the last individual of his kind, and is preserved in the 
shape of this book. Surely, praise belongs to Allah! 

The book does oot only provide authentic explanation of more 
than two thousand Ahadith thereby removing the obstacles 
between the sould-natured modern-educated section and the 
Prophet's Ahadith, but the arrangement of the selection is 
tantamount to an exposition of the entire religion so that it is seen 
as one natural religion. We can hand it over to anyone so that he 
may learn Islam as a religion from Allah. Having said that, we will 
not be exaggerating in the least that a man who is thus introduced 
to the true religion will acknowledge in his heart that success lies 
under the feet of the unlettered Prophet, Sayyidina Muhammad iH. 



The Petitinoer before Allah 

the son of the compiler 
Ateeq 

London, 5 Muharram 1422 AH 
(31 March, 2001) 



KITABUL ILM 

BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE 



According to religious terminology and usage in Qur'an and 
Hadith, knowledge is only that which Allah has sent down through 
His Prophets f^LJ\^J^ for the guidance of mankind. 

The first obligation on man, after he has believed in Allah's 
Prophet and Messenger and his mission, is to try to learn and find 
out the teachings and guidance of the Prophet, and the do's and 
dont's. The entire edifice of religion depends on this knowledge. 
Hence, the first obligation after Reman (or belief) is to learn it and 
teach it. 

The learning and teaching may be accomplished by oral 
conversation and observation as the Companions 4^b did in the 
times of the Prophet Hi and the immediate years after his death. 
They acquired all their knowledge in this manner. They heard the 
Prophet's sayings, observed his deeds and actions, or acquired it 
in the same manner from those of his companions c^> who had 
benefitted from him. 

The same may be said of the knowledge of most of the Tabi'een 
^Js> &\ 2u*-j (the successors of the Companions They received 
it through companionship and hearing. 

Knowledge may also be acquired through reading and writing, 
and books. This had become the method of imparting knowledge 
in times thereafter. Books were read and prescribed, as they are 
today. 

Allah's Messenger $m has said, "It is fard (an absolute 
obligation) for every man who believes in me as Allah's Messenger 
and accepts Allah's religion, Islam, to acquire necessary knowledge 
of religion." The Prophet m> also said that the effort of a man in 



196 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



acquiring this knowledge is a kind of jihad in the path of Allah and 
a means to attaining nearness to Him. He also said that neglect in 
this regard and carelessness was a punishable crime. This 
knowledge is a legacy of the Prophets f^J\ ptM> particularly 
Allah's Messenger and it is the dearest and most precious asset of 
the universe. Thus, the fortunate ones who acquire it and give its 
rights are indeed heirs of the Prophets fik~i\ All creatures, 
including the angels in the heavens, the ants on earth and fish in 
the oceans, love them and pray for them. Allah, the Exalted, has 
created them with that nature. As for those people who use this 
sacred legacy of the Prophets f^LJ\ for wrong ends, they are 
the worst criminals who deserve Divine displeasure and wrath. 

(We seek refuge in Allah from the mischief of our souls and 
from our evil deeds.) 

After this brief introduction, let us now read the following 
Ahadith of Allah's Messenger HI on the subject of knowledge and 
learning and teaching. 

It is Fard For Every Muslim 
To Seek & Acquire Knowledge 

(jujt j&j ilii JUaJW jis jis^i jp(^aov/^) 

(1/1 857) Sayyidina Anas 4<k> reported that Allah's Messenger 
said, "To seek knowledge and acquire it is fard (an obligation) 
on every Muslim." 

(Bayhaqi in Sha'b ul-Eeman, Ibn Adi in Kamil. Tabarani has 
reported it in Mu'jam Awsat on the authority of Ibn Abbas 4$k>, 
and in Mu'jam Kabir and Mu'jam Awsat on the authority of Abu 
Mas'ood and Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri ^k>, and in Mu'jam 
Saghir on the authority of Sayyidina Husayn *&>,) 1 



O. Kanz ul-Ummal, v5 p200. Jama'al-Fawa'id, vl p40. Though this Hadith is 
very famous and even the layman can be heard (continued on next page.) 



Book of Knowledge 



197 



Commentary: A Muslim is one who has accepted the religion of 
Islam, and he resolves to live according to Islamic teachings and 
guidance. This can only be possible if he acquires the necessary 
information about Islam. Hence, it is fard — in fact, the first 
obligation — for every Believer and Muslim that he should acquire 
that much knowledge as is necessary. This is the only message of 
the Hadith, and, as we have stated earlier, this knowledge may also 
be acquired only through conversation, listening and 
companionship, and through other means of education too. 
Anyway, the Hadith does not mean to say that it is fard for every 
Muslim to become a scholar, but, all it means is that a man should 
derive that much knowledge as is necessary for him to spend his 
life according to Islam. 

In some books, this Hadith has the additional word after 
the words pJL** Ji*. However, it has been confirmed that the addition 
of *JL^ is neither proved nor correct. The word Muslim embraces 
both male and female Muslims. 

Those Who Do Not Know Religion 

Must Learn From Those Who Know 
& They Must Teach Them 

(Continued from previous page...) quoting it and it is reported in many books of 
Hadith from different Companions ^ ^ (and its message allows for no 
doubt about its authenticity) yet it is surprising that none of its lines of 
transmission is sound on the standard of the muhadditheen (scholars of 
Hadith). Each sanad (line of transmission) is weak and all the earlier 
muhadditheen classified it as da'eef (weak). 

Neverthless, Hafiz Suyuti has said, "Ihave found about fifty different lines 
of transmission of this Hadith in the books of Hadith and have collected them. 
So, because of the plenty of sources, I classify it as Saheeh (authentic) 
although my predecessor muhadditheen have classified it as weak." 

Hafiz Sakhawi has said that Ibn Shaheen has reported this Hadith on the 
authority of Sayyidina Anas on a sanad all whose narrators are 

reliable (so that the Hadith is Saheeh even on the Standard of the 
muhadditheen) 

(a'zab al-mawarid fi takhreej jama' al-fawaid, reference: Fayad al-Qadeer v4 p268) 



198 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



X & s (5 //• X ^ ^ ^ ) S ^ ' ' * 3 X* 3 * s * ' s 

m S * m * * m m . ^ X - y . tf . -X ^ ^ . V* 1*1 

J Jl 3 S S S 3 X J .* .* f*- .» 4 .» », ^ ^ J> > J M .4 y * J ✓ J J V S l S X* 

t&j&u t&jsvj c^'-^T f j* - 'J 

X .3 m 6s Xs s S 6 . & s s ^ s . €> s s 

J, ^j£*Jb ; bjPWJ Cij4*KlJ tfAjtX 0* f j» ^>^J 

3 S * -* ^ . . i 3 S 3 , . S X S S 

. s |- | 3 3 . * X V . ' 3 3 3 * s X . s 3 •* 3 3 s 3>J> « fc. t i 

S j it s s . tf 3 s -6 . s , ^ / ^ tf/,/ . , ^ 

# cj 4 t >^*~ 3 j (■fl-ig-Jj f j 3 

3 ». . s \ i t ' •** %* s 3 M x 1 . -J J i t ^ fc. • ■* I s 3 3 * , s s ' * t, ' * * .l'* 

jJUS LiJljb ^ ^y«Jb ; Oj^=iJ Oj%"J 

X ^ ✓ ' « *• X- ✓ 

3)3}'*sXs 3 \ 3 X ^ ' } * ' s 3 X ' s 3' ' ^ ' s ' * 3 ' 3^ ' ' * 3' * , ^ ' ' ' ' 

^yJJuj ^j^fliJ 3-u*> ^L^»l3 ii**> bJL^ol IjlUd fUajl ^>Jii Jli3 

m s X s . s ^ / ( 1 s 

s 3 X 3 S . 3 . ^ V . 3 / s s ^ ».» s S 3 s s 3 S3 / / { ,/ \ ' \ I' 1*1^1 

s 3 * s* s 3* " ^ * ' X 3 * s' & 3 & 3 s s 3 s s ' 3* ^ 

S f 

(2/1858) Sayyidina Abza al-Khuza'ee 4^, father of the 
well-known companion, Abdur Rahman 4fe>, has reported that 
one day Allah's Messenger spoke (from the minbar of the 
mosque). He praised a party of Muslims (for they discharged 
their responsibilities well.) He then said (while warning and 
rebukng other groups of Muslims), "What is wrong with those 
people (and what excuse do they have) who do not explain and 
teach religion to their neighbours (the Muslims who are not 
familiar with religion), and they do not admonish them, and 
they do^ not command the approved and forbid that which is 
wrong?" (He also said,) "And what is wrong with those people 
(and what excuse do they have who are not familiar with 
religiojn and its injunctions) who do not try to learn religion, to 
gain an understanding and to benefit from the admonition of 
their neighbours (the Muslims who have acquired an 
understanding and knowledge of religion)?" (He then 



Book of Knowledge 



199 



emphasised on oath saying,) 'The people (who have knowledge 
of religion) must surely try to teach religion to their neighbours 
(who have no knowledge) and to grow an understanding of 
religion in them, and admonish them, and enjoin the reputable 
and forbid the disreputable. And, I stress upon them (who are 
not familiar with religion and its injunctions) that they should 
learn religion from their neighbours (who know religion and 
have an understanding thereof), and gain from them its 
understanding, and benefit from their admonition otherwise (if 
both of these parties do not abide by my guidance) I will get 
them punished in this very world." 

Then (after this admonishing sermon) he got down from the 
minbar (pulpit) and went into his house. The people then asked 
each other, "What do you say? who are those people (whom the 
Prophet admonished)?" Some people thought that be referred to 
the Asha'ries (the people of Abu Musa al-Ash'ary's tribe), for, 
they are learned (in religion) while, in their neighbour-hood near 
the springs of water, the dwellers are Beduvin who are 
absolutely ignorant (and fully unaware of religion). 

The Ash'aries came to know of the whole story. So, they 
presented themseelves before the Prophet III and submitted, "O 
Messenger of Allah! (we have learnt that) you mentioned some 
people with praise, but blamed us. What have we done (and 
what is our fault)?" He said, "(All I say is that) those people 
(who know religion) are responsbile to teach their neighbours 
(who do not know religion), and create in them an 
understanding of religion, admonish them and enjoin that which 
is pious and forbid that which is evil. And those who do not 
know religion, it is their duty that they should learn from their 
neighboiurs (who know) and benefit from their admonition and 
gain and understanding of religion from them, or else I will get 
them punished in this very world." The Ash'aries said, "Will we 
have to endure punishment for the crime and negligence of 
other people?" In reply to that, the Prophet merely repeated 
what he had said. The Ash'aries again submitted that which they 
had said earlier, "Will we be punished for the negligence of 
other people." The Prophet iH* said, "Yes, they too! (That is, if 
those who know religion are sloth in teaching it to their ignorant 
neighbours then they will receive punishment for that)." The 



200 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

Ash'aries then submitted, "Then give us respite for one year." 
So, he gave them one year's respite to do that work and teach 
religion to their neighbours, and create an awareness pf religion, 
and try to reform them through admonition. He then recited to 
them these verses of surah al-Ma f idah:^ 

{Cursed were those who 

disbelieved from among the 

children of Isra'il by the tongue 

of Dawood, and of Isa son of 

Maryam. That was because 

they disobeyed and used to 

transgress the limits. They used 

not to forbid one another any 

wickedness they did. Evil 

indeed was what they used to 

do} (5:78-79) 
(Musnad Ibn Rauyah. Kitab 
al-Wijdan by Bukhari. Saheeh Ibn 
us-Saken. Musnad Ibn Mandah. 
Mu'jam Kabir by Tabarani) 

Commentary: The explanation that was necessary to understand 
the Hadith has been put into parenthesis with the translation. 

We learn from this Hadith that the Prophet ill had devised a 
way to teach and train people their religion whereby those people 
who were learned should impart knowledge as a responsibility on 
them to those of their neighbouring people who were not familiar 
with religion. They should do that for the sake of Allah alone, and 

* 

they should try to reform and train them in religion. And, they 
should make the teaching of religion a regular part of their life. 

On their part, those Muslims who are unaware of religion must 
make it an essential duty to establish a link with those people who 
are learned in religion and they must learn from them and benefit 
from their sermons and admonition. The Prophet ill declared that 
negligence in this regard is a punishable crime. 

This was an arrangement of religious education that allowed 
everyone to gain a working knowledge of religion without going to 
a school or madrasah, without possessing a book, paper or pen and 
without having to write down anything. In fact, he could also toil 

O. Translation from: A study of al-Quran al-Karim, Lai Muhammad Chawla. 



sjis £>u ja^ii 

9*. Jl s s^9 I * s 

* I 9 9 i f * 9 9 s s 9 s . * 



Book of Knowledge 



201 



and perfect his knowledge depending on his own ability. The 
Companions an d most of the tabi'een & (successors 
after them) obtained knowledge in this way. Indeed, their learning 
was deeper and more reliable than our knowledge from text books. 
Whatever knowledge the ummah possessed after them, and 
subsists among us, is their legacy. It is said that the ummah did not 
maintain that arrangement after them. If that arrangement had 
remained with us then no section of the ummah, no member — in 
fact, no individual — would have been deprived of religious 
knowledge today. It was a blessing of that system of education that 
life continued to be moulded in an atmosphere of learning. 

The concluding portion of the Hadith tells us of the request of 
the Ash'ary tribe to the Prophet ill to allow them a year's time to 
impart religious knowledge to the neighbours. The Prophet §fe 
acceded to their request so that they launched what was 'a year's 
teaching project' for the entire population. 

There is no doubt that if Muslims in every country and every 
locality, the elite and the commoners, adopt this method and strive 
with dedication towards this end then faith would be enlivened and 
necessary awareness would be common in every section of Muslim 
society. 

The Prophet iH concluded his speech with recital of two verses 
of surah al-Ma'idah. These verses tell us that those people of the 
Banu Isra'il who were cursed by the Prophets Dawood and Isa 
were guilty of a particular crime: they did not care to stop each 
other from sin and evil, and did not try to push a religious and 
moral reform. This shows that this crime is so serious that the 
perpetrator is liable to be cursed by Allah and His Messengers. 

These verses are the Qur'an's confirmation of the warning and 
reproof of the Prophet Hi to the negligent people. In other words, 
he recited these verses to let the people know that whatever he had 
said in his sermon and insisted upon was exactly the guidance 
Allah gave in these verses of the Qur'an. 

The Rank of Religious Knowledge 
& of Its Students & Teachers 



202 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

' s s * * * * * 

JbM Wl j** (JUIl jSjj Uilj UAji tjLo 1 ^ iLj^ 



(3/1859) Sayyidina Abu ad-Darda 4^ reported that he heard 
Allah's Messenger say, "If anyone will walk on a path to 
learn (religion) then Allah will let him walk on one of the roads 
of Paradise in return for that." (And he also said,) "The angels 
of Allah lower their wings in expression of pleasure (respect 
and honour) for the seekers of knowledge. And for the scholar 
of religion, all the creatures of the heaven and earth and even 
the fish in the depth of water seek forgiveness of Allah. And, 
the excellence qf the scholar over the worshippers is like the 
excellence of the full moon over all the stars in the heaven. The 
scholars are the heirs of the Prophets and the Prophets did not 
leave behind dinars and dirhams, but they left behind only 
knowledge. So, he who acquired it has indeed acquired a great 
success, a great good fortune." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Jami' Tirmizi, Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan Ibn Majah, 
Musnad Darami) 

Commentary: In fact, the Prophet iil have brought only that 
knowledge which serves as a guidance to Allah's creatures, and that 
alone is their legacy. They have brought that from Allah and that, 
as we have stated earlier is the most valuable asset of this universe. 
Tabarani has related in Mu'jam Awsat that Sayyidina Abu 
Hurayrah once passed through a market where people were 
occupied in their business. He asked them, "What is wrong with 
you? You are occupied here while the Prophet's legacy is being 
distributed in the mosque. They rushed towards the mosque, but 
came back to say, "Nothing is being given out there. Some people 
are occupied in salah, some other in reciting the Qur'an and yet 
others describe the lawful and unlawful — that is, injunctions of 
Shari'ah" Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^> said, "Exactly this is the 



Book of Knowledge 203 
Prophet's legacy and what he has left behind. "(Jama'al Fawa'id vl p37) 

j> £> ^ fa dp till J^p Jji J^3 JlS JlS^I^OAWi) 

(4/1860) Sayyidina Anas^fe reported that Allah's Messenger S> 
said, "He who goes out (of his house or country) to seek 
knowledge is on the path of Allah till he returns." 

(Jami' Tirmizi, Mukhtarah by Diya al-Maqdici) 



(<s±*j& ^jj) ^-uji ^ ^ <Sj^ 

(5/1861) Sayyidina Abu Umamah 4* reported that Allah's 
Messenger 0 said, "Allah showers His Mercy on, and the 
angels and the dwellers of the heavens and the earth including 
ants in their nests and fish (in water) pray for, the creature who 
teaches men that which is good and religion." (Jami' Tirmizi) 



✓ ^ -» ^ ^ 

^ ✓ s s s s s . / \i> . s s % 

Oil) jiit ^ JaU^» J' 6>&^ *Sl> 

(6/1862) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Amr al-Aas 4fe> reported that 
Allah's Messenger ill came across two groups in his mosque. 
He said, "Both the groups are engaged in that which is good", 
(pointing towards one, he added,) "these people are engaged in 
supplication and prayers to Allah Who will answer them if He 
Wills, but may refuse them, if He Wills (for, He is The 
Independent Master). And, "(pointing to the other group,) "these 
people are engaged in learning religious knowledge and 
teaching the ignorant, hence, their rank is higher. And, I have 
been sent only as a teacher." He then sat down among them. 

(Musnad Darami) 



204 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



6 s £5 \M s . s s s 



6 3 



(7/1863) Sayyidina Hasan Basari reported in arsaal 1 from 
that Allah's Messenger lH said, "As for him who dies while he 
was seeking religious knowledge so that he may revive Islam 
there will be only one degree- between him and the Prophets in 
Paradise." (Musnad Darami) 

iLfj <ds- iJJi JJfi Jjl Jj--j Jti (\ Alt/A) 

Jll ? jiJi U4P <P f jfe J 1 ^ 1 f>*i J"^ 1 J4w 

^ J^: joli gjufi \h>fafcj4fi&\Ji> Jbi 

(8/1864) Sayyidina Hasan Basri AjIp 3u*-j reported in arsaa) 
from that Allah's Messenger III was asked about two men of the 
Banu Isra'il. One of them would remain seated after offering the 
Fard Salah and teach pious things to the people. The other 
observed fasting during the day and stood up in the night in 
supererogatory salah. (He was asked,) "Which of the two was 
superior?" He said, "The scholar who offers the fard salah and 
then sits down to teach religion and piety to the people. He has 
excellence over the ane who fasts in the day and stands up in the 
night in the same way as 1 have excellence over an ordinary man 
among you." (Musnad Darami) 

Commentary: The foregoing Ahadith describe the extraordinary 
greatness and excellences of knowledge, students or seekers of 
knowledge, the ulama (scholars) and the teachers. The 'Why' of that 
and the secret behind that is that this knowledge is sent down by 

O. Sayyidina Hasan al-Basari was a Tabi'ee who did not see the Prophet ■fc*fc. He 
learnt Ahadith from different Companions aJJi . He has reported this 
Hadith and a following one directly from the Prophet without refering to 
the Companion vs-^^j through whom he learnt it. Such method of 
reporting by the tabi'een is called arsaal while such Hadith. is called mursal. 



Book of Knowledge 



205 



Allah and it is the light of guidance which has come to us through 
His Messenger sH. Ever since his death, the sacred knowledge that 
he had brought (and is found in the Quran and Hadith) officiates 
for him over the ummah; and the ulama and teachers who have 
acquired it represent the Prophet Hi as living men. They are not 
Prophets but, as heirs of Prophets, look after the office of 
prophethood and they fulfil the task of the Messenger iH. They 
are, as it were, his supporters and tools. It is this peculiarity that 
has raised them to the high degree and made them worthy of 
extraordinary Divine blessings which the foregoing Ahadith 
describe. However, there is a condition attached to it as we will see 
in the Ahadith to follow. It is that learning and teaching knowledge 
should be purely for Allah's sake, and with the reward of the 
Hereafter in mind. If wordly gains are in mind then that is the 
worse of sins and, according to an authgitic Hadith, the place of 
such people is Hell. (O Allah, protect us!) 

A Clarification 

It is necessary at this stage to clarify certain things. Today, 
religious knowledge is imparted through religious institutions 
(madrasah) and Dar ul-Uloom. The result is that certain words have 
come to have a restricted implication in the religiouis circles. 

Taalib Urn (student, seeker of knowledger) seems to imply only 
those students who study here Aalim (scholar) or mu'allim 
(teacher) brings to mind the ulama and teachers in religious 
institutions. When these meanings are absorbed by the mind, they 
are also applied to the same words in the foregoing Ahadith and 
those that will follow so that the excellences and merits reserved 
for these people in the Ahadith are attributed by the mind to those 
for whom the meanings are absorbed. The exceptional rewards 
from Allah are also so attributed. The truth is, as we have 
mentioned earlier, there was no such method of imparting 
education in the Prophet's Hi time and, after him during the lives 
of the companions and even the tabi'een There were no 
madrasahs or Dar ul-Uloom and there were no teachers and 
students to teach and read books. In fact, there existed no books at 
all. Knowledge was imparted only through Companionship and 



206 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



listening. The Companions t$& acquired their knowledge only in 
this way. (These included the front rank ulama and fuqaha among 
them, for example, the four rightly guided Khalifah and Mu'az 4^£> 
ibn Jabal, Abdullah 4k> ibn Mas'ood, Ubayy 4b ibn Ka'b, Zayd 4fe 
ibn Thabit, etc.) Their successors, the tabi'een, acquired knowledge 
from them in the same manner. Then the great ulama and fuqaha 
gained knowledge from them in the same way through 
companionship and hearing. Without doubt those people are the 
first and foremost deserving of the tidings in the Ahadiths. I submit 
that even today if any creature of Allah takes up sincerely the 
unconventional way of learning and teahing religion, like 
companionship and hearing, then indeed he brings himself within 
the ambit of the Ahadith and the glad tidings. In fact, he enjoys a 
degree of excellence over the conventional students and teachers, 
for, the latter may have some worldly gains in mind but he who 
joins a group with reformation or learning in mind surely does not 
hope to procure worldly benefits from that. Therefore, the 
unconventional approach of such people is without deceit only for 
Allah's sake with only the Hereafter in mind. 

Such deed as is done only to gain His pleasure enjoys esteem in 
the sight of Allah. I have seen such men of Allah even in our times. 
Many among them are such from whom people like us (whom 
others consider ulama) can learn a lesson. 

I found this clarification necessary here because we entertain 
the foregoing misconception of the nomenclatures aalim, muallim 
and talib Urn (scholar, teacher, student) and put only these people 
within the ambit of the Ahadith, though it is done unintentionally. 

Those Who Seek Religious Knowledge 
For Worldly Gains Will Go To Hell 
& Will Be Deprived of The Fragrance 
of Paradise Too 

(9/1865) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah that 



Book of Knowledge 



207 



Allah's Messenger )$& said, "As for him who acquires that 
knowledge through which Allah's pleasure is sought (knowledge 
of religion, tbe Book and Sunnah) but he does not acquire it 
except to derive worldly benefit, he will be deprived of the 
odour of Paradise on the Day of Resurrection." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Sunan Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 



* <• S s 



(10/1866) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4^> rerpqrted that 
Allah's Messenger HI said, "If anyone acquires religious 
knowledge not for Allah's pleasure but for other than Allah (like 
for worldly or personal objectives) then he should find his 
adobe in Hell." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Allah Ta'ala sent religious knowledge through His 
Prophets f%Ji and, finally, through Sayyidina Muhammad iil, 
the seal of Prophets, and His last sacred Book, the Qur'an. He did 
this that His slaves may use its Light and guidance to walk on the 
path of Allah's pleasure into His House of Mercy, Paradise. 
However if a wretched man makes this sacred knowledge a means 
of deriving worldly advantage and gaining his personal desires, not 
the pleasure of Allah, then he is unjust to this sacred knowledge 
sent by Allah through His Messenger. This is the worst kind of 
disobedience. The Prophet £H has decleared in these Ahadith that 
this man's punishment is deprivation of even the odour of Paradise 
and consignment to Hell, uLb-i^i (O Allah, protect us!) 

The Example of An Unpracticing Aalim 

>ii jjiji fjuat 

(1 1/1867) Sayyidina Jundub 4&> reported that Allah's Messenger 
ic§l said, "The example of the scholar who preaches piety to 
other people but forgets himself is like the lantern that gives 
light to the people but simply burns itself out." 

(Mu'jam Kabir of Tabarani. Mukhtarah by Diya al-Muqadisi) 



208 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

jS\ ^L*j ^ip 4JJI JU Jjl JlS Z'jjjA ^) (Ul A/ > Y) 

(12/1868) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4k> reported that Allah's 
Messenger said, "The worst of punishment to anyone on the 
Day of Resurrection will be the lot of the scholar whose 
knowledge did not benefit him (because he did not model his 
practical life according to his learning). 

(Musnad Abu Dawood. Tiyalsi. Sunan Sa'eed ibn Mansoor. Kamil ibn 
Adi Sha'b al-Eeman by Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: There are certain sins which are regarded as serious 
crime and deserving of severe punishment by both Believers and 
infidels. Examples of these are: plundering, robbery, murder, rape, 
bribery, cruelty to orphans, widows, etc. There are also sins which 
people generally do not consider as serious but they are grave in 
the sight of Allah and equal to, or more serious than the former. 
Polytheism and disbelief are among them. It is the same with 
misuse of religious knowledge (which is the legacy of the Prophet) 
using it for worldly advantage or not conducting oneself according 
to it. The first kind involves a creature wronging other creatures, so 
even disbelievers recognise it as a sin. The second kind, however is 
violation of rights of knowledge, guidance and Shari'ah of Allah 
and His Messenger which is a kind of wrong committed with them. 
Only those slaves of Allah recognise their seriousness and severity 
who are aware in their hearts of the greatness of Allah, His 
Messenger and religion, Shari'ah and the knowledge taught by 
them. 

The fact is that it is as great a sin to use religious knowledge 
not for Allah's pleasure and reward in the Hereafter but to further 
worldly ends as polytheism, disbelief and hypocrisy are. That is 
why the punishment is what the foregoing Ahadith prescribe. May 
Allah cause the holders of religious knowledge to respect the 
sayings of His Messenger in this regard Aameen. 



KITABUL ATISAAM 
BIL KITAB WAS SUNNAH 

BOOK OF HOLDING FAST 
TO THE QUR'AN AND THE SUNNAH 



Sticking to Book of Allah & 
Prophet's Teachings And 
Shunning Bid'ah 

After the Prophet's HI death, the Qur'an and the Sunnah are the 
source of guidance for mankind. They are as though 
representatives of his sacred being. The bettlerment of the ummah 
and their success lies in abiding by them. Allah's Messenger &§l 
guided the ummah from different angles and stressed upon them to 
refrain from innovation and bid'ah. Here are some of his sayings in 
this regard. 



.«M v A , y s s s 



• y y y 

y J> & 3 y \ s } y 

.* S y y ^ ^ W J y^ ' y } y y y 



(1/1869) Sayyidina Ja bir 4ife> ibn Abdullah reported that Allah's 
Messenger said (during his sermon), "To proceed! The best 
of all words is the Book of Allah, and the best of guidance is the 
guidance of Muhammad (Allah's Messenger). And, the worst of 
affairs are innovations in religion, and every bid'ah (innovation) 
is the wrong path." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: This Hadith of Sayyidina Jabir 4^ is found in 
Saheeh Muslim in the chapter on the Friday sermon transmitted by 
different lines of transmission. The words of the Hadith indicate 
that the narrator, Sayyidina Jabir 4fe had heard them often from the 
Prophet HI during the Friday sermons. 

This saying of the Prophet lH is among his brief 
comprehensive sayings. The ummah have been given guidance in 
very few words which are enough to keep them on the right path 
till the last Day. Surely, the Book of Allah, the sunnah and the path 
of Muhammad are enough to guide the ummah on matters of 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



belief, deeds, manners and feelings etc. This duty is described in 
the words: enjoin that which is virtuous and forbid that which is 
wrong. That leaves one passage for the wrong path and it is to 
describe as religion what Allah and His messenger have not 
included in religion, and to wrongly assume it as a means to 
nearness of Allah and success in the Hereafter. This is the most 
dangerous net used by the enemy of religion, the devil. He 
destroyed the earlier people mostly through this ploy, examples 
being idol-worship doctrine of trinity, calling Sayyidina Isa f$0\ as 
Allah's son, the concept of expiation of sins and terming the monks 
as lords besides Allah. Allah's Messenger iH was informed that his 
ummah too would face similar misleading temptations, in the same 
way as had been presented to the earlier ummah. Therefore, he 
repeatedly said in his sermons that only Allah's Book and his 
sunnah should be followed, for, only that is guidance and a means 
of success. He also said that innovations should be shunned, for, no 
matter how appealing bid'ah may seem, it is nothing but misleading 
and destructive. This is the essence of the saying of the Prophet iH 
reported by Sayyidina Jabir 4#>- 

What is Bid'ah 

The Concluding sentence of this saying of the Prophet iH is JT 
iWw? (every bid'ah is error). Some of the recognised ulama and 
exponents of Hadith have gone by the exact dictionary meaning of 
the word bid'ah and defined it as anything that was not found in the 
times of the Prophet $jl and finds no mention in the Qur'an and 
Hadith. But, they observed later that there were many things that 
were not found in the times of the Prophet iH and are not 
mentioned in the Qur'an or Hadith but they are strongly essential 
from the religious point of view and none of the ulama had 
classified them as bid'ah or declared as unlawful. The examples of 
such things are: application of diatrical marks on the Qur'an, 
putting down punctuation marks in it so that the common man may 
recite it correctly; compilation of Hadith and Fiqh and books, 
composing books in different languages on different religious 
subjects; establishing religious schools and madrasah; etc. These 
things were not found in the Prophet's time and are not mentioned 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



213 



anywhere in the Qur f an or Hadith. Hence, if we go by the 
foregoing explanation of bid'ah then all these things will be 
classified as bid'ah and use of all inventions like the train, car, 
aeroplane, etc. will become bid'ah and, therefore, unlawful. But this 
is not so. 

The sholars then explained that bid'ah were of two kinds. First 
is against the Book, sunnah and principles of Shari'ah. This is 
bid'ah sayiah (evil innovation) which is what the Prophet ill 
described in the phrase tex* js\ Thus every evil innovation is 
misleading. 

The second kind of bid'ah is not contrary to the Book, sunnah 
or principles of Shari'ah but in line with it. So, it is bid'ah hasanah 
(good innovation). Sometimes, depending on its kind, it is wajib 
(obligatory) to abide by it, but at other times it is mustahabb, 
mustahsin or mubah (various degrees of approved nature). Thus, 
bid'ah hasanah include the placing of diatrical marks on the 
Qur'an, marking sections and punctuations, compiling Ahadith, and 
writing religious books in various languages and publishing them, 
establishing religious schools, etc. They are not disallowed but are 
mubah and permitted. 

However, the ulama are not all agreed on this definition. The 
accomplished and the examining among them asserts that bid'ah is 
a purely religious terminology like the words Eeman, kufr, salah, 
zakah, etc., and it encompasses everything that is given a religious 
colour and made part of religion. Thus if such a deed is regarded as 
a religious practice and worship which entitles one to reward and 
Allah's pleasure but there is no evidence for it in Shari'ah, in the 
Book or Sunnah, in qiyaas, or ijlihaad (analogy and independant 
reasoning) then it is bid'ah. 

Obviously, therefore, the new things that were not found in the 
, Prophet's times including the inventions, and which are not 
religious in nature do not fall in the definition of bid'ah. Thus, train 
automobile, aeroplane, etc. may be used to travel as also other new 
things. In the same way, the new instruments, tools or means that 
help promote religious matters are not part of bid'ah and this 
includes placing diatrical marks, etc. on the Qur'an, writing and 
composing religious books on Hadith, expositon thereof, etc. in 



214 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



different languages. The opening of madrasah and religious 
schools, libraries, etc. also do not come in the ambit of bid' ah. 
Although they did not exist in the times of the Prophet $m, they are 
valid in the eyes of SharVah because important religious functions 
and religious duties are easity discharged through them. For 
instance, ablution is prescribed by SharVah and water is needed for 
that. So, it is wajib to look out for water or drawn it out from a 
well. It is a firm principle of religion and SharVah that if anything 
has to be done to perform a fard or wajib then that too becomes 
wajib. Hence, all those similar things which are mentioned above 
are outside the scope of bid'ah and are, in fact, essential and wajib. 

This explanation and definition of bid'ah is the only correct 
one. And thus every bid'ah is error as stated in the Hadith under 
discussion. 

The renowned scholar of the ninth century, Imam Abu Ishaq 
Ibrahim Shatbi has discussed this subject very exhaustively in his 
book al-I'tisam. He has firmly rejected the first kind of definition 
and classification of bid'ah into hasanah and sayiah. The 
valumnous book deals only on this subject. Imam Rabbani 
Mujaddid Alf Thani UpAu^j has also rejected strongly the 
classification of bid'ah into two kinds — hasanah and sayi'ah, 
calling it a serious mistake by the ulama who have classified it in 
this manner. He has said that there is no such thing as bid'ah 
hasanah. Bid'ah is always sayVah. If anyone imagines brilliancy 
through a bid'ah then that is a wrong impression he gets, for, bid'ah 
always spells darkness. Mawlana Shabbir Ahmed Uthmani *»i U^j 

has also discussed this subject in his exposition of Saheeh 
Muslim by the title Fath al-Muslim, and it is worth studying. 

(2/1870) Sayyidah Ayshah i&tfo^j reported that Allah's 
Messenger ® said, "If anyone introduces into this religion of 
ours anything that is not found in it then what he introduces is 
rejected." (Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: This saying of the Prophet iH is a fundamental 
statement about bid'ah. It rejects all novelties and introductions 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



(whatever of deeds or belief) in religion as means to gain Allah's 
pleasure and reward, there being no basis for them or a clear 
command or hint for them and not even an independent reasoning 
of authority. This is what the words u^i Jk and ^ u mean. 
Thus every invention and introduction that is not concerned with 
religion and is not regarded as a means to gaining Allah's pleasure 
and reward does not fall under the purview of this Hadith. They 
will not be bid'ah in the terminology of Hadith. These things 
include new kinds of food, dress, houses, means of transport etc. 
Similarly, the novelties in wedding ceremonies, wrong amusements 
and extravagant expenditure which no one regards as religious 
practices do not attract the ruling of this Hadith. Only those 
customs that are regarded as religious and hope is placed in them 
for reward fall in the ambit of this Hadith. They are rejected and 
bid'ah. Most of the rites during death and sorrow are of this kind 
and they include the observance of the third day, tenth day after 
death and soon to the annual anniversary. The fatihah on Thursday, 
the days of the 11th, 12th for spiritual leaders, the placing of 
wreath on graves, the urs, etc all fall in this category because they 
are regarded as part of religion and reward is expectred 
thereagainst. 

More destructive than these practical bid'ah are the bid'ah in 
belief. These include the belief that the Prophet iH and the spiritual 
men know the unseen and are omnipresent, that they respond to 
one calling them from a long distance and come to their help. Apart 
from bid'ah this is also shirk or polytheism about which Allah has 
declared in His Book that polytheists will never be forgiven: 

{Surely, Allah shall not forgive that anything be associated with 

Him, and He shall forgive all besides that to whom He will.} 

(an-Nisa,4:48) 

"* ^ f s s 

jj^lt CJjS <U-L 4k*jA UaPjS 4frj> LiP £jd uli ^L-j 



2 1 6 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

p^** i£j-~* kS^> (P^? J**t & AiU 

'Jfy 3 i*-ijJb 0± l# l^Oi ^a^Jl tliUJi 

UJu JT) ipJL aiaAi JT jjjtfi oUJUU) 

(OjJUoJi jTJu J Ufii ^1 Ibr-U jjIj ^Ju jJlj j jb jjI j JU?-t ol jj) 

(3/1871) Sayyidina Irbad ibn Sariyah 4^ reported that after 
leading them in salah one day, Allah's Messenger iH> turned his 
face towards them and delivered a very effective sermon which 
caused their eyes to drop tears and their hearts to tremble in 
fear. One of them said, "O Messenger of Allah, this is like a 
sermon delivered by one who bids farewell and departs. (So, if 
that is so then) do instruct us (on important matters)." He said, 
"1 instruct you to always fear Allah and keep away from 
disobedience to Him, to listen and obey to one in authority (the 
Khalifah or Ameer) even if he is a black slave. For, he who 
survives me will come across serious disputes. (So, in that 
case,) make it incumbent on yourself to abide by my guidance 
and the guidance of my rightly-guided Khalifahs (caliphs) and 
hold fast to that and grip that with your teeth. And, keep 
yourself away from new things introduced (into religion), for, 
every new thing in religion is bid'ah, and every bid'ah is error." 
(Musnad Ahmad, Sunan Abu Dawood, Jami, Tirmizi, Sunan Ibn 
Majah) 

Commentary: This Hadith does not need any explanation. The 
words indicate that the Prophet spoke them during his last days. 



The Companions ^ surmised from the subject-matter of his 
sermon and the out-of-ordinary style of delivery that he had a 
premonition that he would depart from this world not long 
thereafter. Therefore, one of them requested him to leave them 
some instructions to follow after him. So, he gave them the 
instructions. The first thing he said was that they should observe 
taqwa (a God-fearing attitude) and not disobey Allah. Next, they 
should obey the Khalifah and Ameer even if they belonged to a 
lower starata of society. The importance of Taqwa in religion is 
obvious and Allah's pleasure and success in the Hereafter depend 
on it. And in the world, the ummah can live in an organised manner 
only if they obey the Khalifah or Ameer, otherwise there would b 



e 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



217 



disorder and anarchy. Which might lead to civil war. (However, the 
Prophet &H had said often that if the Ameer or Khalifah or anyone 
in authority ordered something against Allah's or the Messenger's 
instructions then he should not be obeyed jJ^i a^uw J> j ^JL*uJ a.pU? *i) 
The Prophet iH> then said that those who will live long, would 
witness many disputes among the ummah. The only course of 
salvation at such times would be to follow his guidance and the 
guidance of his rightly-guided caliphs and adhere to that firmly and 
refrain from innovation and bid'ah, for, every bid'ah is error, and 
nothing else. 

This Hadith is one of the miracles of the Prophet iHl. He 
disclosed to his Companions 4k when no one could even think of 
it, that serious differences would crop up among his people. 
Indeed, those of his Compaions who were alive between 25 and 
39 years after him experienced the turmoil. Thereafter, the 
differences and in-fighting kept increasing. Today, in the 15th 
century Hijrah, we find intense division and disputes within the 
Muslim community. May Allah enable us to stick to the Truth, to 
guidance and the Prophet's sunnah. 

Adherence to Allah's Book & 
Teahings of The Prophet 

y *M & l*j % 

Up 4JUl JL> 4Jt JjJ/> JlS Jl5 'jil m aUuI* 0 AYY/1) 

*< CJ* UJ \*Jo\j* i)£i^»S ^» 

L^UT OUjJ £j*W? <LLJUjI ^ <^J>J l Jl5j £j£ ^ «»Jj) 

(4/1872) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe> » reported that 
Allah's Messenger £§l said, "None of you can be (true) Believer 
unless his desire becomes subservient to what I have brought (of 
guidance and teachings), " 

(Imam Muhiyusunnah Up^i uj-j reported this Hadith in Sharah 
as-sunnah and Imam Nawavi &\ a^-j has stated in Arba'een that it 
has an authentic line of transmission. It is also reported in Kitab 
al-Hujjah on authentic line of transmission) 

Commentary: The message of the Hadith is that a true Believer is 
one whose heart and mind, and desires and inclinations obey the 

O. However, in Misbah, the name is Abdullah ibn Amr^^^j . 




/ s / 



218 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



guidance and teachings (Which is the Book and the sunnah) that 
the Prophet £§l has brought. This is natural corollary of believing in 
him and accepting him as Allah's Messanger. If anyone does not 
experience this condition then he lacks true faith, and he should 
work to bring himself to that standard. 




(5/1873) Sayyidina Imam Maalik ibn Anas reported in arsaal 
from that Allah's Messanger Hi said, "I have left two things 
among you. As long as you adhere to them strongly, you will 
never go astray, (they are:) the Book of Allah and His 
Messenger's sunnah " (Muwatta Imam Maalik) 

Commentary: The gist of the Hadith is the Prophet's lH saying, 
"After me, the Book of Allah and my sunnah that I have brought 
will officiate for me." As long as the ummah keeps to them firmly 
they will be safe from falling into error and will be stead fast on the 
guided path. 

We have stated repeatedly in this series of Ma'ariful Hadith that 
sometimes a tabi'ee or a taba' tabi'ee (successor to the companions, 
or liis own successor — the epigones) reported a Hadith without 
naming the interlinking narrators. Such reporting is called arsaal 
and such Hadith is called mursaL Imam Maalik t-khi+^j has 
reported this Hadith in his Muwatta in this manner while he 
himself was a taba' tabi'iee which means that he never had 
opportunity to meet any sahabi (companion) but met the tabi'een 
and heard the Hadith from one of them. These people reported a 
Hadith in this manner only when they knew that the Hadith was 
authentic and acceptable, however, the same Hadith has been 
reported in some other books in about the same words with all the 
names of those in the line of transmission. Kanz ul-Ummal has 
reproduced the report of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 4^ on the 
authority of Bayhaqi that Allah's Messenger $%k said: 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



219 



M 0 people! I will go away leaving behind (the means of 
guidance) which if you adhere to then you will never go astray 
— Allah's Book and His Prophet's sunnah!' 

(Kanz ul-Ummal, v 1 p 1 87) 

In the same book, another Hadith has been reported by 
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^> with similar words on the authority of 
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^> . (Kanz ul-Umrnal vl pi 73) 

Like Allah's Book, The Sunnah 
Too is Wajib to Observe 

It was disclosed to the Prophet |jl that sometime in future some 
mischievous people will try to mislead his ummah and tell them 
that only Allah's Book is a religious evidence necessary to follow. 
They will say that nothing besides that, even the Prophet's 
teachings and guidance are not wajib to follow. So, he forewarned 
the ummah about this mischief and gave them guidance. 

a&J 'J* fa J&£y '4iU j oT^Ji d4?j» <£-j 

<dJi US' 4JJ1 Jj-*>j f» ojj ^r^- 

(6/1874) Sayyidina Miqdam ibn Ma'dikarib reported that 
Allah's Messenger said, "Beware! 1 have been given by Allah 
the Qur'an (for guidance) and with it something like it also. 
Beware! Soon some satiated people (will arise) who sitting 
(comfortably) on their glorious couch will say to the people, 
"Keep to the Qur'an alone. What it has made lawful, treat it as 
lawful, and what it has declared as unlawful treat it as unlawful 
(for only that is lawful and unlawful what the Qur'an has 
described. Nothing else." Reciting this misleading concept, the 
Prophet ill added,) "The turn is that whatever Allah's 
Messenger has declared as unlawful is just like that which Allah 
has declared unlawful in the Qur'an." 

(Sunan Abu Dawood, Musnad Darami, Sunan Ibn Majah) 



I 

220 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Commentary: Let us explain here that the wahy (revelation) that 
Allah sent to His Messenger was of two kinds O In the form of 
determined words and tet, known as wahy matluw (revelation that 
is recited), and this is the Qur'an © In the form of inspiration of the 
subject-matter which the Prophet then described in his own 
words or displayed through his actions known as wahy ghayr 
matluw (revelation that is not recited), and this was represented in 
the Prophet's general religious guidance and sayings. In short, these 
are also based on wahy and are wajib ul-ittiba' (obligatory to be 
followed). 

Thus Allah had inspired the Prophet with knowledge that 
such people would arise in his ummah as would mislead the people 
and challenge the Shari'ah by saying that religious commands are 
only found in the Qur'an and everything else is not a religious 
command. In the Hadith under discussion, Allah's Messenger ill 
has forewarned his ummah of this mischief and aserted, "In order 
to guide, 1 have been given by Allah the Qur'an and with it the 
commands besides it through wahy ghayr matluw and that is as 
wajib to obey as the Qur'an. 

The truth is that those people who reject the Prophet's $H 
Ahadith as religious evidence wish to get rid of the entire editice of 
Islamic Shari'ah. The Qur'an contains only the fundamental 
teachings and commands, but the necessary explanation without 
which they cannot be followed are found in the Prophet's deeds and 
words which are Ahadith. For example, the command to observe 
salah is found in the Qur'an, but, how may one offer it? when? how 
many units at the different times? The answers to these questions 
are not found in the Qur'an but are provided in the Ahadith alone. 
Again, the Qur'an commands us to pay Zakah but does not say how 
much and how many times. It is the same with most of the 
commands in the Qur'an. 

In short, denial of Hadith as a religious necessity is a denial of 
the entire religious setup. That is why the Prophet was careful to 
forewarn the ummah. This Hadith is thus the Prophet's miracle 
too in that he foretold about the fitn (mischief) of rejection of 
Hadith by some of his ummah while there was not even a hint of 
such a thing in his own times and even the times of the taba 1 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



221 



tabi'een (successors of the successors of Prophet's 111 Companions 

(7/1875) Sayyidina Abu Rafi' 4& reported that Allah's 
Messenger is§l said, "Let me not see anyone reclining on his 
couch (arrogantly) when something from me comes to him of 
what I have commanded to do or disallowed to do, and he says: 
I know not; what we find in the Qur'an is only what we will 
follow." (Musnad Ahmad, Sunan Abu Dawood, J ami' Tirmizi, Sunan 
Ibn Majah, Dala'il un Nabuwah of Bayhaqi.) 

Commentary: This Hadith conveys the same message as 
conveyed by the Hadith of Sayyidina Miqdam 4fe ibn Ma'dikarib. 
The text of both the Ahadith suggest that the main persons behind 
the mischief (of rejection of Ahadith) will be people who are 
well-off by worldly standards and their life-style will be arrogant 
— a sign that the luxuries of life have caused them to neglect Allah 
and the Hereafter. May Allah protect us from every kind of 
mischief and error. 



The Prophet's s& Conduct 
Alone Is the Best Example 

dp ifo X J\ ^3 JlS jS\ jfi 0 AV1/A) 

j^j'it i# \jjf\ uii 4* ^ & h'fc*. fa 

fox ui 'j*H\ JiSj *JLJ% jiJi J-pil u» tft JU-i Jill >u 



222 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

(8/1876) Sayyidina Anas ^> reported that three men (of his 

Companions came to the wives of the Prophet 

and asked them to describe his worhisp (like how long he 

observed salah, fasting, etc.) When they were told of that, (it 

seemed that) they considered it very little and said to each other, 

"How do we compare with Allah's Messenger All his sins 

have been forgiven (as stated in the Qur'an, so he does not need 

to worship more than he does. But, we are sinners and need to 

engage in worshp as much as we can)." Thus, one of them 

resolved to occupy in salah all night always. The second 

committed himself to fast every day without fail and the third 

vowed to keep away from women all his life and never to marry 

any woman. (When the Prophet ill learnt of it,) he went to his 

three Companions and asked them if they were the ones who 

had spoken in that way. "Listen! By Allah, I fear Him more than 

you do and abstain from displeasing Him more than you do, but 

(in spite of that) my condition is that (1 do not always keep fast, 

but) I observe fasting as I also go without fasting, (1 do not 

engage in salah all night but) I offer salah and also go to sleep 

and (1 have not adopted a life of celibacy,) I marry women and 

live a married life with them. (This is my way and) if anyone 

follows a path other than mine then he is not mine." 

(Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Obviously, these three Companions had a wrong 
notion that total abstinence from the world and its pleasures was 
the only way to obtain Allah's pleasure and forgiveness in the 
Hereafter and entry into Paradise. They had imagined that the 
Prophet iil lived such a life, so, when they learnt the true facts 
from the Prophet's lH wives & ^ij, they considered that too 
paltry but, out of respect and faith, they attributed that to his high 
rank with Allah. They regarded their own case as common-place 
and resolved to live a strict ascetic life. The Prophet iH removed 
their mis-understanding and informed them that he was more 
fearful of Allah and more worried about the Hereafter than they but 
he did not spend the whole night in prayer and all his days in 
fasting and he had wives with whom he spent married life. He said, 
"This is the pattern of life that I have brought as a Prophet and 
Messenger from Allah. So anyone who veers from this path and 
turns his face away is not mine." 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



223 



To occupy solely in worship, remembrance and glorification of 
Allah is the condition of the angels, for, Allah has created them in 
this way. They have no demands of their souls to satisfy and zikr 
and worship is to them as breath is to us. We are children of 
Sayyidina Adam $fi£R and we have varied demands on us of our 
own souls, of eating and drinking. Allah has taught us through His 
Prophets that we may worship Him and observe His 

limits and injunctions as part of our religious obligations, and 
within those limits, we may also meet our worldly obligations and 
personal desires and mutual rights. This is a very difficult 
propositoin but it is also the pattern of the Prophets p^J* and 
that is the beauty of it! This is why they are more excellent than the 
angels, and the best of their examples is the exemplary character of 
the last of Prophets, Sayyidina Muhammad Hi. 

The Hadith does not mean to suggest that excess of worship is 
something wrong. It only asserts that the thinking of the three 
Companions ^ was wrong. Their conception was the product of a 
mistaken mind and against the example of Prophet Muhammad iH. 
They had not realised that his life was an example for the ummah 
to emulate, as part of the mission of prophethood. Certainly, this 
conduct of the Prophet iHl was superior for him than optional 
worship. In spite of that, he sometimes stood in worship so long 
that he had swelling on his feet and if he was reminded that he 
need not stand that long in worship, he would say: 

(Shall I not be a grateful slave?). " lJ£* jjSlSttl" 

In the same way, he sometimes fasted for days together without 
having meals for iftar (breaking fast) and sahri (begining fast) in 
what was called sawm wisal (continuous fasting). In short, it would 
be wrong to interpret this Hadith of Sayyidina Anas 4fe and other 
similar Ahadith to mean that over working oneself in worship was 
disapproved. Only celibacy and monasticism are not approved and 
are contrary to the method and teachings of Muhammad HI. 

Obeying The Prophet HI Is 
The Only Way to Salvation 

fUl J}^3 41)1 ^p] olk^Jl j^P jA* If ( \ AVVM) 



224 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Ajfi^j dXA Alii J^U JlSi Slj^l ^L>j &\ JJp 

dp iii JU Jbi ^yu J£a& A jia 

" " " * 

& £ 0* * * * & y iM & & s s & 

aJMj i^Pi Jiii jJJLjj ajLp iAJl ^^JU* aJUi Jji^ ^! 3^ <(^J 

(9/1877) Sayyidina Jabir 4fe ibn Abdullah reported that 
Sayyidina Umar 4fe ibn al-Khattab (one day) brought a copy of 
Torah to the Messenger iH? of Allah and said, "O Messenger of 
Allah! This is a copy of Torah." Allah's Messenger III said 
nothing. Sayyidina Umar 4fe began to read it (to the Prophet 
l$jl). The face of Allah's Messanger is§l gradually changed 
colour (but he continued to read without being aware that the 
Prophet's face was turning red). Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4S§£> (who 
was also present there checked Sayyidina Ummar 4|*b and) said, 
jTtjdi w-^ai^J "Do you not observe the Messenger's face?" So, he 
looked up at his face and said, "I seek refuge in Allah from His 
wrath and His Messenger's wrath! We are pleased with Allah 
(with our heart and soul) as our Lord, with Islam as our religion, 
and with Muhammad as our Prophet and Messenger." Allah's 
Messenger then said, "By Him Who holds Muhammad's life 
in His Hand, if (Allah's Messenger) Musa were to come before 
you (in this world) and you were to desert me and follow him 
then you would go astray from the Right Path into error. And 
(listen!), if (Allah's Prophet) Musa were alive in the times of my 
prophethood then he too would have followed me (annd abided 
by my Shari'ah)" (Musnad Darami) 

Commentary: The words i\^\ja1^j mean a portion or few 
pages of the Arabic translation of Torah. The words of Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr 4^ when calling Sayyidina Umar's attention to the 
Prophet's lH anger J*VJi cJ& mean literally "May those who weep, 
weep over you!" When these words are spoken at the time of anger, 
they only expreess anger and do not convey the literal meaning. 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



225 



There are such idioms in every language. In urdu, for istance, 
mothers call their children mu'aa when they are angry. Although it 
means the dead, it only is an expression of anger. 

The Prophet's Hi anger stemmed from the possibility of doubt 
that even though the Qur'an was there and the last of Prophets $H 
was the guide, Torah or any other ancient Scripture was sought for 
guidance. The fact, however, was that the Qur'an and the teachings 
of Muhammad iH had done away with the need of anything else to 
gain Divine awareness and guidance. Those portions of the earlier 
scriptures that were of a perpetual nature for mankind were 
preserved in the Qur'an too: 

{Confirming that which was before it of the Book, and a 
guardian there of} (al-Ma'idah, 5:48) 

This is the attribute of the Qur'an. Besides, the era of Torah and 
other earlier Scruptures was over. With the revelation of the Qur'an 
and commisioning of Prophet Muhammad iH salvation and 
pleasure of Allah can be had only through them. It was to this fact 
that the Prophet iH referred when he said on oath that even if 
Sayyidina Musa to whom the Torah was revealed were alive 
and people followed him instead of Prophet Muhammad £9 then 
they would not be on right-guidance but on error, and, in fact, 
Sayyidina Musa too, would have followed the Prophet iH if 
he were alive in the Prophet's iH times as one of his ummah. 

Sayyidina Umar 4^> was one the closest of the Prophet's iH 
Companions <p>. Hence, even this minor slip from him displeased 
the Prophet 



(10/1878) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah reported that the people 
of the Book used to recite the Torah in Hebrew but explained it 
to the Muslims in Arabic. So, the Prophet IH instructed (the 
Muslims) that they should neither confirm nor reject the People 



226 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



of the Book (when they related anything from the Torah), but 
they may say only (as per Allah's guidance, what the Qur'an 
says): 

{We believe in Allah, and that 
which has been revealed to us 
and that which was revealed to 
Ibrahim, and Ismail, and Ishaq, 
and Yaqub, and the tribes (their 
descendants), and that which 
Musa and Isa were given, and 
that which (all the other) 
Prophets were given from their 
Lord; we differentiate not 
between any of them, and to 
Him we submit in Islam} 

(al-Baqara,2:136) 

Commentary: The truth is that there had been some interpolation 
in Torah and Injeel. Therefore, the Prophet iH said that neither 
should they be believed nor rejected. Rather, the Muslims should 
believe and declare before other people that they believed in all the 
Prophets of Allah and the revelations that those Prophets had 
received and that they did not differentiate between any of the 
Prophets. They should assert that they were slaves of Allah who 
followed His Commands and it was one of His Commands that 
they should abide by the Qur'an and the Last Prophet iH to whom 
it was revealed. Just as it is a Command of Allah, so too it is 
commonsense that they should believe in all His Prophets and 
Books, but they should obey the Prophet and Messenger who has 
come to them and abide by his Shari'ah. 

t * 9 . > s & s 9 & 3 ' 3 * 4 3 I " - VI ** i * i -1 9 ' 3 * 

j-1 '^)* e^- <y^jttf& v** ^ u* 

3 * If" -I " * 9 ' 6 i li. » I ' 3 C 1 - I ' 3 3 ' ' 3 fcl I £ 3 S C •„ 



J^-!j Js**-»ij («*^! Is 5 ! 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Siinnah 



227 



(1 1/1879) Sayyidina Abdullah 4J§£> ibn Amr ibn al-Aas reported 
that Allah's Messenger said, "The same evils that had 
infected the Banu Isra'il will infect my ummah — evil for evil 
— to such an extent that if anyone among the Bnu Isra'il had 
intercourse with his mother openly then there would be 
someone in my ummah who would perpetrate the same sin. 
And, the Banu Isra'il were divided into seventy-two sects which 
my ummah will divide into seventy-three sects. And all of them 
will belong to Hell except one sect (which will belong to 
Paradise)." The Companions t^> asked him to identify the sect 
and he said, "The one that will follow the path on which I walk 
and my Compan ions walk." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

(There is a Hadith of similar context in Musnad Ahmad and 
Sunan Abu Dawood reported by Sayyidina Mu'awiyah 4^>.) 

Commentary: The Prophet i® has not merely foretold something 
in this Hadith, rather, he has struck a cautionary note for the 
ummah. Everyone of his ummah must ensure that he observes the 
same beliefs and ideology and path which the Prophet iil taught 
and his Companions c$fe> observed. Only they will get salvation and 
an assurance to enter Paradise. 

This group has distinguished itself with the identification Ahl 
us-sunnah wa al-Jama'ah (those who are attached to Allah's 
Messenger iH and the company of his Companions As for the 
other seventy-two sects about whom the Hadith says jUi C ^ ( *$1S' (all 
of them will be in the Fire), we cannot pinpoint them exactly but 
they are those whose religious thought and belief differs from ui u 
^bwij aJIp (That on which I am and my Companions are). We can, 
however, give the example of the zaydiyah, Mu'tazaliyah, 
Jithayniyah and the rejectors of Hadith and the mubtadiyeen whose 
mischief has not gone to the limits of disbelief. 

It is also worth considering here that those people who are 
absolutely outside the folds of Islam are, therefore, also not 
included in the seventy-two sects of the ummah. These are the 
ancient ones who believed in Musaylmah Kazzah, the false Prophet 
and, in our times, the Qadyanis. The seventy-two sects though they 
are within the ummah yet they have diverted from the Prophet's and 
his Companion's path <u!p ui u) and have adopted an 



228 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



adulterated form of belief. Nevertheless they have not rejected 
anything of the basic necessities of religion and have not believed 
in anything that could throw them out of the sphere of Islam (so 
they continue to be within Islam) 

The saying jtJi ^ (all of them will be in the Fire) describes 
their fate because they corrupted their belief and went into error. 
They become liable to go to Hell because of that. As for the 
seventy-third sect following the Prophet's and his Companion's 
path they are described as people of Paradise. They will deserve to 
go there because of their belief and steadfastness. 

Nevertheless, the division into sects to which the Hadith refers 
does not concern performance of pious deeds and evil actions. 
Division into sects is based on beliefs and thought. The righteous 
deeds deserve reward and evil calls for punishment, but this Hadith 
does not deal with that subject. 

Attachment to Sunnah 
During Turmoil 

(12/1880) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah & reported that Allah's 
Messenger lH said, "One who holds fast to my sunnah in times 
of corruption among my ummah, will get the reward of a 
martyr. " (Mu'jam Awsat by Tabarani) 

Commentary: We learnt from the forgoing Hadith of Sayyidina 
Abdullah ibn Amr and other numerable Ahadith that it was 
disclosed to the Prophet iH that his ummah too will come in the 
grip of corruption like the earlier peoples and there will be times 
when depravity and indecency will become common. Most of the 
people will follow the devil and foresake the Prophet's guidance. 
Obviously, it will call for a strong will to stick to the Prophet's 
sunnah in such an atmosphere of corruption. Thus who adhere to 
the sunnah will face a very difficult time and have to make a lot of 
sacrifice. These resolute, pious people are given glad tidings in the 
Hadith of Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah They will be raised to the 
rank of martyrs and get reward commensurate with that rank. 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



229 



It must be borne in mind here that we use the word sunnah in a 
very special and limited sense. But, in the Hadith, the word sunnah 
means the Prophet's practice and his guidance. And it includes 
belief, the fard obligations and the wajib obligations. 

Observation: The Hadith in Mishkat al-Masabeeh quotes 
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah in these words: 

(the words 'reward of a martyr' are replaced by 'reward of a 
hundred martyrs'). However, no authority has been quoted. So, the 
Hadith of Mu'ajam Awsat Tabarani seems more reliable. But Allah 
knows best. 

Effort to Revive Sunnah 
& Reform The Ummah: 

, s s s y 6 s . * s s 3 & s . * *.* 9 > s > > . * * * «, * 

(tf O^jdl •! jj) ^ ^ ^ *U3 ^Aaj C~*l ^ 4^ 

(13/1881) Sayyidina Ali 4fe reported that Allah's Messenger 0 
said, "He who revives one of my sunnah after it had been 
forgotten after my death has, indeed, loved me. And, he who 
loves me will be with me." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: As long as a sunnah of the Prophet SI is observed 
and it is common, it is said to be alive. But, if it is not observed 
and unknown commonly then it is said to have been put out of 
existence. Then, if a faithful person of the ummah struggles to 
revive it and make it common again then the Prophet iH has said 
about such a man that he loves him and has fulfilled the right of 
love, and, in the Hereafter, he will be with the Prophet S as a 
friend. 

(fe A$ of ^ ^ &&&&&&& ft* j 4* 

(14/1882) Sayyidina Bilal 4^ ibn al-Harith Muzaniyyi reported 
that Allah's Messenger iaH said, "If anyone revives one of my 
sunnah which had been made extinct after my death then he will 



230 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



get a reward equal to the reward of all those people who will put 
it into practice without anything being deducted from their 
reward." (Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Let us try to understand this Hadith through an 
example. Suppose, Muslims of some place had stopped paying 
zakah, or made it a practice to deny daughters share from their 
father's legacy. Then, a man of Allah reformed them and revived 
the practice and zakah began to be paid and daughters were given 
their inheritance according to Shari'ah. Then, the reward that will 
acme to each man who observes these practices will be added up 
and a reward equal to the sum will be given to the person who 
revived the practice. This reward will be a special blessing from 
Allah and nothing whatsoever will be deducted from the reward of 
the performers of the deeds. Let us see a practicle example of our 
own times. The Prophet iH had drawn a programme whereby every 
Muslim should acquire necessary know-how of religion — whether 
he is young or old, rich or poor, literate or illetrate. He should then 
follow religion and, according to his own condition and ability, 
encourage other people to do the same. However, with the 
vicissitudes of time and some historical factors this programme 
faded into oblivion. The result was that a very limited number of 
sincere ulama and men of religion were the only ones who cared 
for religion. Then a sincere slave of Allah of our times and faithful 
member of the Prophet's ill ummah revived the programme of 
working for religion among the masses. He struggles hard for that 
and devoted his entire life for that. The result is before our eyes. 
(The 14th century of Hijri has ended and 15th begun.) In different 
countries of the world, different levels of Muslims — hundreds of 
thousands in numbers — who had no close relationship with Islam 
neither on the theoritical side nor the practical side and had no 
moment of thought for the Hereafter, suddenly have only the 
Hereafter before them. They try to make their own lives according 
to the Commands of Allah and His Messenger and to bring other 
people to the same fold. They make sacrifice in this path and 
endure hardship. Without doubt this is a great example of revival 
of sunnah. May Allah approve of it and may effuse guuidance 
among the ummah through this, and then among all mankind 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 23 1 

s / s 

(15/1883) Sayyidina Amr ibn Awf 4^ reported that Allah's 
Messenger said, "Religion (Islam) began as a stranger. And 
(a time will come when), it will return to that condition as it had 
begun. So, may the ghuraba be happy. They are those who will 
rectify the corruption and diorder that the people will create 
after me in my sunnah. " (Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The word gharih (pi. ghuraba) means allien, a 
stranger who has no one to look after him. 

The meaning of the Prophet's iH saying is that when Islam was 
first introduced to the people and, on the Command of Allah, the 
Prophet J$jl presented it to the people of Makkah, its tenets, its 
deeds and its way of life were strange and allien for the people. It 
was like a stranger in a new country who had no one knowing him. 
Then the tables were turned gradually until the people of Madinah 
embraced it together and soon it spread all over the Arabian 
peninsulla. Other countries of the world also welcomed it. 
However, as we have stated earlier Allah had disclosed to His 
Messenger that just as other people were overtaken by a decline, 
his ummah too will face a decline. Most of them will adopt evil, 
misleading ways and wrong customs. The original form which the 
Prophet had preached will remain among very few people and it 
will again revert to its initial condition a stranger in foreign land. 
T he Prophet has forewarned to ummah of the difficult times to 
come and has said that the faithful men of his ummah who retain 
the original Islam and try to rectify the wrong deserve praise. He 
has called them b /> (ghuraba). 

Doubtless, this Hadith aptly described the condition of those 
who call themselves Muslims in our times. A large majority of the 
ummah is unaware of the basic teachings of religion. They are 
involved in clear polytheism, like grave worship. They neglect the 
basic duties like salah and zakah and do not distinguish between 



232 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



lawful and unlawful in their diurnal dealings. There are very few 
people who refrain for Allah's sake from false cases and false 
witnessing. A large number of ulama and righteous men have 
succembed to selfishness and love of wealth. We can count all the 
evils that were found among the Jew and Christian priests and 
monks which brought the curse of Allah on them. At such a time of 
mischief and corruption those sincere people who adhere to the 
original Islam and keep to the Prophet's guidance and sunnah and 
constantly worry about correcting the wrong in the ummah deserve 
praise and glad tidings. May Allah enable me and the readers to 
join that group of commendable people. 

(O Allah, cause us to be among them and raise us in their group) 

Prophef s Personal Opinion 
In Worldly Matters 

The Commands that Allah's Prophets give in their capacity as 
Prophet or Messenger are wajib ul-Ita'at (obligatory to obey) 
whether they concern rights of Allah or rights of the creatures, 
worship or mutual dealings, manners or social conduct — any 
department of life. Sometimes, however, they did give their 
personal opinion on matters concerning the world only. The 
Prophet lH has himself made it clear that such suggestions are not 
obligatory to obey. In fact, it is not necessary that such opinions 
should be correct always. There may be a mistake. The Next 
Hadith says the same thing. 

pLj 4* till J^> Jjl ^ fOi JIS £ 0\j ^UAt/H) 

jj jti <<uLi; ur ijitl Yjjtoiji; jia j*!n 6j> : L; %Ji 

W Uil Jli* % Jflli \'//Si cjii *'jtj£ #3 l^UiJ 

(16/1884) Sayyidina RafT 4&> ibn Khadeej reported that Allah's 
Messenger ill (when he migrated to Madinah) found out that 
the people grafted the date-palm trees. He enquired, "What is it 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



233 



that you do? (why do you do?) M They submitted, "We have been 
doing it all along." He said, "It may be good for you perhaps, if 
you do not do it." So they stopped the practice, but the yield 
declined. Then they reported that to the Prophet all and he said, 
"I am but a human being. So, when 1 command you concerning 
something about religion, make it a point to obey (and act on it) 
but if 1 tell you anything as a personal opinion then I am a 
human being," (Muslim) 

Commentary: Madinah was a centre of date production (as it is 
today too). When he performed the hijrah and came to Madinah, 
the Prophet H> found that the Madinans combined the male tree of 
dates with the female in a particular way. This was called Taabeer, 
Date was not grown in Makkah or anywhere around it. So, this 
practice was a new thing for the Prophet He asked them why 
they did that but they could not give the wisdom behind their 
practice other than that they had been doing it all along, and their 
fore fathers had been doing it. The Prophet Hi took it as a wasteful 
practice of jahiliyah and suggested that if they gave it up they 
might find it better. They obeyed the Prophet ill and abandoned 
the Taabeer but the result was a low produce. They mentioned that 
to the Prophet 0 and he said: 

j-JJUI Uj13 

"(I am but a human being ) Everything I say is not a religious 
guidance or based on wahy (revelation) but it is from a mortal. 
When 1 command you on a religious matter that becomes 
obligatory for you to obey but when 1 give you an opinion on 
worldly matters that is an opinion from a human being and may 
be mistaken. What I had said about Taabeer was my personal 
opinion and personal suggestion." 

The fact is that Allah has placed certain peculiarities in 
different things and only He knows about that. Although, He had 
put the power to increase production in Taabeer yet He had not 
taught His Messenger i§l about that because that was not 
necessary, for, he had not come to teach gardening but to give 
guidance leading to Allah's pleasure and Paradise. He was given 
that knowledge. 



234 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



This Hadith tells us also that it is wrong to hold and believe 
that Allah's Messenger iH had knowledge of everything of the 
world. Thosfe who imagine that he had such knowledge are 
unaware of the high station of the Prophet iaH. 

With this Hadith the Kitab id-I'tisam bil Kitab wa as sunnah is 
complete. 



INVITATION TO PIETY 

Enjoining What is Good and 
Forbidding What is Evil 



The Prophets are sent sent by Allah only that they 

may invite His slaves to piety and, virtue and to guide them to 
approved deeds and manners and to prevent and save them from 
every kind of evil Thus, those slaves will be worthy of Allah's 
mercy and pleasure in the Hereafter and be safe from His wrath. 
This mission is entitled in the words of the above caption. 

With the termination of the office of prophethood on the death 
of Sayyidina Muhammad iH, the responsibility of carrying on the 
mission rests on the shoulders of his ummah till the Last Day. The 
Qur'an says: 



{And let there be of you a 
community who invite to 
goodness, and enjoin what is 
right and forbid what is wrong. 
And those — they are the 
prosperers.} (Aal Imran, 3: 1 04) 

{You (O Believers) are the best 
community raised up f o r 
mankind; you enjoin what is 
right, and forbid what is wrong, 
and you believe in Allah} 

(Aal-Imran,3:l 10) 



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The entire responsibility for the mission of the Prophet rests 
with the ummah for ever now. He has disclosed to us that those 
people who discharge this responsibility faithfully are entitled to 
great blessing. Those that are lethargic in this regard wrong 
themselves and will suffer terrible consequences. Let us read the 
following Ahadith in the light of this preamble. 



236 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Reward For Invitation to Good 

(17/1885) Sayyidina Abu Mas'ood al-Ansari reported that 
Allah's Messenger said, "He who leads (anyone) to a pious 
1 task will get a reward equal to the reward of the person who 
does that pious work.." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Le us explain this Hadith through the example of a 
man who does not observe salah. Your efforts induced him to 
resume this obligation as also recital of Qur'an and remembrance of 
Allah (Zikr) which too he had been neglecting. He also began to 
pay zakah which he had hither to avoided. Now, whatever reward 
he will get in the Hereafter for his observance of these things 
during jhis life, Allah will bestow as much reward as a prize to you 
(in terms of the tidings of this Hadith) because of your tableegh 
(propagation) which prompted him to piety. The fact is that 
whatever reward one can earn through Tableegh cannot be matched 
through any other effort. In the terminology of religious elders this 
is the tareeq nabuwat (emulation of prophethood) provided it is 
done purely for Allah's sake and only for His pleasure. 



j J/ Ol & J ^ * S * * * - 

(18/1886) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fe reported that Allah's 
Messenger Sjl said, "If anyone invites (people) to the path of 
piety then he will get a reward equal to the reward earned by ail 
those people who listened to him and walked on the pious path 
and performed the pious deed, and, because of that, nothing will 
be deducted from their reward. (And in the same way,) if 
anyone leads (people) to the wrong path (and bad deeds) then he 
will have the sin equal to the accumulated sin of all those people 
who prepetrate the bad deed and follow the wrong path on his 
lead, and, because of that, nothing will be reduced from the sin 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



237 



(and punishment) of those people. 



(Saheeh Muslim) 



Commentary: This Hadith not only conveys glad tidings to the 
inviters to Truth but also warns those who invite others to 



wickedness. The truth is that the forturnate people who are enabled 
to invite others to the righi guidance are the servants of the mission 
of the Prophet iH and, in fact, all the Prophets fkJ\ p^A* and they 
are soldiers of their armies. As for the unfortunate who invite to the 
wrong path and evil deeds, they are agents of the devil and men of 
his army. Their fate is spelled out in the Hadith. 



(19/1887) Sayyidina Abu Rafi 4fe reported that Allah's 
Messenger iH 1 said, "That Allah should guide anyone at your 
hands is better for you than everything on which the sun rises 



Commentary: Obviously, there is no portion of the world on 
which the sun does not rise or set. Thus, the Hadith implies that if 
Allah guides even one man through your effort then it is better and 
more beneficial for you than that you get all the world from east to 
west. May Allah cause us to have faith in these sayings and 
conduct ourselves accordingly. 

Encouragement To Command Virtue & 
Forbid Evil & Warning Against Lethargy 



(20/1888) Sayyidina Huzayfah reported that the Prophet m 
said, (O Believers!) By Him Who has my life in His Hands, it is 
incumbent upon you that you should enjoin what is virtuous and 
that you should forbid what is evil (that is, urge other people to 
do pious things and guide them to piety, and prevent them from 
doing evil and bad deeds) otherwise (because of your slackness 




and sets. 



(Tabarani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer) 




238 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



in this regard) Allah will send His punishment on you. Then you 

will pray to him but your prayer will not be accepted." 

(Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Prophet ia§l has said in very clear words that if 
his people neglect their duty to enjoin the pious and forbid the evil 
then Allah will cuase them to suffer trials and punishment. Then if 
they supplicate Him to ward off the punishment, their supplication 
will not be accepted. 

In my humble view, there is no doubt that the plight of the 
ummah for many past centuries during which they have 
experienced trials and punushmenf and the prayers of their 
righteous men are unanswered is mostly due to the near suspension 
of the responsibility imposed upon them by the Prophet Hi on 
Allah's Command. The responsibility concerns the carrying of the 
programme he had initiated and entrusted his ummah with — to 
command the right and forbid the evil. The proportion of those 
who carry out this mission is not even one to every one thousand 
Muslims. 

(21/1889) Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddiq 4k> said:' You recite the 
verse 

J* & fi'jjtf fiJK file \p £$\ itf ' 

{O you who believe! Guard your own souls. He who has gone 
astray cannot harm you if you are rightly guided} (5:105) 
(He referred to this verse and went on to say that no one should 
misinterpret this verse, for,) 1 had heard Allah's Messenger all 
say, "When people (become so wicked that when they) see the 
SharVah being violated they do nothing to correct it then there 
is the risk that Allah would soon take them to task for that." 

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This is the 105th verse of al-Ma'idah that Sayyidina 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



239 



Abu Bakr 4fe has quoted. The apparent meaning of this verse may 
perhaps be misinterpreted by some people to believe that their 
responsibility ceased after putting themselves on the correct path 
and that they have no responsibility to guide other people. 

Sayyidina Abu Bakr dispelled this misconception when he 
asserted that he had heard the Prophet ill say that when people 
become so indifferent as to look the other way when Allah's and 
His Messenger's commands are violated then they might soon face 
Allah's punishment. 

In the light of this Hadith and other Ahadith and text of the 
Qur'an, the above verse of al-Ma'idah would be interpreted to 
mean: O believers! when you are on guidance, obeying Allah and 
His Messenger (Which includes enjoining the right and forbidding 
the wrong and working within your capacity to reform and guide 
Allah's slaves) then you are not responsible for those ungodly 
people who do not pay heed to you and continue in their wrong 
ways. 

(The Hadith of Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri 4^ fa^ics" 
"vijJi*Jt «puH3 \ "He among you who sees a wrong done 

must correct it with his hand to the end," has been recorded in 

Kitab ul-Eeman of Ma'riful Hadith. Its message is that if anyone 
sees the Sha'riah being violated then if he can he must stop it by 
force. But, if he cannot then he must give an oral advice and a 
piece of mind. If he does not have even that much strength then he 
must consider it evil in his heart and have a disliking for it in his 
heart. 

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(22/1890) Sayyidina Jarir 4fe ibn Abdullah reported that he 
heard Allah's Messenger iH say, "If a man among a people 
commits deeds that are sinful and contrary to SharVah and those 
people possess power to correct him but do not correct him (and 
let him alone as he is) then Allah will involve them in some 
punishment before they die." (Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan Ibn Majah) 



r 



240 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

Commentary: If anyone has the ability to reform and guide the 
erring one but he does not try that and remains listless then he is 
committing a sin for which Allah may punish him before the 
Hereafter in this very life. *i 3 u^jij iljti>\ ^JJi " (O Allah, 

forgive us, and have mercy on us, and do not punish us.) 

4* jis a> jtf MS ^ ^ is y>; 

^ is 

(jU/>h cs* cs**^ d< J J) • ^ ls? J*^4 J 0 J* (*fc^J 

(23/1891) Sayyidina Jabir 4&> reported that Allah's Messenger 
ill said that Allah Commanded Jibreel to uproot a certain 
settlement with all its inhabitants. He submitted, m O Allah! 
There lives in that place Your so-and-so slave who has never 
disobeyed You even for the time it takes an eye to flicker." 
Allah Commanded him to turn over that settlement on that slave 
and the other inhabitants, for, "Never for a moment, too, did this 
slave's face change colour for My sake."(Sha'b al-Eeman,by Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: There was a place whose dwellers were sinful, on 
the whole and they did such disobedient deeds as invited Allah's 
wrath on them. There was, however, a slave who was very obedient 
to Allah and never committed a sin but at the same time he never 
felt bad about the evil deeds of other people in the locality and his 
forehead never showed wrinkles over their wicked conduct. In the 
sight of Allah, this too was a crime of equal intensity to warrant for 
him the same punishment. 

\i\ Jl5 iLj & J* J> **'Js** £ jP( \ a<\ Y/Y 1) 

& fyJS U^i. jp'fi\ J fckAJl cJUi- 

s s s 

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(24/1892) Sayyidina Urs 4^£> ibn Amirah has reported that the 
Prophet said, "If sin is committed on a land and the people 
who live there disapprove of it then (in the sight of Allah) they 
are like those who are not present there (which means that they 
will not be taken to task for the sin). And, as for those people 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qnr'an And The Simnah 



241 



who do not live there but they approve of the sin, they are like 
those who were present there (and partners in sin)." 

Commentary: When read with the other Ahadith of this chapter, 
the Prophet's saying would mean that no blame would attach on 
those who dispapprove disobedience to Allah's and His 
Messenger's commands and try their best to prevent the 
disobedience and correct it. or, atleast, entertain a deep revulsion to 
it in their heart; it does not matter if their disapproval and attempts 
do not bear fruit. They will not be questioned even if the evil 
persists. (Insha Allah, they will be rewarded!) And, as for those 
who do not feel repelled at the violation oi SharTah then, even if 
they are not at the place of disobedience, they are wrong-doers and 
partners in sin. May Allah cause us to examine ourselves in the 
light of these sayings of the Prophet 



0 " s ' 

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' \ ' * * 9 * s t > > s > . 2 " I * . s 3 <• " i ' \ i y \ 1 1 > * * > • J > | . is 

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5 \ ^ s s & ^s s s ^ } s s j t 

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(25/1893) Sayyidina Nu'man 4fe ibn Bashir reported that Allah's 
Messenger ic§l said, "The example of those people who show 
flexibility in regard to Allah's limits and commands concerning 
them (and do not enforce checks on violation) and of those 
people who violate the limits of Allah and disobey His 
Commands is like the example of a group of people who draw 
mutual lots and board a ship. Some of them got to occupy the 
lower deck while others got the upper deck. So, one of the lower 
deck passed through those on the upper deck while he carried 
water whereby they experienced inconvenience (and expressed 
their displeasure). So, the man of the lower deck took a hammer 
and began of bore a hole in the bottom of the ship (so that he 
could fetch water directly from the sea without going up). Those 
in the upper deck came to him and asked what is wrong with 



242 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



you? He said: You find (my coming and going for water) 
inconvenient to you (and you showed anger) but water is 
indispensible (for life. I bore the hole to fetch water." Allah's 
Messenger said, "If the shipmates hold his hand (and 
prevent him from boring the hole) then they will save him from 
destruction and themselves too. But, if they leave him to do 
what he does then they will consign him to death and 
themselves too. (All of them will drown)." 

Commentary: Necessary explanation has been provided within 
brackets in the translation. It is very easy to understand Hadith. It 
discloses that the piety of the pious will not help them when Allah's 
punishment descends on a wrong-doing people if the pious do not 
preach to them. In this regard, the Qur'an also says: 

Juai m s» ijita j ^ #jJi M ijWj" 

{And fear the trial which shall not afflict in particular the evil 
doers alone among you. And know that Allah is severe in 
retribution} (al-Anfal, 8:25) 

Conditions In Which Responsibility 
To Preach is Waived 

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j^3i ji jia jJLj a* ii\ jus &\ Jjij ^ cJ^» <£f 

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jls «t p f i j .^Ai 4^Wu uJLUs 4£l ^ j a JT ot**ij «y> 

' y y # y 

(26/1894) Sayyidina Abu Tha'labah 4$b al-Khushani reported 
about Allah's words: 

O. Translation is found in Hadith No. 33 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



243 



that (in response to a man's question) he said that he had asked 
about this verse to that being who was best aware (of its 
meaning, message and Allah's Command), the Messenger iH> of 
Allah. So he said, "(Do not misinterpret this verse) Rather, stick 
to enjoining that which is right and forbidding that which is 
wrong till you see that the temptation to stinginess and 
amassing wealth is predominant and (instead of Allah's and His 
Messenger's commands) personal desires are obeyed, and (the 
Hereafter is forgotten and) only this life is made the ambition, 
and, everyone is slave to this own opinion and self projection. 
At such a time, worry about yourself and leave aside the masses 
(to Allah) because, after that, such a time will also come that 
(Keeping to religion and following Shari'ah) with patience and 
stead-fastness will be (as difficult) as to pick up burning 
charcoal. In those days, those who abide by Shari'ah will earn a 
reward equal to the reward of fifty men who perform deeds as 
you do." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Abu Umayyah Sha'bani aJLp &\ a Tabi'ee, had 
asked Sayyidina Abu Tha'labah Khushani 4^ about the same 105th 
verse of al-Ma'idah about which we have seen Sayyidina Abu 
Bakr's *fe> words above. He replied that he himself had asked 
Allah's Messenger about this verse (because the words could be 
misconstrued to imply that it was enough v for one to correct his 
own life to righteousness and no responsibility lay on him to 
preach to other people). The Prophet Hi corrected the impression 
by his words narrated in the Hadith. The gist of that is that apart 
from worrying about oneself, one must worry about setting other 
people too on the right course. He must command that which is 
virtuous and forbid the disapproved, for, that is a religious duty and 
Allah's Command. So, that must be constantly done until the 
ummah's condition worsens to the extent that stinginess becomes 
its nature, and wealth is like a god to it, and instead of the 
Commands of Allah and His Messenger personal desires are 
preferred, and the Hereafter is neglected while the present life is 
made the sole aim, and self-conceit and vanity is the only 
guide-line. At such a time, preaching would be meaningless and 
there would be no hope of getting results. Therefore, one must stop 
worrying about other people and sit down to reform oneself and 



244 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



keep away from sin. 

The Prophet H> concluded by saying that a time would come 
later when it would be as difficult to keep to righteousness and 
practice religion as it is difficult to hold burning charcoal in the 
hand. Thus, to keep oneself on religion would itself be like a jihad. 
The responsibility to preach to others would cease. About those 
who conduct themselves on true religion in such adverse, 
uncompromising times, the Prophet ill said, "They would get as 
much reward as fifty of you get now." 

Jihad & Martyrdom 

As we know, Allah sent all the Prophets and Messenger so that 
they may teach the True Religion His Slaves. It is the invitation to 
worship Allah and lead a noble, righteous life, and to try to abide 
by it. It would spell reformation and sucess for them in this world 
and the next and it would be an assurance of Allah's pleasure and 
mercy and Paradise. 

It is stated in the Qur'an and it is our belief that all Prophets 
f*>LJt p^Jlp gave this invitation in their respective times and worked 
hard towards this end. But each one of them faced stiff opposition 
from their people who not only did not believe in them but also 
prevented others from believing. Those among the unbelievers who 
were pwerful persecuted the Prophets p%Ji and the believers. 
They were more harmful than snakes and scorpions with the result 
that on such people Allah's punishment descended and they were 
exterminated out of existence. 

{And Allah wronged them not, but they used to wrong 
themselves} (an-Mehl, 16:33) 

The Qur'an has spoken of such people in detail. 

The Prophet q& — Khatam an Nabiyeen — Sayyidina 
Muhammad Hi was the last of Prophets f He also invited 

people to the True Religion. Some pious-natured creatures of Allah 
accepted his call and gave up the life of disbelief and idolatory, of 
sin and immodesty. But most of the chiefs and notables gave a stiff 
opposition and presecuted the Prophet ® himself and those who 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



245 



had believed with him particularly, the poor and weak. The wicked 
people of Makkah like Abu Jahl and Abu Lahb etc. deserred to 
receive punishment like the ancient people and to be put out of 
existence, but Allah has made the Prophet iil not only as Sayyid 
al-Mursaleen (chief of the Messengers) and Khatam an Nahiyeen 
(seal of the Prophets) but also as Rahamat id Ulaalameen (Mercy 
to the worlds). Therefore, He had assured him that even his worst 
enemies would not receive punishment from the heavens but their 
strength would be weakened by the force of the Believers 
themselves, who would be regarded as armies of Allah. When that 
moment drew near, the command was issued to make hijrah to 
Madinah. This was the beginning of the second stage of the call to 
True Religion. Allah Commanded the faithful to be prepared to lay 
down their lives and sacrifice all they had to annihilate the enemies 
of Islam. This is called jihad wa-qital fx sabeel Allah and to lay 
down one's life on this path is martyrdom. 

Readers would have understood from this introduction that the 
armed struggle of the Believers against disbelief and disbelievers 
(whether offensive or defensive) would be regarded as jihad in the 
cause of Allah, by Allah and His Messenger and SharVah only if 
the aim is protection and help of the True Religion, or clearing the 
way of it and entitling Allah's slaves to His mercy and Praradise. 
However, if war is fought to annex land and recieve wealth, or to 
raise aloft the banner of one's people or country then that is not 
jihad in the cause of Allah. 

Readers would have learnt also that in the Shari 'ah jihad is a 
great mercy. While the rejectors and persecutors of previous 
Prophets' f*>L^ suffered heavenly punishment in the past, now 
that will never descend till the Last Day. So, jihad is like a 
replacement for that. But Allah knows best. 

Here now are the Ahadith that enumerate the excellences of 
jihad and martyrdom. 



246 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(27/1895) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed ^> al-Khudri reported that 
Allah's Messenger iH said (one day), "He who being pleased 
and happy believes from his heart sincerely in Allah as his 
Owner and Lord, in Islam as his religion and in Muhammad as 
Allah's Messenger and the guide (of mankind) is assured of 
Paradise." (On hearing this good tiding from the Prophet 0, 
the narrator) Abu Sa'eed 4§£> Khudri was much happy and he 
requested (the Prophet ill), "O Messenger of Allah! Do repeat 
the same thing." So, he said that all over again (and with that) 
he (also) said, "There is one more religious deed (which is so 
great in Allah's sight that) Allah will elevate the doer of that 
deed a hundred degrees in Paradise, each two degrees will be as 
far away as heaven and earth are." (Hearing that) Abu Sa'eed *®k> 
al-Khudri asked, "Messenger of Allah! What is that deed?" He 
said, "It is jihad fi sabeel lillah, jihad in the cause of Allah, 
jihad in the cause of Allah!" (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Thus if anyone believes from the core of his heart 
that Allah is his Lord, Sayyidina Muhammad III is the Messenger 
and Islam is his religion then his life will be an Islamic life, he will 
be obedient to his Lord, and follower of the Prophet ill. He gave 
the glad tidings to these slaves of Allah that they will be admitted 
to Paradise which is assured to them. Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed 
al-Khudri was deeply happy on receiving this good news (perhaps 
Allah had blessed already with the features described by the 
Prophet iil) ? so, he requested (happy that he was) to be retold of 
this tiding. When he repeated the words, the Prophet ill added that 
Allah would elevate the performer of another deed to a rank a 
hundred degrees higher in Paradise. When he asked what that deed 
was, the Prophet HH said, Jli ^ ii^Ji " u Jihad fi sabeel illah, 
jihad in the way of Allah, jihad in the way of Allah." 

The Prophet iil repeated that three times and it shows how 
high he held jihad in his heart. How much he enrcouraged us to it! 

The facts of the Hereafter, Paradise, and Hell which the Qur'an 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



247 



speakes of will be known to us truly when we make it there, for, 
we have no example for that here in this world. We must believe 
what we are told by Allah and His Messenger about these things. 



% S 3 I s % * ,} J / J \ , }■ f s > 1*1 ^ / } \ s s >s 



(28/1896) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4P> reported that Allah's 
Messenger ^ said, "By Him in whose Hand my soul is, were it 
not that most & men among the Believers dislike to be left 
behind me when I go for jihad and I do not have enough means 
of conveyance for them, I would certainly not remain behind 
any sariya (expedition going for jihad, and would have taken 
part in every jihad). By Him in whose Hand my soul is, it is my 
longing that I should be martyred in the path of Allah, brought 
back life; martyred again, brought back to life, again; martyred 
once again, again brought to life; and martyred once again." 



Commentary: The Hadith brings out the greatness of jihad and 
martyrdom in the path of Allah. The Prophet iil said that it was a 
•desire in his heart that he should accompany every party that goes 
forward to wage jihad but, he could not because there were many 
devoted Muslims who would not be pleased to stay behind while 
he advanced. Besides, he did not have enough means of 
conveyance for all of them. Therefore, not accompany the 
expedition on jihad. He said in expression of his longing to take 
part in jihad. "By Him Who holds my life, it is my desire that I 
should be killed by the enemy on the battle-field. Then Allah 
should give me life again, only to be killed again in His path and 
He may revive me again. And, I may be martyred in that way again, 
and give life once more, and I may give that up again and get 
martyred. 





(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 



248 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



y y S y 

Itfl # c£>l Ui 9# >U j2i #Ajt ^r>: # J^i 

(29/1897) Sayyidina Anas 4fe reported that Allah's Messenger 
said, "After being admitted to Paradise, no one would like to 
be returned to earth even if he is given everything in it (and he 
is made owner thereof). However, one who was martyred in the 
path of Allah and admitted to Paradise would cherish that he 
should be sent back to earth and he should be martyred (not 
once but) ten times in the cause of Allah. He will make that 
wish because he will see how the martyrs are honoured and 

welcomed in Paradise (and what rank they are given)." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 



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(30/1898) Sayyidina Abdullah i> ibn Amr al-A as reported that 
the Prophet Hi said, "To be martyred in Allah's cause is an 
expiation for all sins except debt." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The shortcomings of a man in obeying Allah's 
Commands and in giving rights and his faults and sins will all be 
atoned by giving up his life in the path of Allah and being 
martyred. Of course, if he has a debt or any right payable to a 
fellow-man then such things will not be forgiven even through 
martyrdom. This Hadith tells us of the greatness of martyrdom but 
also the seriousness of rights of fellow-men. May Allah enable us 
to learn from it. 



(31/1899) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah reported that Allah's 
Messenger HI said, The one who is martyred in the cause of 
Allah feels only that much pain as much one of you feels on 
being stung by an ant."(Jama'i Tirmizi, Sunan Nasa'i, Sunan Da'rami) 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



249 



Commentary: When anyone is operated upon, he is injected with 
pain-killing medicine or he is anaesthetize so that he loses 
sensation and feels no pain. Thus, the slave of Allah who is 
martyred undergoes such a condition that the only sensation he gets 
is like the stinging of an ant. 

In Jami' Tirmizi itself there is a Hadith which says that when a 
man is martyred in the path of Allah, he is shown, at the very time, 
his place in Paradise (a^J^o-u^^). The sight of Paradise itself is 
so very pleasing that the pain of being killed cannot be felt often 
that.l 

pLj 4* *JJ» M J^j Jli JlS Jh^ & Jfi & 0 <\ • ./r Y) 
.<tif^ Up oU 5jj ^^iji JjLi iJJt JJLaj SSl^ljl jli 

(32/1900) Sayyidina Sahl 4l> ibn Hunayf reported that Allah's 
Messenger qj| said, "If anyone supplicates Allah with a true 
heart to grant him martyrdom then Allah will raise him to the 
station and rank of the martyrs even though he may die on his 
bed." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: In our times, the door to Fighting for Allah and 

O. There is an incident of current period. Mawlana Thanavi's ^-U-AUii^j 
Khalifah Mawlana Mufti Muhammad & Hasan Amritsari had migrated 
to Lahore from Amritsar on the portion of the Sub-continent. Here he established 
Jami'Ashraflyah. He had a wound on his feet which soon spread upto his knees 
and his thighs. The doctors decided that his leg must be amputated from his 
thigh down. The Mawlana consented to that and was brought to the operation 
tables. According to procedure, the doctors prepared to anaesthetize him, but he 
told them that it was not necessary and they might carry on without making him 
un-conscious. The Doctors explained to him that it was a long operation and his 
bone would also be severed and it was necessary to put him under anaesthesia. 
The Mawlana was unrelenting and insisted that they should carry on without 
onaesthetizing him. He took a rosary in hand and turned his face on the other 
side. The Doctors submitted to his demand and commenced the operation 
without applying anaesthesia. It took then about two and a half hours during 
which the Mawlana lied down with the rosary in hand. The doctors were very 
surprised and amazed, for, this thing was beyond their imagination. Later on. 
one of them, who had become devoted, asked the Mawlana, "What is the 
secret?" He said, "At that time, Allah had shwon me the reward against the pain 
and He had engrossed me in its sight." Some of the witnesses of this operation 
would still be alive in Lahore, Allah's affairs are far beyond our imaginations. 



250 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



martyrdom is shut. However, this Hadith tells us that to those 
people who keep the merits of martyrdom in mind and pray to 
attain it, Allah will grant them the position of martyrs in view of 
their request and intention. 

Cfi (fe ^ J* ^ s J^j 0*0** ^) 

(33/1901) Sayyidina Anas reported that when they returned 
from the Battle of Tabook and had approached Madinah Allah's 
Messenger lH said, "There are some people in Madinah who 
were with you in this whole journey. When you crossed some 
valley, even then they were wityh you. "Some of the colleagues 
of the journey pointed out, "O Mssenger of Allah! They were in 
Madinah (how then were they with us in the journey?)" He said, 
"Yes, they resided at Madinah itself and could not accompany 
us for some reason and helpnessness." 

(Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: There were some of the Companions * n 
Madinah who wished to accompany the Prophet £H in the 
expedition of Tabook. They were determined but they could not 
join because of some reason. As their intention to accompany was 
sincere, they were recorded by Allah among the participants. In a 
version of this hadith the words are Jr^ J> ^ j/t'j* *i\ (because of 
their sincere intention those Believers were your partners in the 
reward). According to this Hadith, anyone who intends to join in a 
pious work but cannot do that under some compulsion, Allah will 
reward him because of his intention. 

( ( JL^ ol j j) . <J jiijl cJd Cj\y\ 

(34/1902) Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ash'ari 4^ reported that 
Allah's Messenger Sgfe said, "The gates of Paradise are under the 
shade of swords." (Saheeh Musilm) 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Simnah 



251 



Commentary: In the field of jihad where swords are swung 
overhead and the warriors who place their lives in the way of Allah 
are martyred, there alone are the gates of Paradise, wide open. He 
who is martyred in Allah's path enters Paradise through these gates 
at the same moment. From this report of Saheeh Muslim it seems 
that Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ash'ary 4fe had narrated this saying of 
the Prophet during a jihad when fighting was in full swing. It is 
narrated further down that on hearing him a slave of Allah got up. 
He seemed to be in bad condition and he asked, n O Abu Musa did 
you hear the Prophet iH say this with your own ears?" He 
confirmed that he had himself heard him say that. The man then 
went to his friends and said, "I have come to convey to you my last 
greeting. Accept my fare-well salaam." He threw away the sheath 
of his sword and with the naked sword pierced into enemy ranks. 
He fought till he was martyred and attained his ambition. 
According to this saying of the Prophet lH, he entered into 
Paradise through one of its doors. 

# 'Jfai Jji otiu cjft\ jiafi jtiii Jji jli 'J 

\ \ 

(35/1903) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& reported that Allah's 

Messenger iH said, "The mujahid (warrior) in the path of Allah 

is equal (in the sight of Allah) to the man who observes fasting 

regularly, stands before Allah in worship and recites the verses 

of Allah, not resting from tiredness through fasting and worship. 

(He is thus equal in Allah's sight) till he returns home." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The man who leaves home to participate in jihad is 
constantly in worship like one who fasts continuously and stands in 
worship and recites Allah's verses. 

iLj dp aJJl J^fi all Sj^j o * ■ ilr n ) 



252 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(36/1904) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& reported that 
Allah's Messenger said, "There are two eyes that the fire of 
Hell cannot even touch, the eye that weeps in fear of Allah and 
the eye that kept guard (and vigil during the night) in jihad and 
served as such." (Jami' Tirmizi) 



(37/1905) Sayyidina Anas reported that Allah's Messenger 
III said, "To get out in the way of Allah on a morning, or on an 
evening is better than the world and whatever it contains." 

(Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: This means that to go out in Allah's way even for a 
little while is better than the world and everything in it. We must 
believe that compared to the reward that we shall get for it in the 
Hereafter the world and whatever is in it is nothing. The world and 
its contents are emphemeral but that reward is ever-lasting. 



U li^j <Op Jilt J^> Jjl S^j J13 Jl5 ^s. lj\ o i . n/rA) 

(38/1906) Sayyidina Abu Abs ^> reported that Allah's 
Messenger said, "It cannot be that once a man's feet become 
dusty on walking in the path of Allah, the fire of hell would 
touch them." (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: Imam Tirmizi has also transmitted this Hadith of 
Abu Abs 4fe with the addition that one of its narrators, Yazeed ibn 
Abu Maryam, reported that he was going (towards the Tami' 
Masjid) to offer the Friday salah and he met Abayah ibn Rifa'ah 
tabi'ee who said to him: 

"Glad tidings to you that your ^ y >l$» 

feet (with which you walk up 1 ' ' , 

to the Jami' Masjid) are J^j (J Js' \j\ cJu^* 4JUl Jl^> 
walking on the path of Allah. 



> I S * I*. \ s I I, § 3 J 



And I have heard Abu Abs say ^ ^ ^ J>j J* 

that Allah's Messenger said: If j* , 'J, i\ ; 1 \ £ .^t ; (f, j 

anyone's feet walk in the path ' ' 4 ',*,/, ,-, ^ 

of Allah and become dusty then " J* f»> U4* *Ul 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qar'an And The Sunn ah 



253 



they are forbidden to the fire (and it cannot even touch them)" 

Abayah ibn Rifa'ah, tabi'ee, discloses through this statement 
that the words in the path of Allah' do not restrict their application 
to jihad and fighting alone but encompass a greater field; to go to 
offer salah and to run about in service of religion and of what 
places Allah are also jihad. Similarly, the Hadith of Sayyidina Anas 

igfc before that (£J» ^jjj* ^ Jfa~> 'Jt 5 J^) encompasses everyone 

who strives sincerely for Allah and His religion. 



<Op tilt J^> aji Sj^j Jii J** 5>l>i'«S*0^v/Y^) 

(39/1907) Sayyidina Abu- Hurayrah <$jk> reported that Allah's 
Messenger ill said, "He who dies without ever having 
participated in jihad, or thought of it (or formed an intention to 
participate) has died on a mode of hypocrisy." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The Qur'an says in surah al-Hujrat: 



{The believers are only those $. , * s? - 

who believe in Allah and His ^ ^ &™ aj^H'M 

Messenger, then they doubt tjiil£j tjjujl ^ ft fJji^j 

not, and struggle hard with j, J ^ 

their riches and their lives in J^T* ^ ff^J (^J* b ; 

the way of Allah. Those — 06)U> 

they are the truthful ones.} ' * 

(al-Hujarat,49:15) v } 

This verse declares that jihad in the path of Allah is a necessary 
part of true faith. The true Believers are only they whose lives and 
Records of Deeds contain jihad (if not a practical participation 
then, at least, a wish and an intention). Therefore, one who departs 
from this world without these things has departed not as a True 
Believer but as a kind of hypocrite. 

(40/1908) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& reported that Allah's 
Messenger lH said, "If anyone is presented before Allah 
without any trace of jihad on him then he has met Him with 



254 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

defect and a blot (on his religion)." (Jami' Tirmizi, Sunan Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: This Hadith too may be explained in the same way 
as the one before it. In studying this Hadith and others like it, we 
must remember that in the terminology of Qur'an and Hadith jihad 
is not merely fighting and war with weapons. Rather, it is to 
undertake any kind of effort to help and support religion at any 
time necessary; such a struggle is jihad for that occasion. The 
slaves of Allah who struggle according to the needs of time and 
sacrifice their life and property are mujahids (warriors) on the path 
of Allah. We will speak on this in detail later on. 

(41/1909) Sayyidina Zayd ^> ibn Khalid reproted that Allah's 
Messenger said, "If anyone provides a participant of jihad in 
the way of Allah with equipment of jihad then (in the sight of 
Allah) he too has participated in jihad and battle. And, if anyone 
deputises for a warrior and looks after his family then he too has 
participated in jihad. (Both these kinds will receive a reward for 

jihad and they will be recorded with Allah as mujahids) 

(Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: This saying of the Prophet lH outlines the principle 
that one who equips a person who is engaged in helping out 
religion in a large way, or looks after his family in his absence is, 
indeed, entitled to a full reward and is regarded as being in service 
of religion. Those of us who cannot directly take part in a 
large-scale religious mission can, at least, help out those who 
participate and their dependants. We will then be in the same 
category as those who are in the fore-front and in active 
participation and get a full reward. May Allah enable us! 

(^^JV^J « a atjj)-p%r^J f^r^J jfc j£ 

(42/1910) Sayyidina Anas reported that the Prophet m> said, 
"Wage jihad against the polytheists and idolaters with your life, 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



255 



property and tongue." (Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan Nasa'i Sunan Darmi) 

Commentary: Wage jihad according to the opportunity and 
demands of time against the disbelievers and polytheists to bring 
them to believe in unity of Allah and to the True Religion and to. 
weaken them so that the call of Truth may be made unhindered. 
Use your life and wealth to this end and speak with the tongue too. 
The wide context of jihad includes spending money for the call to 
Truth and speaking with the tongue (and using the pen). 

A Clarification: 

The word jihad is used in Urdu only to descrbie the armed war 
fought for Allah and His Messenger and for the religion against the 
enemies of Allah. However, In Arabic and the terminology of the 
Qur'an and Hadith, jihad is to struggle firmly and use possible 
strength against the rivals to achieve a goal. This struggle may turn 
out into a war, or into any other form. (The word is used in the 
Qur'an often in this sense.) 

The Prophet ill stayed at Makkah for about thirteen years after 
being made Prophet. During this entire period, not only was it not 
permitted to him to wage jihad through the sword and engage in 
war but also these things were disallowed. The command applied 
was " ^jJj ijif " (withhold your hands from fighting and war). 
The surah al-Furqan was revealed during the Makkan period. The 
Prophet is told: 

{So (O Prophet), obey not the disbelievers but strive against 
them with a great striving, with this (Qur'an)} (25:52) 

The Prophet Hi is told not to submit to them but continue to 
wage a powerful jihad (struggle) against them with the Qur'an. 
This verse, obviously, does not speak of jihad with the sword or 
warfare, but through the Qur'an the struggle of calling them and 
preaching of them. And, the verse calls it jihad; in fact, jihad 
kabeer and jihad azeem. 

Surah al-Ankaboot too was revealed at Makkah before hijrah. 
It has a verse: 



256 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 




{And whosoever strives, strives only for himself. Surely Allah is 



The person who engages in jihad (in the cause of Allah) truly 
wages it for his own benefit. (Allah does not benefit from it in the 
least.) Allah is Independant 

In the same surah, its last verse says: 



{And those who strive hard for Our cause, We shall certainly 
guide them in Our ways. And surely Allah is with the 



Obviously, both these verses of Surah al-Ankaboot do not use the 
word jihad in the sense of fighting with the sword. Rather, it is 
striving and toiling in Allah's way and for His pleasure in 
whichever from it be. Every sincere struggle for Allah and giving 
up life and property, luxury and comfort and full utilisation of the 
capabilities given by Allah are different stages of jihad in the path 
of Allah. The opportunity to engage in that is available always and 
in every corner of the world. 

Of course jihad with the sword and fighting in the path of 
Allah is a superior kind of jihad from certain angles. The giving up 
of life and martyrdom in this path is a greatest honour for a 
Believer, for which the Prophet Hi himself expressed his earnest 
longing as we have seen earlier. The next Hadith throws more light 
on it. 

. | t****\* * \* \l\ *** * \ * * 

jsJI Oljj) <L*sAi Jjhl?- j^a JLftbjt*J\ jyb a-^J 

(43/191 1) Sayyidina Fudalah <4ife> ibn Ubayd reported that he 
heard Allah's Messenger sBl say, "The mujahid (warrior) is he 
who wages jihad against his own self" (Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Qur'an says: jJIli {Surely human 

soul incites to evil} (Yusuf, 12:53) Thus, the slave of Allah who 
fights against his base desires — instead of obeying them, he obeys 
the Commands of Allah — it is about him that the Prophet Hi has 



Independant of (His) creatures.} 



(29:6) 




good-doers} 



(29:69) 



Book of Holding Fast to The Qur'an And The Sunnah 



257 



said in this Hadith that he is the true mujahid (warrior). In the same 
way, in this series of Ma'arif ul-Hadith in Kitab al-Mu'ashirah when 
speaking of treatment of parents, the Hadith has been narrated in 
which the Prophet has described service to parents as jihad 

The Sphere of Martyrdom 

Just as the word jihad has a vast connotation, so too Allah's 
Messenger all said that the word martyrdom had a wide meaning. 
Thus many who are not killed in the battle-field by the disbelievers 
but die suddenly in accidents, etc. are also included among martyrs. 



s s s s s 



^ X^S, ail ^ J*9 JlaJ bl ja\ J^ 



(44/1912) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4k> reported that Allah's 
Messenger Hi asked (his Companions 4^)> "Whom do you 
regard as shaheed 1 (martyrs) among yourselves?" They said, "O 
Messenger of Allah! The shaheed is he who gets killed in the 
cause of Allah. He said, "In that case the martyrs of my ummah 
will be very few. (Listen!) He is a martyr who is killed in Allah's 
way, and he who dies on the way of Allah (like the journey for 
jihad), he too is a martyr. And he who dies in plague is a martyr 
too. And, he who suffers from a stomach disease is also a martyr 
(the stomach disease could be: chlorea, gastro-enteritis, 
diarrhoea, dropsy, etc.) (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The fact is that the shaheed (martyrs) are really 
those who are killed in the battlefield by the disbelievers and 
polytheists. (There are special commands about them in Shari'ah. 
For example, they are not given bath and are buried in the garments 
they wear). However, Allah, the merciful that He has included in 
this definition some of those who die from unusual disease or 

O. The word is shaheed (singular) and shuhada (plural) but we have shaheed in 
English for singular and plural. 



258 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



accidents. He has promised to give them the rank of shaheed in the 
Hereafter. Some are mentioned in the above Hadith and others will 
be mentioned in the Ahadith to follow. To make a distinction, the 
first kind are called shaheed Haqiqee and the other kinds Shaheed 
Hukmee, the commands of bath and shroud do not apply to the 
second kind. Their bodies are treated like ordinary deaths. 

^3 dp &\ J^> 4JJ1 jis jis i^jk ^ ^ o<um°) 

^3 X^Jl j ^1 S-^^J JdyJ^J OJ*4^j JjdaJl 

(45/1913) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fe reported that Allah's 
Messenger iHl said, "The shaheed are of five kinds O Those 
who die of plague, © Those who die from stomach ailment. © 
Those who die from drowning. 0 And, those who die under 
crumbling buildings, etc. © And, the shaheed in the way of 
Allah (on the field of jihad). (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

£>y iLj ^Ip JU jjt JlS JlS ^i!p J>\ ( n u/ 1 n> 

■* s % 

(46/1914) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas reported that Allah's 
Messenger iH? said, "Death during journey is martyrdom." 
(Sunan Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: If we ponder over these Ahadith, we will learn that 
Allah through His Mercy has given the rank of martyrdom in some 
form to those who die a sudden death or a painful or pitiful death. 
He will give them reward of some kind of martyrdom. This is a 
great glad tiding for those who die in this way and a great 
consolation for their heirs. May Allah cause us to believe. 

In these present times many accidents take place whether of 
automobiles or railways or aeroplanes. There are also sudden 
deaths through heart-related ailments. 

We have full faith in Allah's Mercy that He will treat all of them 
with kindness. Surely, Allah's Mercy is very vast. 



KITABUL FITAN 

(BOOK OF TRIALS 
AND AFFLICTIONS) 



RELIGIOUS DECLINE & TRIALS 
FACED BY THE VMM AH 



At the same time as the Prophet isl gave guidance to the 
ummah on different religious matters that we have seen so far, he 
also warned them of decline in religion, changes and trials; and he 
also gave guidance for such occasions. Allah had revealed to him 
that just as earlier people had suffered religious decline and they 
had gone into error, so too his ummah will go through a similar 
period and deprive themselves of Allah's blessings. Thus, the 
Prophet $H had opportunity to guide his people in this regard. 

Sayings of the Prophet III on this subject are found in Books of 
Hadith in their section. Book or Chapter of Fitn. They are not 
merely foretellings but their aim is to forewarn the ummah of the 
trials they would face and to guide them on how to save themselves 
from the effects of the trials. 

The Ahadith that follow may be read in the light of this 
preamble and we must examine ourselves and seek guidance from 
them. 

y^r IjbO }3 Wjij j~~> pSdJ 

(1/1915) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed 4&al-Khurdi reported that 
Allah's Messenger iil said, "Certainly you (my ummah) will 
follow in the footsteps of the earlier people — span for span, 
and cubit for cubit — and if they had entered the bear's den, you 
too would do the same thing." Some one asked, "O Messenger 
of Allah, do you mean the Jews and Christians?" He said, "Who 
else?" (Bukhari and Muslim) 



262 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Commentary: The word cubit is the length from finger tips to the 
elbow which is equal to two spans, and the full expression means 
step by step. So, the Prophet's iH saying means: Some people of 
my ummah will follow the earlier communities step by step so that 
they will do the same things the earlier ones had done and commit 
the same wrongs they had committed. If the earlier people had 
done some foolish things like going into a bear's den, someone 
from my ummah too will try the same foolish thing. (They will thus 
ape them in everything.) When someone asked if by earlier 
communities he meant the Jews and Christians, the Prophet 
comfirmed that. 

This, as we have said earlier, is more a warning to protect 
themselves than a prediction. 

Jl5 ?Jji J)i>: a& JlS ijjUi ,^JUUi3 

j*j < J£~£t^ J4jj ^£jU 3 jk> 1*6 

(2/1916) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr4^> reported that one day 
the Prophet interlaced his fingers of one hand into those of 
another and asked, "O Abdullah! What will be your state and 
reaction when only the dregs or the worst kind of people 
remain. They will cheat in their convenants and dealings and 
they would have (serious) disagreements (and bickerings). They 
will intermingle mutually (just like my fingers are now 
interlaced.)" Abdullah ibn Amr ^k> submitted, "O Messenger of 
Allah, how should I conduct myself then (at that time.)" The 
Prophet said, "The course or deed that you find correct and 
approved, choose that and shun that which you consider wrong. 
Keep all your attention on yourself (and think of yourself). And 
abstain from the dregs and incapable people who fight among 
themselves and their masses." (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: The word in the Hadith p» means dregs. It is used 
here for the worst of men who have no human quality, and are 
absolutely incapable. They would deceive people. 



Book of Trials & A fflictions 



263 



Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr al-Aas <4fe>'was a young 
Companion and very pious. It was the Prophet's method of 
teaching that he put a question to his Companions c^> who then 
enquired from him the correct answer. Accordingly, Abdullah 
asked the Prophet iH for the correct answer and he informed him. 
The gist of his guidance was: when you find such people then think 
about yourself and turn away from them. 

At this point, we must remember that whatever guidance the 
Prophet Hi wished to give to the Muslims till the Last Day, he 
addressed the Sahaba c^> (Companions) and left the message with 
them. May Allah reward them and those that succeeded them that 
they conveyed these messages of guidance of the Prophet Hi to the 
people who followed them. The scholars of Hadith then preserved 
them in books of Ahadith. 



(3/1917) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri 4fe reported that 
Allah's Messenger said, "There will soon come a time when 
a Muslim's best property will be sheep which he will take away 
to the mountain-tops and valleys of rainfall to flee from Fitan 
(trials and afflictions) and save his religion." (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: The Last Hour is stated in the Qur'an as close-by 
(IpuIJi cJ^ij)(al-Qamar, 54:1). The Prophet iH, too, used to mention 
it as though it was about to take place, and he gave its signs in the 
same manner. Firstly, that which is to come and is sure to come 
must be regarded as drawing near. Secondly, the wisdom behind 
that was that no one may sit with complacency because it was far 
off in time, and be lethargic in preparing himself for it. Thus, on 
this principle, the Prophet ill has described the Fitn (trials and 
afflictions) to be near the time when it will be difficult for pious 
men to keep to their religion and abide by Allah's and His 
Messenger's commands. He said that at a such time that Believing 
slave will be at peace who has some goats and he takes his herd to 
the tops of mountains or in valleys where there is rainfall. The 



264 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



goats would subsist on foliage grown by Allah and he would live 
on them, keeping safe from fitn. 

( tf aijj) .pyi J* ^liiir ^ ^ i^s 5U3 ^ u!t 

(4/1918) Sayyidina Anas 4$£> reported that Allah's Messenger m 
said, "A time will come on people when one who patiently 
observes religion will be like one who holds burning charcoal in 
his hand." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Sin, indecency and neglect of godly life will be so 
common and rampant that it will be difficult and require 
tremendous patience to live according to commands of religion and 
abstain from the unlawful. It will be like trying to hold burning 
charcoal in the hands. It is the same time as is mentioned in 
Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed's 4® foregoing Hadith. But Allah knows best. 

(5/1919) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^ reported that Allah's 
Messenger Hi said, "You are now in times when if anyone 
conducts himself on Divine injunctions (to a large extent) and 
neglects only a tenth part of them then he will perish (and will 
suffer.) But, later a time will come when if anyone acts on only 
one-tenth of the Divine commands then he will be saved." 

(Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: In the times of the Prophet Hi when people were in 
his company and under his training and observed him closely, the 
atmosphere was such that Divine injunctions were followed 
zealously and that was very easy for them. It came as second nature 
to them to obey Allah and His Messenger. Thus, if anyone 
neglected even a little of his duties then he was liable to be taken to 
task and account for his conduct. But, the Prophet H also spoke of 
times when the situation would be very non-conducive for a 
religious life. (It would like trying to hold burning charcoal in the 
hand.) He said about this times that the slave of Allah who acts on 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



265 



even a few of Divine commands will find them enough to earn 
salvation. I believe that the word one-tenth is not to be taken 
literally but it means a little against too much. The message of the 
Prophet III is explained in the foregoing passage. 

Trial Through Wealth 



(6/1920) Muhammad ibn Ka'b al Qurazi said that he heard from 
one who heard (this story) directly from Sayyidina Ali ibn 
Abu Talib. (he said:) We were sitting in the mosque with Allah's 
Messenger ill when Mus'ab ibn Umayr 4fe> came to us wearing 
only a (worn out) cloak that was patched with hide. When 
Allah's Messenger HI saw him (in this condition), he wept 
remembering his affluent state (before he embraced Islam) and 
seeing his present (pitiable, poor) condition. Then Allah's 
Messenger said (to us), "(Tell me) how will it be with you when 
(in affluence and luxury) one of you goes out in the morning 
wearing a mantle and in the evening wearing another, and (a 
meal in a )dish is placed before him while another is carried 
away. And you will clothe your homes in the same way as the 
Ka'bah is covered?" (In answer to his question among the 
attendants,) some people submitted, "O Messenger of Allah, we 
will then be in a better condition than today. We will get ample 
time to worship and not have to toil (for livelihood). "Allah's 
Messenger §§b said, "Mo, you are much better off today (in this 
poverty) than that day (of affluence)." (Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Muhammad ibn al-Qurazi was a tabVee who was 




3 3 y *" ) % ' 3 % ' + f 




266 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



distinguished in his times for his knowledge of the Qur'an and his 
piety. He has not mentioned the name of the narrator who reported 
to him the Hadith on the authority of Sayyidina Ali 4&>, but it is 
clear from his report that the narrator was a reliable and 
trustworthy man. 

Sayyidina Mus'ab ibn Umayr had a distinct position among 
the Companions and an interesting history. He was from a very 
rich family and was brought up with much doting and care, and he 
lived in great luxury. But, when he became a Muslim, his life 
changed altogether and his state became what we have read in this 
Hadith. He had only a single tattered cloak on his body and his 
condition brought tears in the eyes of the Prophet iH. 

Then the Prophet &H informed his Companions 4$> of a time 
when his ummah would live in luxury. They would have enough 
garments to be able to change them twice a day, variety of dishes 
on the dining mat. He asked them what they thought of those 
coming times and when they thought that there would be abundant . 
opportunity to devote themselves to worship, he told them that they 
were wrong to imagine that. They were much better off than those 
who would see affluent times. 

The fact is that when the Prophet £gi spoke of these times, the 
Companions could only believe in the unseen. Later, however, 
in the times of the Banu Umayah and Banu Abbas and later on in 
Many Muslim governments and even today in those Muslim 
countries who are blessed with luxury, this fact was clearly 
observed. Indeed, these predictions are among the miracles of 
Allah's Messenger and evidences of his Prophethood. 

«* ' " ' 9 m Km J* s * > K* ) J- . > . Jt . 

Jjlfl Jl3 jajH ^jla j> ji jaj pLsit ff-jJ* j>w> 

£>'jj\ dJUl dJ- Ji5 ?y»jJi Uj ill j^>; 

(7/1921) Sayyidina Thawban ^reported that Allah's 



Book of Trials & A fflictions 



267 



Messenger ail said, "The time is near when (your enemy) 

nations invite each other against you (to wage war and 

annihilate you) like diners invite each other to tbe platters 

(dishes of food)." Someone submitted, "Will it be because of 

our few numbers on that day?" He said, "(No!) Rather you will 

be in large numbers then but like the sediments of flood you 

will be (lifeless and weightless) and Allah will remove from 

your enemies your fear, and (instead) put into your hearts j^j 

(wahn)" Someome asked what wahn jaj was and he said, 

"Love for the world and dislike of death." 

(Sunan Abu Dawood, Dala'il an-Naboovvah) 

Commentary: When the Prophet j|& spoke as he did in this Hadith 
— and even many centuries after that — the condition of the 
Muslims seemed to believe his prediction. But, whatever he said 
did happen. Even today we see that happening. The reason for the 
Muslim decline is also the same as he had suggested. We love this 
world and the life here and find death (in Allah's path) a bitter 
proposition and our condition has made us an easy morsel for our 
enemies. As we have said already, this saying of the Prophet Hi is 
not merely a prediction but an instruction to his nmmah to protect 
their hearts from jaj wahn (love for the world and dislike of death.) 

-ja fife 'J4 ^ 'J\ fi/A fip&. 

(8/1922) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& reported that Allah's 
Messenger j£§l said, "When your rulers are the pious people 
among you and your wealthy men are generous and your affairs 
are settled with mutual consultation then the surface of the earth 
is better for you than its belly. But if (in contrast,) your rulers 
are the worst men among you and your welalthy men possess a 
miserly character (instead of generosity) and your affairs are 
subservient to your women's opinion (instead of mutual 
consultation) then the belly of the earth is better for you than its 
surface." (J ami Tirmizi) 



268 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Commentary: It was revealed to the Prophet ill that for a length 
of time his ummah will have pious men in government, their rich 
men will be endowed with liberality and will spend from Allah's 
provisions sincerely on virtuous accounts, and their mutual 
dealings will conclude with consultation. (These are three signs 
that the ummah will observe the Commands of Allah and His 
Messenger.) The Prophet HI said that these would be a blessing for 
the ummah and they would be worthy of walking on the face of the 
earth and, being the best community, they would be responsible to 
guide and lead people. It was also revealed to ohim that a time 
would come when things would be reversed. 

Evil people would rule, the rich men would be stingy and 
greedy and their affairs would be concluded with the pleasure of 
women in mind. The Prophet $m said that the people would not 
then be deserving of walking on the face of the earth but would 
deserve to be eliminated and buried into it. 

This Hadith, too, besides predicting the future events, warns 
the ummah to mend their ways. 

The Trials That Will Grow 

iLji gi&Ji jjbi ^4 & jutfij 

(9/1923) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^reported that Allah's 
Messenger ill said, "Make haste in doing good deeds before the 
coming of the trial that will descend in quick succession like 
portions of the dark night. (It will be that) a man will rise up in 
the morning as a faithful but will begin the evening as one 
deprived of faith. Or he will be a believer in the evening but will 
not remain a believer the next morning and become an infidel. 
He will sell away his religion and faith for, the meagre 
provisions of this world." ' (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet Hi was informed that his ummah will 
encounter trials one upon another like the darkness of the night. As 
a result, a man would wake up a Believer and Muslim but by 
evening time he will go astray or do a wicked deed and waste away 
and foil religion. 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



269 



This trial will emerge through misleading movements and 
women and through greed for wealth and leadership and other 

kinds of indecent desires. The last sentence in the Hadith is ^J" 

> > " 

ift J* <<u i«? (He will sell away his religion against paltry 
provisions of the world.) The Hadith does not only imply that a 
man would turn to disbelief for worldly ends but it also 
encompasses all possibilities whereby he will overlook the 
religious commands to further his worldly ambitions (like 
amassing wealth or strengthening his leadership, etc.) Thus, 
coveting the world and neglecting the Hereafter and every kind of 
sin and indecency is included here and this is practical disbelief. 
We may repeat here that though the Prophet Hi addressed the 
Companions 4k the addressees realy include his ummah of every 
period. He means to warn every Believer to beware of Trials liable 
to hamper faith and to tell him that he must hasten to do righteous 
deeds lest he succumb to trial and fail to do good deeds thereafter. 
If he will persist in doing pious deeds, he will be entitled to Allah's 
protection from Trial. 



* * f s s } tit s s 

(10/1924) Sayyidina Miqdad ibn Aswad <4fe reported having 
heard Allah's Messenger HI say, "Surely he is fortunate who is 
kept safe from trials. He is fortunate who is kept far away from 
trials. He is fortunate who is separated from trials. But, as for 
him who is involved into it and he shows patience and 
steadfastness, (What do we say of him but that) he is praised 
and lauded." (Sunan Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Whenever he wished that his listeners should 
comprehend well what he said to them, he repeated that three 
times. For instance, here he said thrice "J^iJi h\ " (He is 

surely fortunate who is kept away from trials.) He said that again 
and again because it is a great blessing for anyone to be protected 
from trials but because it is not seen, many people do not realise it. 
Therefore, they neither value it nor express gratitude for it which is 



270 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



a serious deprivation. In the end, he said that if anyone does face 
trial and endures it by sticking to religion then he is to be lauded 
and congratulated. This is the more appropriate interpretation of 
the last words "wji jli* JlaJi jJ}" although exponents have 
suggested other meanings too. And, knowledge is with Allah! 

IjJld <£^l jiS^j £-Sjl ^ j jsaJt j^laJj ^ya^jj jWpl o3l£u 

(1 1/1925) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fe reported that Allah's 
Messenger ^ said, "The times will draw nearer, knowledge 
will be taken away, trials will afflict and stinginess will be put 
(in human nature and hearts), and there will be much harj" The 
Companions 4$> asked what harj was and he said, "Bloodshed 
and killing." (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet Hi has spoken of some trials that will 
afflict the ummah. His first words were $**)\ 40^- The 
commentators have suggested different meanings for it, but I am 
inclined to understand it as; times will pass rapidly, there will be no 
auspiciousness in it, something done in a day will take several days 
to accomplish. This is my experience, but Allah knows best. 

The Prophet iH also said that knwledge will be taken away. It 
is the knowledge that is the legacy of the Prophet iaH will be taken 
away. This is explained in another Hadith that religious scholars 
(the heirs of this knowledge) will be taken away (through libraries 
may survive and professional scholars thrive in our cities). The fact 
is that knowledge which is the legacy of prophethood and is 
guidance and light is only that which the religious scholars possess 
as trustees thereof. If they do not exist, the knowledge and light 
will disappear with them. 

The third thing the Prophet iH said, "Trials will afflict (In 
different ways)." This is self-explanatory. The fourth thing he said 
u ^uJ\ ^j". The praiseworthy qualities of generosity and sacrifice 
will be lacking. The last thing he said is that there will be much 
bloodshed and killing. This is destructive by worldly standards and 
a grave sin in terms of the Hereafter. May Allah protect us from 



Book of Trials & A fflictions 



271 



these trials. 



(12/1926) Sayyidina Ma'qal 4£> ibn Yasar reported that Allah's 
Messenger £§1 said, "To occupy oneself during the harj (killing) 
is like making the hijrah (migration) towards me. M (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: When there is unnecessary killing, a Believer must 
save himself from that and devote himself with single-minded 
worship of Allah. In Allah's sight, this deed will be like his 
migration from the land of the infidels towards the Prophet Hi to 
preserve his faith. 

(13/1927) Sayyidina Zubayr ibn Adi reported that they went 
to Sayyidina Anas 4^ ibn Maalik and complained to him of the 
oppression let loose by Hajjaj. He said, "Be patient (on these 
trials) and know that no time will come upon you but will be 
followed by a time worse than it till you meet your Lord. I have 
heard this from your Prophet i|l. M 

Commentary: We have stated earlier in this series of Ma'arif 
ul-Hadith that Allah had granted the Prophet's ill personal servant. 
Sayyidina Anas 4fe ibn Maalik a long life. He lived in Basra for 
about 80 years after the Prophet's si death. After Sayyidina 
Mu'awiyah 4fe>, the rule of Hajjal Thaqafi of the Banu Umayyah 
was proverbial for its cruelty. Zubayr ibn Adi was a tabi'ee. 
Sayyidina Anas 4fe comforted them when he and his colleagues 
complained to him of the cruelty of Hajjaj by saying that they 
should endure the oppression with patience, for, more difficult 
times would come. He had heard the Prophet ill say that the times 
to follow would always be worse than the time preceding it. 

This might lead one to doubt that Sayyidina Umar ibn Abdul 
Aziz aJLp &\ followed Hajjaj and after him too there were other 
just and pious rulers. Then how would we reconcile the Prophet's 



272 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



saying about more difficult times following one after another? 

The Prophet's saying does not concern government and officers 
of government alone. Rather, he had said that in general terms 
about the overall condition of the ummah. There is no doubt in 
what he said and it is confirmed by observation. Hajjaj was as he is 
projected, but there were other people in the government and they 
were evil and corrupt. However there were many Companions alive 
at that time. There were many tabi'een who rank most excellent 
after the Companions 4fe> and many of the believing masses were 
righteous people too. Every succeeding generation was definitely 
worse than the previous. This is also borne out by history. May 
Allah preserve our faith from mischief. 

.aL ^ipj sjii ^Uip} ijlp jii ii^>3 

jb jj\ j ^J^j JUfi otjj) 

(14/1928) Sayyidina Safinah 4l> reported having heard Allah's 

Messenger itl say, "The Khalifah (caliphate) will last only 

thirty years. Then monarchy will take over, "Then Safinah said, 

"Count the (years of)Khalifah — Abu Bakr 2 years, Umar (10 

years, Uthman 12 years and Ali 6 years." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Jami' Tirmizi, Sunan Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Safinah was the Prophet's iH freed 
slave. He has quoted the Prophet Hi as saying that the Khalifat 
would last thirty years, that is what was exactly on his pattern and 
the way which pleasure Allah (and which is called Khilafat 
Raashidah). Then the system would switch over to monarchy. 
Allah had revealed this to His Prophet m> who mentioned it to his 
Companions djfa often, and cautioned them. This is reported by 
different Companions c^>. Sayyidina Safinah also gave a count of 
the duration of Khilafat, but that is an estimate, for, the exact 
periods are: 

.Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4#>\ 2 years four months, 
Sayyidina Umar 4fe: 10 years six months, 
Sayyidina Uthman 4fe>: few days short 12 years, 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



273 



Sayyidina Ali 4p>: 4 years 9 months. 

This adds up to 29 years 7 months. Sayyidina Hassan was 
Khalifah for about five months and that makes the total 30 years. 
These are the thirty years of Khilafat Raashidah. Then, as the 
Prophet iSl had forewarned, there was Kingdom instead of 
Khilafat. These foretellings are evidence of his prophethood as 
well as warning to the ummah. 

(15/1929) Sayyidina Huzayfah 4fe reported that (one day) 

Allah's Messenger stood up (to deliver a sermon). He did not 

omit to mention anything that would occur till the Last Day. he 

mentioned all of them. He who remembered did remember it but 

he who forgot, did forget. My friends too know it. And, the fact 

is that 1 forget something of his sermon but when I see it 

(happen), I remember it. (It is) like a man who forgets the face 

of another man when he is absent from him but then as he sees 

him, he recognises him (And remembers the forgotten face). 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: This report has been narrated by other Companions 
too. One day the Prophet icH delivered a very lengthy sermon in 
which he mentioned the events and calamities that would occur till 
the Last Day. Obviously, he had thought it necessary to caution the 
ummah about these occurences, for, that was his mission, and that 
did behove him too. However, there are people who hold that he 
had knowledge of everything from the begining of creation to the 
Last Hour of the universe, and of all creatures and of every little 
thing. They cite this Hadith and other Ahadith of this purport in 
support of their cuntention. They assert that the Prophet HH said in 
these Ahadith everything about oj&>j o^"u (what was and what 
will be). This would encompass all countries of the world 
including India, Japan, America, Russia etc. and everything 



274 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

happening there till the Last Day was known to him whereher it 
concerned man animals, birds and creatures in the oceans too. In 
the same way, he told the Companions c^> — according to these 
people — everything broadcast on the radio the world over and 
printed in newspapers worldwide till the Last Day. 

Even one with a little intelligence can see that this is not the 
purport of the Hadith. 

Besides, if what they say is true then he would have named the 
Khalifah who succeeded him, Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4$b, and the next 
and so on so forth. If that were so then there would have been no 
argument, consultation or selection of the first Khalifah at 
Saqeefah Banu Sa'dah, and again on the martyrdom of the second 
Khalifah, Sayyidina Umar <t$k> 9 the third would have been appointed 
directly. 

If we say that these people forgot what the Prophet III said 
about these things then that reflects on every thing about religion. 
It is the Companions 4fc who taught religion to the ummah and 
among them were the sabi'qeen awaleen and ashrah mubash 
sharah. If we were to believe that they forgot something that 
concerned themselves then their Ahadith would be unreliable too. 
If it is known about any narrator of Hadith that he was forgetful 
then the muhadditheen do not rely on any of his Ahadith, and he is 
classified as unreliable reporter. 

Anyway the claim of these people that the Prophet lH had 
described in his sermon in the Masjid Nabawi — what they call — 
d j^i u j d& u 5-^ — is very foolish and ignorant in view of the 
foregoing arguments. All that the Ahadith say is that he described 
the extra-ordinary incidents and calamities to occur till the Last 
Day and of the main Trials and turmoil all of which Allah had 
revealed to him, and which he found necessary to inform the 
ummah. This is the call of his mission and this is worthy of. him. 



SIGNS OF THE QIYAMAH 



Just as the Prophet mentioned some of the fitan (trials) to 
afflict the ummah, he also spoke of some things that would happen 
before the Last Hour. Some of them are unusual, seemingly 
contrary to the natural laws on which the solar system operates, for 
example rising of the sun from the east instead of the west, the. 
emergence of daabatul ard (a beast from the earth), the coming of 
dajjal, the descent of Sayyidina Isa f$0&. These unusual signs 
would take place very near the Last Hour, as if they were an 
introduction to it. They are also known as the major signs. At the 
same time, the Prophet $m has also mentioned certain things, 
happenings, charges which will occur before the Last Hour and 
which may not be unusual, but they were unusual and surprising in 
his times and the times of the best of generations. Their occurence 
is a sign of mischief and corruption. They are the general signs of 
the Last Hour. We present, therefore, the sa yings of the Prophet ill 
on these signs, the general or the second Kind. The Ahadith on the 
first kind will be presented thereafter. 

jiij 4JJ1 { J^p ui; jti i'jijx ^ ^ (\<\r>i\\) 
ftwi £jL* \i\ jii ?iptUi J* jia *j\'Ja arii 

s * ' * ' 

(16/1930) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <$<h reported that while the 
Prophet Jg§I was speaking a Bedouin came and asked the 
Prophet S, "When will the Last Hour come?" He said, "(The 
time) when trust will be wasted then wait for the Last Hour." 
The Bedonin submitted "How will a trust be wasted?" He said, 
"When affairs are handed over to the unworthy then wait for the 
Last Hour." (Saheeh Bukhari) 



276 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Commentary: The word amanat in Arabic has a wide 
connotation. Every important and great responsibility is an amanah 
translated here as trust. The true meaning may be surmised from 
this verse of Surah al-Ahzab: 

(YT:YT ^j^l) 

{We offered the trust (freedom of choice to do good or to do 

evil) to the heavens and the earth and the mountains} 

(al-Ahzab, 33:72) 

Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah's 4^ Hadith has the Prophet's Hi own 
explanation of this world: responsibility will be placed with the 
unworthy; this includes responsiblity of every kind, step by step — 
governance, offices of government, religious leadershop, trusts, 
judgement and ruling, etc., any large or small responsibility 
misplaced with the unworthy. These are examples of wasting or 
misusing trust and it is a sign of the Last Hour. 

Though the Prophet HI gave this information to a Bedouin in 
answer to his query, it is a message to his ummah that they must 
realise the importance of amanah and give its right. They must 
give responsibility in every matter to one who is worthy of it 
otherwise they will be guilty of wasting it and they will be 
answerable to Allah for that. 

» ✓ y y s 

, y y (fi y j 

9 \ 9 9 < < 9 . • y 3 . * ^ m * | 9 | ( y y y 9y 

(17/1931) Sayyidina Jabir 4^> ibn Samurah reported that the 
Prophet iH» said, "Before the Last Hour, there would be some 

Kazzab (great liars). You must be careful of them." 

(Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The word Kazzabeen (pi. of Kazzab) are the people 
whose lies are out of the ordinary and concern the religion, like 
claim of prophethood, inventing Ahadith or false stories to promote 
their bid'ah and evil. The Prophet ^ said that such people will 
come after him but before the Last Hour and will try to mislead the 
people. He, therefore, advised his ummah to be aware of them. As 
we know, since the Prophet's isll times till now, hundreds of 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



277 



claimants to prophethood have risen, the first of them being 
Musaylimah Kazzab> and, according to our knowledge, the last was 
Ghulam Ahmad Qadyani. Similarly, claimants to being Mahdi have 
been appearing as also proponents of various movements. They are 
all included among the Kazzab mentioned by the Prophet from 
whom he has asked us to keep away. 



(18/1932) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^reported that Allah's 
Messenger Hi said, "When the spoils are considered as personal 
wealth, and trusts as spoils, and zakat as tax (or penalty), and 
knwoledge is acquired for objectives other than religious, and 
men obey their wives and disobey their mothers, and draw 
friends near to them but drive fathers away, and voices are 
raised in mosques, and the chief of a tribe is their most immoral 
man, and such a man is appointed a nation's leader as is the 
most worthless and wicked among them, and a man is respected 
for fear of his mischief, and (professional) female singers, and 
musicians are common, and wine is consumed, and the 
latter-day people of the ummah curse their predecessors — then 
wait for the violent storms, earth quakes, and being swallowed 
up by the earth, metamorphosis, raining stones and (other) signs 
(like this) following each other in quick succession like a 
neckjace whose string is cut off so that its bits fall one after 
another." (Jami' Tirmizi) 



Commentary: The Prophet has enumerated fifteen bad deeds 
that will be found in his ummah before the Last Day. 
(1) The persons in authority will use spoils of war as their 



fLj 0 till JU 4iJ» Sj^j Jis Ji5 8>:> y J} ^ ( \ \r y/U) 





278 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

personal wealth although they belong to the warriors, and 
the poor too have a share in it. 

(2) They will not pay zakah to the government willingly but 

regard it as a kind of penalty. 1 

(3) Religious knowledge will be acquired to further wordly ends. 

and gains although it should be acquired for religion and 
improvement of one's Hereafter. 

(4) & (5) Men will obey their wives and attend to their whims 

while they will disobey their mothers and hurt them. 
(6) & (7) They will keep close to friends and colleagues but keep 
the father away and treat him shabily. 

(8) Etiquette will not be observed in mosques where it is not 

allowed to speak loudly uncessarily. People will make a 
noise and shout there. 

(9) The sinful people will be chiefs and leaders of tribes. 

(10) Those people will be made responsible for their communty 
who are the most mean among them. 

(11) The wicked will be respected because people fear their 
wickedness. 

(12) & (13) There will be an abundance of professional 
singing-girls and musical instruments (and those who enjoy 
them). 

(14) Wine will be drunk much. 

(15) Succeeding generations of the ummah will curse and speak 
ill of their predecessors in the ummah. 

The Prophet aft said at the end of his message, "When these 
evils are seen, wait for the wrath of Allah in the shape of (red) 
violent winds, strong earth-quakes, men being swallowed into the 
earth, their faces bring changes strikingly, raining of stones from 
heaven, and other signs of the Dominant and Glorious Allah which 
will appear in quick succession as though beads falling off a 
broken necklace. 

The apparent meaning of the Hadith is that when these evils 
will come over among the ummah, the Divine wrath will fall on 

O. It must be remembered that the Islamic government is authorised to collect 
from the rich and disburse zakah to the deserving. Those who are not fearful 
of Allah and have weak faith consider it as one of governmental taxes a 
penalty or fine. 



Book of Trials & A fflictions 



279 



them in the forms mentioned. 

pL>j Jji» Jut j'jZ>j Ji5 jil sji^i ^ ( ^ <\ rr/n> 

(19/1933) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah reported that Allah's 
Messenger ^ said, "The Last Hour will not come until (the 
time) when wealth is abundant and overflowing and until when 
a man takes out zakah on his property but does not find one 
(poor, needy or deserving) who would accept it from him, and 
the Arabian land (most of which is barren today) turns green 
and flourising with rivers." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: There has been an abundant flow of wealth in Arab 
countries since the discovery of petrol about a half century ago. 
They are also trying to turn the barren, dead land into fertile, 
cultivable gardens and to have flowing, gushing rivers. When the 
Prophet III had disclosed this, no one could have imagined such a 
thing but Allah had revealed it to him and he let the ummah know 
about it. The Companions ej$fc> had only heard him but today we can 
see his words being given practical shape. Surely, such sayings of 
the Prophet ^§1 are his miracles and evidence of his prophethood 

£ 1 £ i s 

pL) 4* &\ ait jis jts 5>;^ ^ ^ ( \ <\r i/x . > 
. ij'j^L, j#t ji^Ji jp j\ ja ju r 'J* J* f jshf 

(20/1 934) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& reported that Allah's 
Messenger Hi said, "The Last Hour will not come before a fire 
(of unusual kind) rises from the Hijaz which will illuminate the 
necks of camels in Basra." (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Allah had revealed to His Messenger the 
extraordinary happenings and calamities that would occur in the 
world. One of them is the extremely unusual kind of fire that would 
issue from the Hijaz and would be one of the unimaginable signs 
of the Power of Allah. Its light will illuminate the necks of camels 
hundreds of miles away in Busra. 



280 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Hijaz is the wide area of land that has cities like Makkah, 
Madinah, Jaddah, Ta'if, Rabigh, etc. Busra is a city in Syria near 
Damascus. Most of the exponents of Hadith including those of 
Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim, Hafiz Ibn hajr, Allama Ayni 
and Imam Nawawi cites the fire that had erupted near Madinah in 
mid-seventh century Hijri as the one spoken of by the Prophet III. 
For three days there were the after-effects of a strong earthquake 
then the fire spread over a vast area and resounded with a roar and 
rumble like clouds do. It seemed like a city of fire and whichever 
mountain fell into its stride crumbled to pieces or dissolved. 
Though it was at some distance from Madinah yet its nights were 
illuminated as though they were days and people could do the same 
things they did during daytime. Its light was seen hundreds of 
miles away, including Yamamah and Busra. What was surprising 
about it was that it burned down rocks to ashes but did not burn 
trees, and it had erupted in the begining of Jumadi ul-Ukhra and 
lasted till the end of Rajab, about two and three-quarters of a 
month. All the while not only was Madinah safe but a pleasant, 
cool air blew over it. Undoubtedly, the fire was a sign of Allah's 
Power, Glory and Majesty. The Prophet 0 had mentionned it six 
hundred and fifty years earlier. 



MAJOR SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR 



Sun Rise From West, Beast of The 
Earth, Mischief of Daj jal, Coming of 
Imam Mahdi & Descent of Sayyidina Isa %?M 

✓ i* fi> i> ✓ / J, 

. l*yt !Jp i$ Ji-W L^U jJ cilT U#5 j ^UJl ^ 

(21/1935) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas 4fe reported 
that he heard Allah's Messenger ill say, "The first to be seen of 
the signs of the Last Hour will be the rising of the sun from the 
west, and the appearance of daabat al-ard (the Beast of earth) 
before the people. Whichever of the two precedes, the next is 
close on its heels." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: When these words were spoken by the Prophet HH, 
Allah had revealed to him only that the two singular, unusual signs 
would be shown. The sun that rises in the east would change its 
habit and rise in the west. Secondly, an unusual animal [Jf>]^ 
will appear also against normal happenings. Till that time, the 
Prophet was not told which of the two would be the first to 
occur and so he said explicitly that one would follow the other 
quickly. In other words, both will occur concurrently. 

The appearance of daabat ul-ard is also mentioned in the 
Qur'an (an-Naml, 27:82). Many unfounded stories circulate about it 
among the masses and, blesses and spurious reports have found 
their way in some exegesis. The words of the Qur'an and reliable 
Ahadith tell us only that it will be an animal that walks and runs on 
earth whom Allah will raise from the earth in an unusual maner 
(just as He had Salih from a rock of a mountain.) By the 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Command of Allah, it will speak like human beings and will reason 
out with them for Allah. Some Ahadith suggest that it will appear 
from Mount Safa in Makkah. 

The rising of the sun from the west and the appearance of the 
beast in a manner not normally known — both seem to be contrary 
to natural laws. Hence those who are low of understanding and are 
not aware of the unlimited powers of Allah may entertain doubts 
about it. They must realise that these things will happen when the 
laws on which this world works come to an end, and the time of 
the Last Hour or the Qiyamah would begin. Earth and heaven will 
be no more and there would be another world with a different 
system. 

We may make it clear here that the major signs too are of two 
kinds. Some will be manifest very near to the Last Day and they 
may be said to be conjunctive to it in the same way as dawn spells 
the commencement of the day. Both these signs mentioned in this 
Hadith are of this type, and they are the first of the signs of this 
type to be manifest. They would herald the end of the world at 
Allah's Command and the begining of the era of Qiyamah and 
another system. 

Some other major signs of the Last Hour would be manifest 
some time before that and they would be signs of nearness of the 
Last Hour. Among these signs are the emergence of dajjal and 
descent of Sayyidina Isa (We will read about them in the 
Ahadith to follow). 



dii aOp 4JU1 Sy's J 15 J 15 8 jo* ^ ( h rn/ y Y) 

(22/1936) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^ reported that Allah's 
Messenger iaH said, "(Of the signs of the Last Hour), there are 
three which when they are manifest will not benefit a man his 
profession of faith (and performance of good deeds) who was 
not a Believer before hand, or had not supplemented his belief 
with righteous deeds, (they are:) rising of the sun from the west, 
emergence of dajjal (anti-Christ), and appearance of daabat 
ul-ard (beast of earth)." (Saheeh Muslim) 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



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Commentary: With the manifestation of these three signs, it will 
be clear to everyone that the whole system of the world has gone 
hay wire and the Qiyamah has approached. Hence, to believe then 
or to repent from sins or give charity — things which one was not 
used to do before that — would be like doing them at the doorsteps 
of death when unseen facts are visible. Such conduct is never 
reliable and, therefore, of no benefit. 

s _ ^ V <*> s , s s 



•» jj) >j f 13 ^} f ^ tp" A$ (fe 

(23/1937) Sayyidina Imran 4^ ibn Husayn reported that he 
heard Allah's Messenger £§1 say, "Between the creation of 
Adam and the establishment of the Hour there is no matter 
(incident or calamity) greater or more grave than the mischief of 
dajjal " (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: This means that of all the trials and mischiefs that 
Allah's slaves have faced since the creation of Sayyidina Adam 
till today and will face from today till the coming of the Last 
Hour, the mischief of dajjal is the most severe. There is much hard 
trial for Allah's slaves in it, May Allah help us preserve our faith, 
and cause us to die as Believers. 



■X . iZ tfi^tf * 

^ij jui ^ i*si i# j>; ^ 1*11 J* 

( ( JL^ j ^ «ij j) . £}i jail US* ^ jAj! 

(24/1938) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah # reported that Allah's 

Messenger Hi said, "Shall I not tell you something about dajjal 

that no Prophet has related to his people? He is one-eyed (with a 

grape-sized inflamation in his eye). He will have with him 

something like Paradise and something like Hell. What he will 

show as Paradise will be, in fact, Hell. And I warn you of dajjal 

as Allah's Messenger, Nooh had warned his people." 

(Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The treasury of Hadith contains innumerable 
Ahadith about dajjal narrated by differrent Companions an d 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



this leaves no room for doubt that Allah's Messenger jyjl had 
disclosed dajjal's appearance before the Last Hour. He had also 
disclosed that dajjal's mischief will be the greatest and severest of 
mischiefs for Allah's slaves, he will claim divinity and advance 
evidence in support of his claim through astounding spectacles and 
oddities. One of these would show fake Paradise and fake Hell 
with him while what he calls Paradise would be Hell and his Hell 
would be Paradise. It is also possible that the so-called Paradise 
and Hell with him would be a deception through magic or 
hypnotism. It is also possible that Allah who created the devil to 
put as to trial may create dajjal and the Paradise and Hell with him. 
One of his signs would be that he will be one-eyed. It is reported 
in sound Ahadith that he will have a grape-sized inflammation in 
his eye which will be visible to all. Many disbelievers and the weak 
believers will be impressed by his magic and confirm his divinity 
while true Believers will strengthen their belief on witnessing his 
approach and his super-natural feats. They will exclaim, "This is 
the dajjal of whom the Prophet $m warned us." Thus, his coming 
will mean improvement in their ranks. 

Dajjal Supernatural Feats 

We have stated above that there are innumerable Ahadith on 
the appearance of dajjal. These Ahadith leave no doubt also that he 
will claim to be God and he will perform great super-natural feats 
which would stupefy sense and which would be beyond human 
power. For instance, he will have Paradise and Hell with him and 
he will command the clouds to shower rain and they would obey. 
He will command earth to grow vegetation and it will do that 
spontaneously. He will cause the worldly state of those who believe 
in him to improve while those True Believers who reject him will 
face severe decline in their worldly life and comforts and they will 
face poverty and hunger and other difficulties. He will kill a young, 
strong man, cut him down in two and then revive him to life before 
everyone to see. In short, the innumerable Ahadith leave no doubt 
that he will perform such super-natural deeds and that will be a trial 
for mankind. 

If unnatural things happen at the hands of the Prophets 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



285 



then we call that mujizat (miracles). Sayyidina Musa and 
Sayyidina Isa performed miracles as borne out in the Qur'an. 
The Prophet iH also performed a mujizah of the splitting of the 
moon, and others which are reported in books of Hadith. 

If an unnatural phenomena is observed at the hands of the 
righteous Believers, followers of a Prophet, then it is called 
karamat an example of which is the case of the cave-dwellers 
{as'hab ul-kahf). There are thousands of such observances by the 
men of Allah or awliya of this community of Prophet Muhammad 

If a disbeliever or a polytheist or a sinful, immoral person 
performs such a feat then these feats are called istidraj. This 
definition also applies to dajjaVs performances. 

Allah has made this world an examintion hall. Man is equipped 
with ability to do good as well as evil and He sent His Prophets 
|»{Jlp to guide men to the Right Path, and their deputies (heirs) 
will carry on this service till the Last Day. At the same time, Allah 
also created the devil and his henchmen from mankind and jinn to 
mislead and incite to evil ways. They will do their job till the Last 
Day. Among the children of Sayyidina Aadam guidance was 
perfected on Sayyidina Muhammad iil, the seal of Prophets. After 
him, the mission to guide and invite to virtue has become the 
responsibility of his successors while the inciting to evil and 
misguidance will be complete with dajjal and that is why Allah 
will empower him with istidraj. He will, therefore, perform such 
super-natural feats as belie intelligence, and which no other inciter 
to evil was provided. 

This would also be the final trial of the creatures. In this way 
Allah will prove that the strong-willed, patient slaves who were 
guided by the Prophets f%Ji p$Js> especially the Last Prophet ill 
and his deputies, came through the trial of dajjal successfully. His 
supernatural oddities too did not deceive them, rather they 
increased in faith and they attained the high station of Siddiq (the 
truthful) which could never have been reached without going 
through the trial. 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Coming of Mahdi 

The gist of the Ahadith on this subject which are to any extent 
authentic is reproduced in these lines. In the last period before the 
end of the world, the ruleres will unleash all type of cruelty on 
Muslims who will find the vast earth of Allah closing is on them. 
They will face cruelty and oppression everywhere. Allah will then 
raise from this ummah (according to one version from the Prophet's 
Om descendants) a strong reformer, he will strive hard and succeed 
in wiping out opression and injustice from the world. Justice will 
be dispensed everywhere and Allah's blessing would be showered 
in abundance. There would be good rainfall from the heaven, and 
there would be above normal, unimaginable production from the 
earth. (According to some Ahadith his name will be Muhammad, 
his father's name Abdullah and his epithet Mahdi) Allah will cause 
him to guide His slaves. 

• ' • * * ■* ■-*-*. , * . * ^JJji? 

c -*« 4 (4^ jfj" 1 {4>y a *-> est -k^ cr*^ oyt 

<ljjsrj uifc ciU UT ^JLpj Ikld Jp'fi\ *>U3 j>j& yJr'j JiJt 
H\ liji: j» £i Je'/i\ g&j C\^s a* J#'J> 

s s s % . i , £ 3 y . . s ,y 3 S 

(25/1939) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri 4^ reported that 
Allah's Messenger ^ said, "(In the final times,) my ummah will 
face severe hardship at the hands of their rulers so that Allah's 
vast earth will close down upon them. Then, Allah will raise a 
man from my descendants. His untiring efforts will bring about 
such a revolution that Allah's earth, just as it was replete will 
cruelty and oppression, will be full of justice and fairplay. Those 
in the heavens will be happy with it and those on earth too. In 
fact, it will grow whatever crop it should grow (not a seed will 
be wasted). Similarly, the heaven will not retain rain drops as 
treasures, but will shower them down (and it will rain 
abundantly according to the need). And the brave man will live 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



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among the men for seven years, or eight years, or nine years." 

(Mustadrak Haakim) 1 

Commentary: A Hadith of almost the same purport is reported by 
Sayyidina Qurrah al-Muzani 4§0 with this addition: 

"ij* r*\ is^i 

(His name will be the same as mine and his father's name will be 
the same as my father's. That is, Muhammad and Abdullah.) 

This Hadith is found in Kanz ul-Ummat on the authority of 
Tabarani's Mu'jam Kabeer and of Musnad Bazzar. Both the 
Ahadith do not have the word "Mahdi." However, we can deduce 
from other reports that it refers to Sayyidina Mahdi. For, they say 
that his name will be Muhammad and epithet will be Mahdi. 

This Hadith places the duration of Mahdi's rule as betwen 
seven and nine years. However, in another Hadith also reported by 
Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri 4^ which we will see shortly, the 
duration is stated to be seven years, it is based on sunan Abu 
Dawood. It is possible that the words seven years or eight or nine 
years in the foregoing Hadith may be the narrator's doubt. Allah 
knows bets. 

(26/1940) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ood reported that 
Allah's Messenger all said, "The world will not end before one 
of my ahl bayt (people of my house) becomes master and ruler 
of the Arabs. His name will be (the same as) my name." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The name Mahdi does not appear in this Hadith too 
but it nevertheless refers to him. In a Hadith in Sunan Abu Dawood 
narrated by Ibn Mas'ood again there are these words too jt>fi\ iuj" 
%yrj ilife d4i UT ^jlpj iLj (He will fill Allah's earth with equity 
and justice just as it was filled with creulty and injustice.) From 
this Hadith of Abu Dawood and from other Ahadith about 
Sayyidina Mahdi ^ in we learn that his rule will extend all 
over the world. Thus, reference to his rule over Arabs in the Hadith 

O. Kanz ul-Ummai (Kitab al-Qiyamat) 



r 



288 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

under discussion is perhaps because he will have his seat of 
government there. Or, because he may rule over Arab lands in the 
begining but later on extend the sphere of his rule everywhere in 
the world. Allah knows best. 



s s s s S i 



(27/1941) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri reported that 
Allah's Messenger said, "Mahdi will be of my posterity. He 
will have a broad, bright forehead and large nose. He will fill 
the earth with equity and justice as it was filled with cruelty and 
injustice, and he will rule for seven years." (Sunan Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: This hadith describes two visible physical features 
of Mahdi — a broad forehead and a large nose. Both these things 
have a say in man's beauty and handsomeness. That is why they are 
mentioned in particular. The physical features of the Prophet m as 
mentioned in the Ahadith also refer to these two things on the face. 
We may surmise from a reference to these two things that he would 
be a handsome man. However, his distinctive mark will be his 
achievement in eradicating from the world injustice and tyranny 
and introducing justice and fairplay in the world. 

<A~* •»_, j) 'oImVj JUJl L~£ ih* i&tyjA 

(28/1942) Sayyidina Jabir 4p> reported that Allah's Messenger 
Hi said, "there will be a Khalifah (a true king) in the last era 
who will disburse wealth (to the deserving) and he will not 
count it out (to them)." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The meaning of the Prophet's Hi saying is that a 
man of his ummah will be a ruler in the final era when Allah will 
bless with abundant wealth and he will be very generous with it. 
He will not withhold wealth but will give it away to the deserving 
without counting it. In another Hadith in Muslim itself the words 
are "tip 'oliftlj JUJi jj^ " (he will give it out to the deserving 
with his both hands full and will not count it). Some of the 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



289 



exponents of the Hadith opine that the Khalifah is Mahcli because 
other Ahadith tell us that Allah will bless his times with 
exceptionally large wealth. But Allah knows best. 



(29/1943) The Mother of the Faithful, Sayyidah Umm Salamah 



"Mahdi will be from my progeny, a descendant of Fatimah." 

(Sunan Abu Dawood) 



(30/1944) Abu Ishaq as-Sabi'ee reported that Sayyidina Ali 4p> 
looked towards his son Sayyidina Hasan and said, "This son 
of mine is a Sayyid (chief) as Allah's Messenger HI has called 
him by this name. Surely, from his offspring a brave man will 
arise whose name will be the same as your Prophet's 
(Muhammad). In manners and character he will resemble Allah's 
Messenger III much and in his physical appearance he will not 
be like him. "He then related that he would fill the earth with 
justice." (Sunan Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Abu Ishaq Sabi'ee a Tabi'ee, has reported about a 
brave man to be born among the descendants of Sayyidina Hassan 
the authority of Sayyidina Ali. Obviously, Sayyidina Ali 4fe 
did not relate this news of the future hundreds — nay, thousands 
— of years into the future except after having heard it from the 
Prophet lH 5 the recepient of revelation. Such reports of the 
Companions 4^ are classified by the muhadditheen as marfoo and 
it is understood about them that they had heard them from the 
Prophet Hi. 

It seems that Sayyidina Ali Referred to the Prophet's saying: 






290 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 




"(This, my son is a sayyid (chief). I hope that Allah will bring 
about through him peace between two warring Muslim groups." 

The Prophet 0 used the word sayyid for Sayyidina Hasan 4fe. 

While this Hadith discloses that Mahdi will be a descendant of 
Sayyidina Hasan 4^>, another name Sayyidina Husayn 4fe as the 
forefather of Mahdi. Some exponents have reconciled the two by 
suggesting that Mahdi would be of Hasni stock from father's side 
and of Husayni from mother's side. 

There are some narratives that the Prophet gave glad tidings to 
Sayyidina Abbas 4fe that Mahdi would be among his descendants 
but these reports are very weak. 1 Those narratives that are reliable 
in any way tell us that Mahdi would be a descendant of the Prophet 
iS§K an offspring of Sayyidah Fatimah i^ibi^j. 

A Cautionary Note 

We find it necessary here to mention that difference in these 
beliefs of AM us-Sunnat and the Shia because the latter projects to 
the unwary among the former that the two sides hold identical 
views on the subject of Mahdi. 

On the basis of Ahadith about Sayyidina Mahdi — some of 
which we have related — the ahl us-Sunnah hold that before the 
Last Day a time would come when disbelief, mischief, tryanny and 
sin would be so overpowering that Allah's vast earth would close 
down upon the believers. Allah would then raise a brave man from 
among the Muslim ummah (some of whose characteristics are 
described in Ahadith). He will have Allah's help on his side and his 
all-out efforts would succeed in throwing out disbelief, mishief, 
tyranny and sin from the world all over which the atmosphere 
would be blessed with faith, justice and Islam. There would be an 
exceptional showering of Allah's blessing from the heaven and 
earth. The Ahadith tell us also that dajjal would appear in these 

O. These narratives may be seen in Kanz ul-Ummal (Kitab al-Qiyamah, section 
al-Aqwal and al-Afal) V7 ppl 88 and 260, first edition, Dariah al-Ma'arif 
al-Uthmania, Hyderabad. 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



291 



times and he will be the severest trial for this world, and the last 
one too. That would be the most difficult trial for the believers, that 
being the extreme stage of confrontation between good and evil. 
Sayyidina Mahdi would lead and fight for good and guidance while 
dajjal would fight for evil. Then sayyidina Isa would descend 
and Allah would cause him to wipe out dajjal and his mischief. 
(We will present Ahadith on that shortly and explain them together 
with a discussion on Hayat Maseeh and Nuzool Maseeh 1 , Insha 
Allah). 

However, the belief of the Shia is quite different from this. It is 
one of the wonders of the world. By itself this belief is enough to 
form an opinion about their religion. We will present here only an 
outline for the information of the ahl us-sunnah but details may be 
seen in my book Irani Inqilab, Imam Khumaini awr Shiat. 

The Shia Belief About Mahdi 

The belief of the Shia is part of faith for them. It is that Allah 
has named twelve Imams after His Messenger and up to the 
Last Day. Their standing is equal to (on the same footing as) 
Allah's Messenger iH and higher than all other Prophets and 
Messengers and, like the Prophet 0, they are all 

innocent. It is fard to obey them just as it is obligatory to obey 
Allah's Messenger £§1 and all of them possess the same 
characteristics and perfections that Allah had bestowed on His 
Messenger and Prophet ®. The only difference is that they will 
not be called Prophet or Messenger, but will be called Imam, and 
an Imam's office has a higher rank than prophethood. Salvation is 
conditional on belief in their office just as it is conditional on belief 
in prophethood. Sayyidina Ali 4fe was the first Imam. His elder son 
Sayyidina Hasan 4fe succeeded him and was followed by his 
younger brother Sayyidina Husayn whose son Ali ibn 
al-Husayn (Zayn ul-Aabideen) followed him. Then each was 
succeeded by his son until Imam Hasan Askari was the eleventh 
Imam. He died in 260 AH. The Shia Ithna Ashariya believe that 
four or five years before his death (in 255 AH or 256 AH allowing 
for difference of opinion), he had a son by a Christian female slave 

0. Life and descent of Sayyidina Isa *Js> 



292 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(Nargis) who was kept concealed from the sight of people and no 
one could see him. (Thus his family members, too, did not know of 
his birth and existence,) Just ten days before the death of Hasan 
Askari, this son vanished miraculously (when he was four or five 
years old) with everything pertaining to Imamat (Imam's office). 
(These things were kept with every Imam begining with Sayyidina 
Ali 4& till the eleventh, Hasan Askari.) He hid himself in a cave in 
his native city by the name, Sura man ra-aa and he still is hiding 
there though more than eleven hundred and fifty years have 
elapsed. The Shia believe that he is the twelfth Imam and he is 
Imam Mahdi. He will come out of the cave some day and apart 
from other miraculous and unbelievable feats, he will also revive 
the dead. And — we seek refuge in Allah — he will also revive 
(Sayyidina) Abu Bakr 4fe, (Sayyidina) Umar 4fe and (Sayyidah) 
Ayshah if^&^j (who in the eyes of the Shia, are more 
disbelieving and greater criminals than all the disbelievers and 
criminals including Fir'awn, Namrood, etc.) He will punish them 
and hang them to death. He will revive them thousands of times 
and every time put them on the hanger's scaffold. In the same way, 
he will revive every Companion 4|£> who supported them and eery 
sunni who loved and respected them. Besides, Allah's Messenger 
HH, Sayyidina Ali 4^ and all the innocent Imams as also the 
particular lovers of Shia will be revived and all of them will wtch 
their enemies (may Allah forgive us) being punished. In other 
words the Shia version of Imam Mahdi will enact the Qiyamah 
(Day of Ressurrection) before the real Qiyamah. In their religious 
terminology, they call it (ruj'at) and it is fard for them to 
believe in it. It is also stated in their narration on ruj'at that Allah's 
Messenger ill will be the first to offer bay'ah (allegiance) to 
Mahdi. Then Sayyidina Ali, followed by other people according to 
their ranks. This is Shia version of Imam Mahdi whom they also 
call al-Qa'im, al-Hujjah and al- Muntazir and they await his 
emergence from the cave. When they mention him orally or in 
writing, they add the prayer: **rj&\ (May Allah hasten his 
coming out!) 

According to the ahl us-sunnah this is a fabricated story coined 
out of necessity because Hasan Askari, the eleventh Imam of the 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



293 



Shia had no children when he died in 250 AH. That would have 
nullified their doctrine of the twelve Imams because only an 
Imam's son could become an Imam, and the twelfth would have 
been the last after whom the world would come to an end. In short, 
this story was fabricated to accomodate the Shia belief and it has 
now become a headache for the intelligent among them. 

Although I had intended to be brief, I had to write this much to 
explain the difference in belief of the Shias and ahl us-sunnah. 

We might mention here in explanation of the Ahadith on 
Sayyidina Mahdi that the 12th century authority and a far-sighted 
scholar, Ibn Khuldoom has clasified almost all the Ahadith on 
Mahdi in Hadith books of ahl us-sunnah as weak. 1 He has 
discussed exhaustively on the subject in his muqaddimah. 
However, later day ulama have disagreed with him. Neverthless, 
Ibn Khuldoom has initiated a discussion on the subject j* Jy— Jij 
.<^i 2buu» ^Juj aAJi (And we request Allah for guidance to the 
truth and correct.) 

Descent of Sayyidina Isa 

The major signs of Qiyamah will be manifest near the Last 
Hour before the Qiyamah. One of them, and the exceptional one at 
that, is the descent of Sayyidina Isa SKUA. Although we will present 
a few Ahadith on this subject there are innumerable Ahadith in 
Books of Ahadith narrated by numerous Companions t^>. So, even 
without considerating their standing as Companions we cannot 
doubt that all of them would combine together and fabricate 
Ahadith and blame the Prophet Hi of saying that Sayyidina Isa 
will descend from the heavens before the Last Hour. We cannot 
also allude that all of them erred in understanding the actual 
message of the Prophet iil. So, the fact is that on reading these 
Ahadith we may conclude that the Prophet iH had really informed 
his ummah that Sayyidina Isa would come down to earth from 
the heaven before Qiyamah, To that end, it is enough to read the 
work of Allamah Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri entitled 
£~~Ji Jj^^yiyUj. He has collected more than seventy Ahadith on 
this subject from the books of Ahadith. 

Apart from Ahadith, the coming down of Sayyidina Isa $$31 is 



294 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



also known from the Qur'an. It says that he has been raised to the 
heaven and will return to earth before the Last Hour. We can get 
authoritative knowledge and satisfaction from Mawlana Anwar 
Shah Kashmiri's work "pLJ\ J SaJ*" (Both these 

works are in Arabic) 

I have composed a book entitled Qadyani Kyoo Musalman 
Nahi Aur Masala Nuzool Maseeh wa Hay at Maseeh. I have 
devoted about 70 pages in this book to this subject. Those whose 
mother tongue is Urdu may benefit from the book and observe that 
while the Qur'an has informed us that sayyidina Isa SaM will 
descend before the Last Day, the Ahadith have elaborated on the 
subject very exhaustively. 

However, many people entertain intellectual doubts about it and 
the Qadyani writers have exploited the situation and published 
much literature on this subject (and tried to pave way for Mirza 
Ghulam Qadyani's claim to be the Maseeh, Sayyidina Isa SSgjsSl). 
Therefore, I find it necessary to delve somewhat on this subject 
before explaining the Ahadith in this chapter. I hope readers will 
get answers to their doubts and be able to understand the subject 
satisfactorily. Jj &\j 

Some Basic Facts 

The First and most important thing that we must remember 
before pondering over this question is that the subject concerns that 
being whose very existence itself is different from the general 
practice of Allah and the laws of nature. It is that he was not born 
in the same way as anyone else in this world is born including all 
the Prophets ^%^\^Jj^ and Prophet Muhammad $£& himself — that 
is by the marriage of man and women. Rather, he was born by 
Allah's ability and command sent through Sayyidina Jibraeel 8§H 
He was born to his mother, Sayyidah Maryam t$~U without the 
medium of a male having touched her but in a miraculous manner. 
So, the Qur'an has called him the word of Allah and has described 
his birth in surah aal Imran (verses 45, etc.) and surah Maryam 
(verses 19 etc.) The Injeel also says the same thing so that all 
Muslims and Christians hold the same belief. 

The Qur'an has disclosed another great thing about him. When 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



295 



he was born by Allah's power and command and word in a 
miraculous way to Sayyidah Maryam p%Ji i^JLp (who was a virgin 
and no man had touched her) and she carried him in her lap to the 
city whose people accused her of immorality, the infant (Isa ibn 
Maryam) spoke at the command of Allah about himself and about 
the chastity of his mother (surah Maryam, verse 27 to 33). 

The Qur'an also tells us that, at the command of Allah, he 
performed unimaginable miracles, he moulded a bird out of clay 
and breathed into it and that became a live bird flying into air. He 
would stroke a born-blind and a lepor and they would recover the 
sight and health. He also could revive the dead. These miracles are 
confirmed in the Qur'an {surah Aal Imran and al-Ma'idah) and in 
the Injeel. 

The Qur'an also says that when Allah made him Prophet and 
Messenger and he invited his people, the Banu Isra'il, to believe, 
they called him a fake and decided to crucify him 1 . They imagined 

* 

that they had carried out their decision and crucified him to death. 
But, that was not so (They had crucified someone else believing 
him to be Sayyidina Isa StM.) The Jews could not even find him. 
Allah had taken him away to the heavens and he will now return to 
earth at Allah's command before the Last Hour and die here. Allah 
will get him to carry on the mission of Prophet Muhammad ill and 
his coming down will be a great sign of the Qiyamah. (This is 
mentioned in surah an-Nisa and Surah az-Zukhruf) 1 

The believers, therefore have no doubt that Sayyidina Isa 
is raised up to the heaven and will be sent back on the appointed 
time just as they do not doubt his miracles. 

Thus the first and significant thing that we have to keep in 
mind when we consider the question of descent of Sayyidina Isa 
SSSjsR is his unique case and the foregoing peculiarities. 

2. The next thing that we should keep before us is that he will 

O. In the Torah and Israi! law a false Prophet was punished with death. In 
Islamic law such a one is killed. 

©. The verses of surah an-Nisa and az-Zukhruf in which this is mentioned are 
explained by me in my book Qadyani Kiyoo Musalman nahee awr masala 
nuzul Maseeh wa Hayat Maseeh pp 94 to 120. Every sound minded believer 
will be convinced on reading that the verses state that Isa ^^UJi a-U- was raised 
to the heavens and will be sent back to earth and that is a sign of Qiyamah. 



296 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



descend to earth when the Last Hour is very near and the series 
of the closest signs has begun. These are, for example, sun rise 
from the west instead of east, creation of the beast of earth in an 
unusual manner and bahaving as mentioned in authentic Ahadith. 
These things would, as it were, augur the dawn of the Qiyamah. 
The working of the solar system would have begun to change and 
the unusual happenings would follow one after another in quick 
succession which we cannot even picture today. (The emergence of 
dajjal and descent of Sayyidina Isa are among them). 

Thus to deny the coming down of Sayyidina Isa or the 
emergence of dajjal because our intellect cannot Comprehend the 
way they are mentioned in Hadith is the same as to deny the 
Qiyamah, Paradise or Hell because we cannot fathom them. Those 
who speak in this manner are really deprived of Divine awareness 
and the power and grasp of Allah. 

3. While considering the subject of the life of sayyidina Isa 
and his descent, we must keep a third thing before us. According to 
the Qur'an and our belief as Muslims, Sayidina Isa does not 
presently reside in this world where a man cannot do without food 
and drink and other necessities as natural demands. Rather, he is in 
the higher heavens where such demands are not made on him as we 
know of the angels. Though Sayyidina Isa SfifisM is of human kind 
from his mother's side yet he was born by the word of Allah carried 
by His angel, Rooh aUQuddoos. Therefore, as long as he lived in 
this, our world, he was subject to human demands and necessities, 
but when he was taken away to the heavens and the world of 
angels, he became independent of these needs and demands. In 
answer to a question how is Sayyidina Isa's need for food and drink 
satisfied in the heavens, Imam Ibn Taymiyah wrote in his book 
^ ji* J*^ j*l j^waJt «-Jtj*Ji" (in rejection of Christianity): 

"(At the heavens) his condition for eating, drinking, dress and 
sleeping and such demands is not like that of the earthiings. 
(There he is independent of these things like the angels.)! 
O. al-Jawab as-Saheeh v2 p280 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 297 

If these basic background is kept in mind then doubts will not 
arise concerning the life and descent of Sayyidina Isa $££S. They 
bog down the mind only because of poor intellect, weakness of 
faith and unawareness of Allah's powers. Let us now see some 
Ahadith. 

^Lj <Op sin J^> Jji jis ja ^ o<\to/n) 

j£ ^ JUJl JaJbj &j*Jl ^Jay Ar^ 1 J^dJ V**-^ 

(31/1945) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4h reported that Allah's 
Messenger £|l said, "By Him Who holds my life in His Hand, 
surely it is soon that Isa ibn Maryam will descend among you 
(Muslims) as a just ruler. He will break the cross, kill swine and 
abolish the jizyah. And, there will be abundance of wealth to the 
extent that no one will take it. And one prostration would be 
better than the world and what it contains." Then Abu Hurayrah 
said: (If you wish for an evidence from the Qur'an then) read if 
you like: 

{And there will be none among the People of the Book, but will 
surely believe in him before his death, and on the Day of 
Resurrectioin he (Isa) will be witness against them} 
(an-Nisa, 4:159) (Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet iH mentioned the descent of 
Sayyidina Isa and some of his important doings. He began his 
words with an oath to satisfy the doubting minds of his truth 
because of the extraodrinary nature of events. He then said that it 
was certainly very near and thus again emphasised that there was 
no doubt in his coming and it was confirmed. It was just like the 
Qayamah: 

{The Hour has drawn night} (al-Qamar,54:l) 



298 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

The meaning is clear. There is no scope for doubt but it will 
come, surely. 

What the Prophet w said after the oath and emphasis may be 
described in simple words thus: 

Surely before the Last Hour, Sayyidina Isa SflsS ibn Maryam 
will come by Allah's Command among you Muslims as a just ruler 
(which means he will then be regarded as a just ruler and ameer of 
the Muslims). The steps that he will take as a ruler will include the 
breaking of the cross which is like an idol of the Christians who 
rely on it in terrible error and disbelief for expiation of their sins. 
When we say that he will break it, we mean that he will put an end 
to the importance the Christians attach to it and the kind of 
worship they offer it. It is just like idol-smashing. Another of his 
steps will be the killing of swine. One of the great errors into . 
which the Christians have gone and a major change they have 
made into their religioin is that they have made the swine lawful 
(though it is unlawful in all heavenly religions). They not only 
made it lawful but also found it to be the most cherished meal. 
Sayyidina Isa will not only declare it unlawful but will also 
give instructions to wipe out this species so that it is extinct, yet 
another of the steps that he will take will be that he will abolish 
jizyah. (Since the Prophet has declared it in his Hadith, the 
announcement of Sayyidina Isa ?$^sN will be on this basis and not 
on his own and neither will he amend the Islamic Shari'ah.) The 
Prophet iil concluded by saying, 'There will so much abundance 
that no one will accept wealth from another." Allah will grow in 
His slaves a complete dis-interest for the world and a longing for 
the reward of the Hereafter with the result that they will hold a 
prostration before Allah more dear than the world and whatever it 
contains. Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said after reporting the Prophet's 

sayings: " jJt psL* &\ \j « y^" that is, if you wish find confirmation 
for it in the Qur'an then recite the verse 159 of an-Nisa 

The explanation of the verse may be seen in my book Qadyani 
kiyoo Musalman nahi aur masala nuzool Maseeh wa hayat 
Maseeh (pp 100-1 13) 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



299 



J y ^ % y ^y y J ** '"' y*y** 

(32/1946) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah reported that Allah's 

Messenger j^l said, "How will you be when Ibn Maryam comes 

down to you and your Imam is one of you." 

(Saheeh Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The apparent meaning of the saying of Allah's 
Messenger is that your condition at that time will be out of the 
ordinary as we have learnt from the foregoing Hadith and other 
Ahadith on this subject. The words "ft* ^Uij" (and your Imam is 
one of you) mean that the position of Sayyidina Isa SSB will be 
that (in spite of being Prophet and Messenger of the earlier people) 
he will be a member of the Muslim people and in that capacity your 
Imam and Ameer. In another version of the same Hadith in Muslim 
instead of these words j&fyj" the words are (t-&>^" 5 
and one of its narrators Ibn Abu Zi'b has explained it thus: 

"faj a2*&\J^> {JZf &>j fe'/j* ^ j v^l^ j^Sfi" 

"After coming down, Isa ibn Maryam will be the Imam and 
ruler will be the Imam and ruler of the Muslims. He will conduct 
the office of Imam and government on the basis of the Qur'an and 
the SharVah of the Prophet iHl." In the light of this explanation, the 
office of Imam of Sayyidina Isa referred to in this Hadith is 
not restricted to salah but it means a general Imamat encompassing 
religious as well as worldly leadership over the ummah. In other 
words, he will be the deputy and Khalifah of Allah's Messenger 



Jijrt liij aOp tilt JU> Sy»] jll jfc 'J> o i i v/rr> 

y . s s . y s i \ y y *r * ^ . ^ i • *•••'•»• l » » ^ y y > y . >^ M x* s s y s y > 

s\ja\ Joju J* $1 U JUJ jgi^l Jjfl-» ^ ^ 

(33/1947) Sayyidina Jabir 4fe reported that Allah's Messenger 
®> said, "There will always be in my ummah a section of people 
who will fight for the truth and they will turn out successful." 
He continued to say, "Then Isa ibn Maryam will come down and 
the ameer and Imam of the Muslims of that time will invite him 



300 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



to lead the salah but he will say: No (I will not lead the 
congregation). Your ameer and Imam is one of you. Allah has 
honoured this ummah in this way." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The first words in the Hadith confirmed that Allah 
has decided that a section of this ummah will always observe the 
Truth and depending on the need will fight the enemy and prevail 
over them. The exponents of Hadith hold that the fight may be an 
armed war to protect religion and propagate it or it can be an oral 
debate or a written argument. Those engaged in protecting religion 
in this way and striving to propagate it are all soldiers of the True 
religion and warriors in the cause of Truth. Without doubt, never is 
there a time without such slaves of Allah, and this will go on till 
the Last Day. This is decreed by Allah. 

In the following portion of the Hadith, the Prophet iil has 
foretold, by way of a warning, that close to the Last Day, in the 
final period, Sayyidina Isa will come down. It will be the time 
of Salah when he arrives, so the Imam and ameer of the Muslims 
will invite him to take over and lead the people in Salah but he will 
decline to do so. He will request the Imam to carry on, saying that 
Allah has bestowed honour on the ummah of (Prophet) Muhammad 
£§l so their Imam must be one of them. 

There is a lengthy Hadith in Sunan Ibn Majah as reported by 
Sayyidina Abu Umamah It is about the emergence of dajjal and 
descent of Sayyidina Isa SSSsR. It says that the Muslims will be 
assembled in Bayt al-Maqdis (to protect themselves from the 
mischief of dajjal and to counter him). The time of the fajr Salah 
will be on and the worshippers would stand up for salah. Their 
Imam would be a righteous man (and it is possible that he would 
be Imam Mahdi). He would stand at the place of lead and the 
iqamah would have been called when Sayyidina Isa would 
arrive suddenly. So, the Imam of the Muslims would move to take 
a step back saying to him. "Lead us in prayer," (for it is better that 
the best person in the congregation should lead in salah and 
Sayyidina Isa 85^ who is a Prophet and messenger in earlier times 
was undoubtedly, the best)." Sayyidina Isa i$M will decline to lead 
then, saying, "The congregation is ready to offer salah in your lead 
and the iqamah is called out already." 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



301 



Anyway, that would be the first salah after the coming of 
Sayyidina Isa and he will offer it as the muqtadi (follower in 
Salah) of a member of the Prophet's ill nmmah but not agree to act 
as Imam. The wisdom being that he should demonstrate that a great 
Prophet and Messenger of earlier times is like one of the ummah of 
Prophet Muhammad iH abiding by his Shari'ah. The Shari'ah of 
Muhammad will now carry on till the end of the world. 

<Z . i y - s < ' s „ 3 .3 ' 1* . 

/ 3 * 3 I 3 , ' * \ »•'' < * * t f*"* 9 ' V s } s 3s ' ~ ' 3 1 1 tt 3 X 3 s 

y.jkii jlsij 44UJ( Jii ^ ^ Jfc 
ji^Ui £«Jt Ja& 'f&i\i\ 4$ jUt ^ iiii Jsa& 

» « J ✓ o« <** . j % &s s3 A, s 

(34/1948) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& reported that the Prophet 
said (while mentioning Isa SSB and referring to his close 
relationship with him), "There is no Prophet between me and 
him (and Allah sent me after him as His Messenger). And, 
indeed he will descend (during my era of prophethood before 
the Last Day). When you see him, you must recognise him. He 
will be of medium stature, of red complexion with a fair tinge, 
wearing two yellow garments. It would seem as though drops of 
water were falling down from his head even though it will not 
be wet. he will wage jihad and war for Islam and he will break 
the cross, kill swine and exterminate it, and abolish jizyah. In 
his time, Allah will remove all ummah and religions except 
Islam. He will destroy the Maseeh Dajjal and kill him. He will 
live on this earth and in this world for forty years and die here. 
The Muslims will then offer his funeral Salah." (Sunan Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In addition to informing us of the descent of 
Sayyidina Isa SSsSI, the Prophet ill also described some of his 
features. He will be of average height. His complexion will be 
reddish white. He will be wearing two garments light yellow in 
colour. It will look as though water was dripping from his head but 



302 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



there would be no water on it. He would have come directly from 
the heaven and would be so clean and tidy and the condition of the 
hair on his body would give an impression that he has had a bath . 

The Porphet Hi then mentioned his doings. He would first 
invite people to the True religion of Allah, Islam (which invitation 
every Prophet of Allah has given in his times.) That itself would be 
a clear indication of it being a true religion and only he would not 
accept it who is averse to Truth. To get such people also to believe 
in Islam, Sayyidina Isa SSB would finally use force and wage jihad. 
Besides, he will take two steps against those people who call 
themselves after him. he will break the cross which has become the 
symbol — rather god — of the Christians and on which they base 
their most erroneous belief on expiation of sins. This will also 
confirm that he was never put on the cross, and the belief on Jews 
and Christians about this is wrong, the belief of the Muslims as 
declared in the Qur'an is the only correct belief. Sayyidina Isa Sfisll 
would next kill and eliminate the swine which the Christians have 
made lawful for themselves although it is unlawful in all heavenly 
scriptures. After that, the Hadith mentions that he will abolish 
jizyah. By saying that, Allah's Messenger iH has made it clear that 
the law of jizyah in our Shari'ah will be applicable till the coming 
of Sayyidina Isa S&Sl. It will be rescinded when he comes down 
and begins his mission as Khalifah of the Prophet 0 and ruler of 
the Muslim ummah. (One of the reasons could be that the 
government may not need to collect jizyah because of the huge 
blessings of Allah after the descent of Sayyidina Isa Jizyah is 
a kind of tax.) 

Also, Allah will put an end to all other religions and ummah 
through Sayyidina Isa Everyone will believe and accept Islam. 
Another of his feat accomplished by Allah's help will be that he 
will kill dajjal, and the world will be safe from his mischief which 
would be the worst trial in this world. The Prophet Hi concluded 
the Hadith by saying that Sayyidina Isa would live on earth for 
forty years and then die. The Muslims would offer his funeral 
salah. 

This Hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah and reproduced and 
explained here from Abu Dawood is also found in Musnad Ahmad 



Book of Trials & A fflictions 



303 



with some additions. The gist of additions is: during the Khilafah 
of Sayyidina Isa there will be unlimited blessings from Allah. 
Some of these will be reflected in a change of the nature of wild 
animals like the lion, wolf, etc. They would become peaceful. The 
lions, camels and cows and the wolves and sheep will move 
together and none of them will attack another. Young children will 
play with snakes who will not sting anyone. These changes would 
confirm that the system of the world's working was changing and 
the Last Day was very near after which the new system of the 
Hereafter will operate. As I have suggested in my introductory 
remarks, that would be like the dawn of the Qiyamah. If we believe 
in the power and ability of Allah then nothing is unfathomable. 

tf x 1* <5 i > s s s / \ 

»* j, ^ J* - JL s . s m / s s 3 s m X 3 

s9 s * .6 t * * f c } ' ' i t t "* ' '* 3 %A i tt ' ' 3 ' * -» " 9 \ ' 

y . X Xss s- . ** . . s- X 

. s 3 — 3 • s s 3 s X 3 , 3 S * 3 •» . ♦ 3 3 — 3 • ✓ s 3 • 3 s • X 3 3 S V . .. s 

(35/1949) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr 4& reported that Allah's 
Messenger iil said, "Isa ibn Maryam will descend on earth. He 
will marry and have children, he will live for forty-five years 
before dying and he will be buried with me (the place where I 
will be buried). Then, on the Day of Resurrection, I and Isa ibn 
Maryam will rise up from the same place of the grave between 
Abu Bakr and Umar." (Kitab al-Wafa by Ibn al-Jawzi) 

Commentary: It is a fact that when he was in this world, 
Sayyidina Isa SfisS had spent a life of celibacy. He did not marry 
although marriage is a man's natural necessity and there is much 
wisdom in it. As far as we know, all the Prophets and Messengers 
before him had married, and after him the final Prophet iH also 
married. The Prophet said about Sayyidina Isa SuM that when 
he comes down to earth in the last days, he will mary and have 
children. In this Hadith the duration of his life is mentioned as 
forty-five years while the Hadith of Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fe 
mentioned his life span as forty yars after his descent. Some other 
Ahadith also put it at forty years. Some scholars have suggested 
that the reports of forty years have followed the Arabic idioms whereby 



304 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



the figure above (a rounded one) is ommitted and the same thing is 
done here. (Allah knows best.) The Hadith also says, "Sayyidina 
Isa $M will die on earth and be buried at the same place where I 
will be buried. On the dav of Resurrection, I and he will arise 
together and Abu Bakr and Umar too will be on our right and left." 
We know from this Hadith that where many things were disclosed 
to the Prophet iSl, which he let his ummah know, it was also 
disclosed to him that his two companions. Abu Bakr and Umar 
would be buried next to him. and Sayyidina Isa would also be 
buried with him when he dies after coming down to earth in the 
final era. On the Day of Resurrection the two would arise together 
while Abu Bakr 4fe and Umar $h would be next to them. 

The Prophet as we know, died in the room of Sayyidah 
Ayshah \#s> &i ^ j and is buried there in compliance with one of his 
sayings. Sayyidina Abu Bakr <4fe was also buried there when he 
died later. When Sayyidina Umar ^> was martyred he was also 
buried next to Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe, after seeking permission of 
Sayyidah Ayshah \#* &\ There still was space for one grave in 
the room. When Sayyidina Hasan ibn Ali died everyone agreed 
that he should be buried there and Sayyidah Ayshah if* & 
consented to the idea but the Umayyad rulers of the time did not 
agree with the idea and prevented his burial there, (perhaps because 
Sayyidina Uthman was not buried there). Later, when Sayyidina 
Abdur Rahman ibn Awf died (and he was one of the ten given 
glad tidings of Paradise), Sayyidah Ayshah i^in^j gave her 
permission to bury him there, but he too could not be buried there. 
When Sayyidah Ayshah if* *b» was on the point of death and 
was asked where she would like to be buried, she said that she 
should be buried in baqee' next to the other wives of the Prophet 
iH. So, she was buried there. Nevertheless, there remains a place 
for a grave in the Rawdah (or Prophet's shrine) and according to 
the above Hadith, Sayyidina Isa S®1 will be buried there when he 
dies. 

Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Salaam 4^ was a Companion of the 
Prophet III. He was a Jew before he embraced Islam and was a 
great scholar of Torah and other heavenly Books of old. Tirmizi 
carries his Hadith which is also found in Mishkat. 



Book of Trials & Afflictions 



305 



. y . tf . i> tf y . * ' 

^yy>i3>yy}y 3 j J ^ y \ y y \ ' III I »* W y .* .» , 

(36/1950) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Salaam 4^0 reported that 

Muhammad iHl is described in Torah and (it is also stated) that 

Isa ibn Maryam will be buried with him (meaning near him). 

(Tirmizi, Mishkat) 

Commentary: In the line of transmission in Tirmizi there is a 
narrator Abu Masood. Imam Tirmizi has also transmitted his 
statement: j^^y c~Ji J> ^ jjj "In the hujrah (room, which is now 
the Rawdah) there is space for a grave." 

It would not be surprising that this place may have been left 
unused by Allah's will because it has been decreed already that 
Sayyidina Isa would be buried there. But Allah knows best. 



y y y y 



Aui Jjfi Alii jvi} Jii jii iUi ^ < \o^/rY) 

y y . > 3 3 3y 1*3 <* ^ y 6 

-CI / ^y „y |> y y 3 y y 3 y 3 3 >* y 3 3 y y I y y 

(37/1951) Sayyidina Anas 4fe reported that Allah's Messenger 
W$ said, "Who so among you meets Isa ibn Maryam, may 
convey to him my salaam (greetings)." (Mustadrak Haakim) 

Commentary: There is a Hadith in Musnad Ahmad on the same 
subject reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^. And, in yet 
another Hadith in Musnad Ahmad it is reported that Sayyidina Abu 
Hurayrah ^ used to say to people Jjmj & ''Convey 

to him the Salaam of Allah's Messenger £H (when you meet 
Sayyidina Isa >feB).In a Hadith in Mustadrak Haakim, it is reported 
that after narrating the Prophet's saying in an assembly, Sayyidina 
Abu Hurayrah 4^ said to the people: *'Jij*y). 'aj^j i>\ jr s ^ 
u pJ^\ ^Jjki (O my nephews! If you meet Isa Sfisfl convey to him 
from me: Abu Hurayrah has presented his Salaam. 1 

We have recorded here only seven Ahadith about the descent of 
Sayyidina Isa and they have been explained as much as it was 
thought necessary. (This has been my practive throughout this 
series of Ma'arif ul-Hadith) 

O. The Arabs called their elders, in respect, k (O Uncle!). When they spoke to 
their youngsters they called in love, ^ b (O son of my brother!) 



306 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



In the introductory words, I have mentioned the book of our 
respected teacher Mawlana Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri 
<Op u £~~*l\ Jjjj jj Uj j4 j-aaJi". The respected Mawlana has put 
together here in seventy-five Ahadith reported by different 
Companions on this subject and found in published books only. 
These are sayings of the Prophet iH at different times and at 
different places. He spoke about the coming of Sayyidina Isa 8529 
in the last days when dajjal would already have made his 
appearance as the worst kind of trial for the Muslim ummah. The 
Prophet ill also mentioned what steps Sayyidina Isa would 
take. In this Book, the Mawlana has also recorded from Books of 
Ahadith, 26 sayings of the Companions and TabVeen concerning 
descent of Sayyidina Isa SSSl A perusal of this Book makes clear 
that it is proved by continuous reporting that the Prophet Ufa did in 
fact inform his ummah of the coming of Sayyidina Isa in the 
final days of the world, there remaining no doubt about it. The 
Companions and the TabVeen also believed accordingly and 
they had known that from the Qur'an and the Prophet's H sayings. 
Indeed, this Book of the Mawlana is the final' word on the subject. 



KITAB UL MAN A QIB WALFADA 'IL 



THE BOOK OF VIRTUES 
AND EXCELLENCES 



The knowledge and awareness that Allah blessed His 
Messenger with, he passed that on to his ummah. These concern 
the different departments of man's life and are divided into 
different chapters, one of which is Manaqib wa Facia' il (virtues 
and excellences). In almost all books of Ahadith there is a Kitab 
al-manaqib or Abxvab al-manaqih (chapter) in which those sayings 
of Allah's Messenger iH are collected wherein he has mentioned 
the merits of certain people or individuals or sections which Allah 
had revealed to him. In certain aspects this is an important chapter 
of Hadith. There is much guidance in it for the ummah. Today, I 
begin to explain the Ahadith of this chapter, those Ahadith 
preceding in which Allah's Messenger has described his Lord's 
blessing on him in compliance with His Command 



At the same time, Ahadith on his Shama'il (peculiarities and 
features) will also be presented together with an explanation. 



(1952/1) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^reported that Allah's 
Messenger said, "On the Day of Resurrection, I will be the 
Sayyid (chief) of all children of Aadam and I will be the first 
person whose grave will be opened up (and I will be the first to 
be resurrected). And I will be the first one to intercede (having 
received Allah's permission for that), and 1 will be one whose 
intercession shall get approval first of all. 11 (Saheeh Muslim) 



(And as for the blessing of your Lord, proclaim it — 

(ad-Duha, 93:11) 




310 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Commentary: The Prophet all has said that Allah has granted him 
a station higher than all children of Sayyidina Adam $SSl(including 
the Prophets f*>LJi f&k>) appointing him their sayyid or master. 
Everyone will see it in its full application on the Day of 
Resurrection. On this very day, Allah's special blessing will also be 
demonstrated when his grave will be split open before all other 
graves and he will be the first one to come out of it. Then, with 
Allah's permission, he will be the first person to make 
recommendation to Allah for other people and he will again be the 
first whose intercession will be approved. 

The Prophet ill proclaimed such blessings of Allah on His 
command so that his ummah may recognise his high status and 
they should regard him with respect and love, and follow it up with 
obedience to him. They may also be prompted to show gratitude to 
Allah for having made them members of the ummah of such a great 
-Prophet. His sayings of this kind are proclamation of Allah's 
blessings and gratitude for blessings and a means of guidance to 
the ummah. 

We must also bear in mind that there are a number of Ahadith 
in which he has said that he should not be given merit over only 
other Prophet or Messenger. The meaning (as elaborated by 
exgetes and apparent from the style of the Hadith) is that no 
comparison must be made with another Prophet to show the other 
as inferior, for, that is bad manners and insulting. Allah has said in 
His Book: 

( T o r : Y 5yL!l) *J* Ji> 

{Of these Messengers, some of whom We have caused to excel 
other.} (al-Baqarah, 2:253) 

There are also numerous verses in the Qur'an which clearly say that 
Allah's Messenger excelled other Prophets and Messengers, for 
example, 

{And We have not sent you (O Prophet) but as a mercy to the 
worlds (21:107)} 

and 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



311 



{And We have not sent you (O Prophet) save as a bearer of glad 
tidings and a warner to all mankind (34:28)} 

(1953/2) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed aNKhudri 4fe reported that 
Allah's Messenger Jg§I said, "1 will be the Sayyid (chief) of all 
children of Aadam on the Day of Resurrection and this is no 
boast. The banner of praise will be in my hand and this too is no 
boast. And, all the Prophets, Aadam and the others besides him 
(all Prophets and Messengers) will be under my banner on that 
Day and I will be the first person on earth whose grave will be 
split open and I do not boast about it (but only proclaim Allah's 
blessings on His command). (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The two blessings, first and last, are also mentioned 
in the foregoing Hadith of Abu Hurayrah 4fe — ^ w" ^ f£1 jJj 

"kOJi "I am the chief of the children of Aadam If and jji wj" 

"jp'fis &s> j-tl; "I am the first whose grave will be left open " and 

we have explained them. In this Hadith, the Prophet SH also 
recounted the blessings: that he will hold the banner of praise on 
the Day of Resurrection and all Prophets and Messengers will be 
under his banner. It is known generally that the commander of a 
force himself holds the banner and all others are under him. Thus, 
Allah will give him the banner on the Day of Resurrection and all 
Prophets from Sayyidina Aadam to Sayyidina Isa 

will be under his banner which is a demonstration of Allah's 
causing him to excell all Prophets and all creatures which 

everyone will witness on the Day of Resurrection. The Prophet said 
after enumerating every blessing of Allah that he did not boast 
about it but was complying with Allah's command to proclaim His 
blessings and show gratitude that the others may know about it. 

The banner of praise will be a sign that its holder had surpassed 
all others in praising Allah (which is the particular deed that makes 
one dear to Allah). In his life-time, the Prophet was 



312 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



continuously occupied in praise of Allah. He remembered that in 
everything he did — so much that even after sneezing and getting 
over personal purity. (The supplications that he has taught for 
different occasions all include praise of Allah.) He also taught his 
ummah to emulate him with the result that Allah was praised so 
much and will be praised until the Last Day that there can be no 
count of that and only He knows how much. Therefore, the Prophet 
alone deserved the banner of praise 



S S / 



'P> {f*\& {£&*3 ^\ & 9^S S ?Ji 

(1954/3) Sayyidina Ubayy ibn Ka'b reported that the Prophet 
iH said, "On the Day of Resurrection, 1 will be the Imam and 
leader of all the Prophets and spokesman on their behalf. And I 
alone would be their intercessor. And, I do not say that out of 
boast (but 1 abide by Allah's command to proclaim His 
blessings). (Jami 1 Tirmizi) 

Commentary: In this Haidth the Prophet iH has called himself 
also spokesman of and the one who will intercede for, the Prophets 
pS-Ji p&i* on the Day of Resurrection. On that Day, Divine Glory 
and Anger will be demonstrated in an unusual intensity so that no 
Prophet would venture to submit their petition to Him. So, the 
Prophet Hi petition to Him. So, the Prophet will speak for them 
and make recommendation for them. In this saying, too, he 
concluded his words with the declaration that he was not being 
proud but merely proclaimed Allah's blessings on him. 

V 

4Jl Jj-»3 ja JJ£ Jli ^Lp J>\ (Hoo/i) 

y y & <M s . J y y y s s .3 y y 

» . * | \. ft, 3 3 3 s » . — y 3 3 ^ . * y 3 3 y y 3 3 . y . » . 

. y y y , 3^y 

'<a jtr, o& 




3^s , V s , . y y y 0 y 



y 




s JL JL yy - S S S if S -J> (Z 

y 3 , y 3 . &> , 3 y y y y 3 s . • ^ 3 3 y 3 «« 3 \ s ^ | I . \ s 

^ s y y ji ✓ y y y l> * y 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



313 



3 y y 3 s & S . S j, S " 3 y y * * ' 

y *^»s+y t y*tti 3 y » . 3 • . . t ^ « . . x ^ ♦ ^ » »■' / .J 3 y * 

< js*3 yuui ^jj £^ uj'j <J3' w J ' ^3* 0** 

. * % > m y 3 y 6 3 y f ^ * } , y yy 

>"r y * y y + y 3 % 3 3* 3 | J I \ . 3 * x • ""It ' \ ' ' • * 4 4 I ^ 

l *s^r *^ tsl £=4* ^ 4>* JJ ( U, J 

.>i •/} '-ait J* u»j <>tt r j jfeJJt 

(1955/4) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas reported that some 
Companions ^ of Allah's Messenger Hi were seated together 
conversing with each other when Allah's Messenger came 
out. As he came nearer, he heard one of them say (in extolling 
Sayyidina Ibrahim "Allah chose Ibrahim SfcsB as His 

friend." Another said, "He honoured Musa 35^51 with direct 
conversation." Another said, "Isa 3513, is Kalimcitullah (word of 
Allah) and RoohAUah (Spirit of Allah)." Yet another said, 
"Allah chose Aadam SSsil (for, He created him with His Hands 
and ordered the angels to prostrate before him.)" The Prophet 
$H came upon them and said, "I have heard you. You wonder 
that Ibrahim SSgHl was Allah's friend which, indeed, he was. 
(Allah chose him as His Khaleel.) (You wonder) that Musa SSB 
was Naji Allah (His confidant) which indeed, was. (You wonder 
that Isa was RoohAUah and Kalimatullah (His spirit and 
word) which, Indeed he was. And (you wonder) that Aadam 

was Safiullah (Chosen by Allah) which, indeed, he was. 
But you must know that I am HabibAUah (One whom Allah 
loves and 1 do not boast about it. I shall hold the Banner of 
Praise on the Day of Resurrection under which will be Aadam 

and others besides him, and I do not boast. I shall be the 

first one to intercede on the Day of Resurvection and the first 

whose intercession shall be accepted. And I shall be first person 

to rattle the knocker (of the gate of Paradise to get it opened) 

and Allah will get it opened for me and admit me to Paradise 

and the poor people of the Believers will accompany me, and I 

do not boast. And, among the earliest and the latest, I shall be 

the most honoured in Allah's sight and I do not boast about it. 

(Jami Tirmizi, Musnad Darami) 

Commentary: The Prophet's temperament was one of humility 
and humbleness, but, whenever necessary, he did proclaim Allah's 



314 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



favours on him in compliance with His Command: 

( \ \ : o r fj***!)) OJjnJ ^3>Jj <Ujlj Ul j 

{And as for the blessing of your Lord, proclaim it. 53:1 1) 

This Hadith and the two before it are part of the Prophet's isH 
proclamation of Allah's favours. The Hadith recalls the 
conversation of the companions about Allah's favours on the 
Prophets They had known these things from the 

Prophet's teachings and from the Qur'an but their knowledge of his 
own merits was incomplete. So, they wished to know and, indeed, 
needed to know and the Prophet III informed them about it. He 
confirmed their knowledge of the favours of Allah on the other 
Prophets f^-Ji ( *$Jl* and then recounted Allah's favours on him. He 
said that he was the Habib (dear one) of Allah. (The Companions 
had known that this station was the most elevated and excellent, so 
he did not elaborate.) He then recounted some of those blessings 
which will be demonstrated after the end of this world on the Day 
of Resurrection. In the earlier Ahadith, we have already learnt 
about the Banner of Praise being in his hand and his being the first 
intercessor and the first whose recommendation is accepted. He 
then mentioned two other blessings. He would knock at the gate of 
Paradise and Allah will get it opened and admit him to Paradise 
and the poor people of his ummah will accompany him inside. 
(This reflects his position as dear to Allah.) The last thing he said 
was " J* jij* jJj *i\ f /\ ui /' "I am the most honourable in 
Allah's sight among the earliest and the latest people." 

While recalling every favour, Allah's Messenger Hi also said 
j*i As we have mentioned earllier, it means: "I do proclaim 
these special favours of Allah out of pride or to impress anyone 
with my excellence but only to obey Allah's command and let 
others know of His favours and to express gratitude to Him, and 
that you should know about these blessings so that you too may 
thank your Lord. In fact, these blessings are a means of good to 
you too." 

jjLijiJi junl \j\ jii (JLj ^i* tilt jU *J$\ $ j& j* o <\o\io) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



315 




(1956/5) Sayyidina Jabir 4& reported that the Prophet said, 
"(On the Day of Resurrection,) I will be the leader of the 
Messengers and there is no boast. And, I am the seal of 
Prophets, again there is no boast. And, I am the first to intercede 
and my intercession will be the first to be accepted. 1 do not say 
that in boast." (Musnad Darami) 

Commentary: We know from this Hadith that the Prophet iH who 
is the Last and the Seal of Prophets will be their leader on the Day 
of Resurrection. He will be the first intercessor and the first whose 
intercession is accepted as we have read in a number of earlier 
Ahadith too. He again emphasise j*i (there is no boast). 



(1957/6) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4§£> reported that Allah's 
Messenger said, "My example and that of the other Prophets 
is like a castle beautifully built. However, the place of one brick 
is left unbuilt. Onlookers look round it and admire the beauty of 
its construction and are surprised but for the space for the brick 
(for that is a defect." The Prophet added,) "Now, I have 
come and filled in the empty space and, through me, the castle is 
completed and the construction is over. And the series of 
Messengers is over. And the series of Messengers is also 
complete." 

(The author of Mishkat-al-masabeeh, Muhammad ibn Abdullah 
Khateeb Tabrayzi remarked that) in a version of this Hadith in 
Bukhari and Muslim the words ui to J~»^t ^r^J (Now, I 

S *r S 

have also completed) in the last sentence are replaced by uii 
jjb-Ji (iii*- uij liJ}\ "I am that brick (completing the castle) and 1 
am the seal of Prophets." (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet W> has been called Khatam 
an-Nabieen in the Qur'an and in many Ahadith, too. Surely, this is 
the greatest of Allah's blessings on him leaving him Allah's Prophet 




316 



Meaning and Message of the'Traditions Part VIII 



and Messenger till the Last Day. He has explained his position as 
the Last of Prophets through an example which is so easy to 
understand that no further explanation is necessary. The thousands 
of Prophets before him all contributed to the building of the castle 
of Prophethood and it was near complete save for one brick. Even 
that was placed with the coming of the Prophet iH. Now the castle 
was perfected. No new Prophet or Messenger was required nor was 
there scope for one. Thus Allah closed the door to the series of 
Prophets, and he was called the j-J*^ (the seal of Prophets) 

Birth, Commissioning, 
Wahy & Age 

jjLj a^p J^> Jjt J^»j Jll J 15 liUf {J\ (^oa/ V) 

°b t^? 1 ^JJ-> 'tr*^ °J L ^-J '(Hf*'j<l S J*° ^ JJ^ j^" 1 * - 

(1958/7) Sayyidina Abu Umamah reported that Allah's 
Messenger W> said, "Let me tell you about my initial affairs. 1 
am the prayer of Ibrahim, and the good tidings of Isa (the 
Prophet of whose coming he gave glad tidings), and the 
(fulfilment of the) dream of my mother which she saw on my 
birth (in the form of) a light which illuminated the castles of 
Syria for her." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: In the verses 127-129 of surah al-Buqarah in the 
Qur'an, the prayer of Sayyidina Ibrahim SlM is mentioned when he 
and his son Sayyidina Isma'il SSB were building the Ka'bah: Our 
Lord, raise up in our progeny a community submissive to You and 
raise up in their midst a Messenger who shall recite to them Your 
verses and teach them the Book and the wisdom and purify them. 
And, it is stated in verse 6 of as-Saff that when Sayyidina Isa 
was sent to the Banu Isra'il as Messenger, he said to them: Of the 
tasks Allah has charged me with is also that I should inform you of 
a great Messenger who shall come after me whose name shall be 
Ahmad. The Prophet said while refering to these very verses of the 
Qur'an, "I am the fulfilment of Ibrahim's prayer and the realisation 
of Isa's glad tiding." He then said that he was the coming true of his 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



317 



mother's dream which his mother had seen when he was born. She 
saw an extraordinary light that illuminated for her the splendid 
buildings and castles of Syria which She saw in the light. She 
probably saw it in the night before he was born. It is the distinction 
of Syria (sham)* that it is the birth place of Prophets and within its 
precincts is the Bayt al-Maqdis, the qiblah of all the Prophets 

I have given the word of the Hadith u jj the meaning of dream 
and explained it accordingly. However, it could also mean that his 
mother saw the Light and in its illumination the castles of Sham at 
the exact time of his birth while she was awake. This is the 
impression we get from another Hadith. It could also be that she 
saw the dream while sleeping before his birth and, again at the time 
of birth, her eyes may have witnessed that in a state of awakening. 
Anyway, that was a sign that the blessed birth would be 
instrumental in carrying the light of guidance to Sham (Syria) 
which had been a centre of guidance for thousands of years. It was 
also a sign that the people who held Bayt al-Maqdis as qiblah 
would also receive guidance (from him) as was demonstrated and 
will be demonstrated till the Last Day. 

(1959/8) Sayyidina Qays ibn Makhramah 4i&> reported that he 
and the Prophet jg§? were born in the year of Elephant. 

(Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Year of Elephant is the year when Abraha 
came from Yaman with a large army which also had elephants with 
it, to demolish the Ka'bah. He had brought his army up to Makkah 
but before he could enter it Allah sent His army in the shape of 
very small birds which threw pebbles on them. (These worked like 
bullets.) The entire army was annihilated. This event is related in 
Surah al-feel of the Qur'an. This year is, therefore, known as the 
Year of Elephant. The Prophet ill was *born this year and according 
to a report fifty days after the event. 



O. It is the ancient Shaam 



318 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Allama Ibn al-Jawzi has said that there is a consensus about the 
year of the Prophet's birth and a near consensus about the month, 
Rabee' ul Awwal, and day Monday, but there are different reports 
about the date. The dates suggested are the 2nd, 8th 5 10th and 12th 
(which is most gone by), and the 18th. Allamah Qastalani has said 
that the muhadditheen generally regarded the 8th Rabee'al-Awwal 
as the correct date. In the recent past an Egyptian astronomer had 
proved through astronomical calculations that the Prophet's iil 
birth date was 9th Rabee'ul-Awwal in the Year of Elephant. 

Exactly at the time when the Prophet was about to be born (at 
Makkah), the army of Abraha which the Qur'an has called Ashab 
id-Feel and which was bent on demolishing the Ka'bah, were 
routed by tiny little birds that shot pebbles at them. Indeed, this 
was a demonstration of Allah's Powers. The ulama have regarded 
this as one of the miracles that had occured before the Prophet's 
birth. 



<*j*4k p <&\ ^ diUi 

(1960/9) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas said that Allah's 

Messenger $m was commissioned as Prophet at the age of forty 

years (that is, Allah made him Prophet and Messenger at this 

age). He then stayed in Makkah for thirteen years after that, and 

he continued to receive revelation from Allah. Then he was 

commanded to make the hijrah (migration from Makkah), so he 

migrated and lived for ten years as a Muhajir (migrant). He then 

died (at Madinah) when his age was sixty-three years. 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 



' -* " if 

(1961/10) Sayyidina Anas 4fe reported that the Prophet died 
when he was sixty-three years old. And, Sayyidina Abu Bakr 
also died when he was sixty-three years old and Sayyidina Umar 
4fe also died at the age of sixty-three years. (Saheeh Muslim) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 3 1 9 

Commentary: The two Companions, Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^ and 
Sayyidina Umar 4fe were greatly attached to the Prophet ill. This 
attachment was reflected in their death at the same age, sixty-three, 
as the Prophet ^ and their burial in the Rawdah next to the 
Prophet HI. We have also seen the Hadith under the chapter on the 
signs of the Qiyamah that when the Prophet iH would rise up from 
his grave and proceed to the place of Gathering, they would walk 
by him to his right and left. Further down when we read about their 
virtues, we will see the Hadith of Sayyidina Ibn Abbas that 
when Umar 4^ died, Sayyidina Ali 4& described their deep 
attachment to the Prophet in the light of the Prophet's ^ own 
words in a very comprehensive manner. 



%. S t 6> M 3 



aJlp iJUi Jl> ^JJi Jj^j 4» csjJU jji dJiSUJip jp(m\M \) 

'J\ t&&$ ^ ^ j* j £ 

. t 3 . <M 3 . ^ S tr * s 3 j 3 ' ^ ' 

J> jAj j^Ji o sSsr.^ ^IsJ ****** J\ £fr J. ^ «~SlM 

ts& uiu cis ijit jii* ^L^i ,Ji *L: 



« 3 



tjii o ft ja o^V 1 ft O ft J&j *^»w Ji3 
i« j| o<& fit. 6^V' o ^ ^Ip i>iJl f u% 

J>ai 'flilja uA^-^i Jlij aIIp <d3i LS JU<? *JUl Jj-^j 

l^o^J jui £j^Ji aIp J^- ijiij 

J^iij dJjAii ijaJaJj ^^J( J-tfJ 3j( rlJul iil 



320 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



9 / s- y y y > y y y y % S 

& if" & - u cite ^±9- fi> ^y <y. 

y ' ' ' 9 ) & * J ^ ,J •* ^ *** ^ <** I j j, y y y y ^ % 3 ' 

ft Jtf j' jii^j aIIp 4lJi ^^L> *Dl J^»3 J 1 ^ < 

✓ 9 3 y 3 ^ 9 V 9 . y y 9 J ... t y i I «* I * I 

_ ^ y y y y < 

• 9 s s *»* • ^ y % y y 9 y y 9* ^ y. y m ^ ~ ' "* ^ • • ■*<*" 

} 9 y * , y * y y * J 9 . „ y y 9 . / J I », . * ' 1 * > > S * % „ « 

(1962/1 1) The Mother of the Faithful, Sayyidah Ayshah ^ 
ifip said: The first manner in which Allah's Messenger 
received the revelation was the true dreams which he saw in 
sleep. So, every dream he saw came like the bright glow of 
dawn. Then love of solitude was put in his heart and he went to 
the cave on Hira and Stayed alone. There (before turning to his 
family) he stayed in worship for many nights together and took 
along ample provision for that. He would return to Sayyidah 
Khadijah ifp^ (his wife) and fetch provision for as many 
nights and in this state while he was in the cave Hira, the Truth 
came to him (that is, the revelation). Allah's angel (Jibreel) came 
to him and said *\J>\ ("Read!"). He said, "I am not read." The 
Prophet said: Then the angel squeezed me till my strength gave 
in and he let me go and said, ("Read!") and I said again that 
I was not read. So, he held me again and squeezed me till I 
reached the end of my strength and he let me go and said t\ J\ 
("Read!") and I said, "I am not read." The angel then held me 
and squeezed a third time till I found my strength giving in. He 
then released me and said: 

/ y *y y 

{Read in the Name of your Lord Who created — created man 
from a blood-clot. Read and your Lord is Most Bountiful, Who 
taught by the pen — taught man that he knew not.} 

(al-Alaq,96:l-5) 

Then, Allah's Messenger returned with these verses while his 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



321 



heart trembled. He came to (his wife) Sayyidah Khadijah &\ 
if* and said, "Wrap me up, wrap me up." So, they wrapped him 
up till the trembling had stopped. He then spoke to Sayyidah 
Khadijah if* &\ and related to her all that had happened, 
saying, "I fear for my life." She said, "Certainly not! By Allah! 
Allah will never let you down. You join ties. You speak the 
truth, bear burdens of others, earn for the bereft, entertain 
guests, help people against tragedies affecting their rights." She 
then took him to her paternal cousin, waraqah ibn Nawfal. She 
said to him, "Listen, cousin, to what your nephew says (and his 
distress)." Waraqah ibn Nawfal then said to Allah's Messenger, 
"O nephew! Tell me what do you see?" So, Allah's Messenger 
narrated to him all that he had seen. Waraqah said, "This is 
the particular confidant angel (Jibreel whom Allah had 

sent to Musa (Then, Waraqah said,) "Would that I were a 

young, strong man then! Would that 1 were alive then when your 
people drive you away." Allah's Messenger asked (in 
surprise), "Will my people drive me away?" Waraqah said, 
"Yes! (Your people will exile you from your native land). None 
has ever brought an invitation as you have brought but his 
people were hostile to him. If I were alive till that day, I would 
help you strongly." Then Waraqah died not long afterwards. 
And Wahy was suspended. (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: This Hadith traces the beginings of the Prophet's 
iH mission and revelatin. It is narrated by Sayyidah Ayshah i»i 
if* who was not even born at that time but that should not bar us 
from considering the Hadith to be reliable because she may have 
heard it in detail directly from the Prophet III (which is a great 
possibility) or from her father, Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ or from any 
other elder Companion 4fe who may have heard it from the Prophet 
0. It is agreed upon by the ahl us-sunnah that the Companions cjfe 
are all just and reliable JjAp $f V&J&\ (and this is part of their 
belief). Sayyidah Ayshah if^i^j did not consider it necessary to 
disclose from whom she had heard the Hadith. If she had any 
doubts, she would not have narrated the Hadith, for, she knew that 
such reporting was a very responsible thing. 

The first thing that the Hadith tells us is that the Prophet £§l 
began to se true dreams in sleep. These would turn out in the 



322 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



morning exactly as he had seen them as bright day light. This was, 
as it were, his spiritual training for Prophethood and it was the first 
step. 

Then his heart inchned to love solitude and deep devotion and 
worship. (It was like Vtikaaf — seclusion for worship.) He chose 
the cave on Hira for that. Hira is one of the several mountains of 
varying altitude around Makkah and (it seems that) it was the 
heighest of all mountains. It is now called Jabl an-Noor. It is about 
2 1/2 miles from Makkah. Several rocks are joined together on its 
peak and in the centre a small triangular room-like space is formed. 
This is the cave of Hira. There is space enough for a man to enter it 
and somehow manage to exist inside. The mountain is very high 
and the cave is at its apex and climbing there is an ardous effort. 
So, even young, healthy people make it to the top with difficulty. 
Of couse, today every Muslim loves to visit the cave having read 
about it in the Ahadith, but at the time the Prophet 0 had chosen, 
it no one found any attraction to visit it or try to make it there and 
endure the hardship in climbing to it. (We do not see mention of 
anyone visiting the Prophet Hi during his days of seclusion there.) 
So, he could not have chosen a better place to live in seclusion and 
it seems it had been determined from eternity. 

The Hadith tells us further that he used to take along provision 
to last him some days and stay in the cave on Hira in seclusion, cut 
off from habitation. He occupied himself in worship with 
concentration. When he had a yearning for the people of his house, 
he went home to Sayyidah Khadijah ^ &\ Then, armed with 
provision for some number of days, he came back to the cave to 
resume his worship. 

Sayyidah Ayshah &\ uses the word Ju** to imply his 
occupation in worship. A narrator of this Hadith. Imam Zuhri has 
interpreted that word as but we do not know from any report 
what was the nature of the Prophet's worship in the cave on Mount 
Hira. Scholars have presented different opinions but they are all 
surmise. I feel that he was being trained by Allah for Prophethood 
and Messengership, the first step being vision of true dreams. That 
was a kind of inspiration. Then his heart was prompted to worship 
in seclusion which was the result of divine inspiration. Then, his 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



323 



worship in the cave which desrcibed by Sayyidah Ayshah &\ 
\#s> as du*^J must have been guided by divine inspiration. He may 
have been making supplication for light of guidance for himself 
and may have been expressing disgust for the idolatory, cruelty and 
sin which his people practiced and which caused him tremendous 
heart-burning. He may have been beseeching Allah to guide his 
people. (He has declared that supplication is the pitch of worship.) 
Anyway, I feel that he had guidance from Divine inspiration in his 
worship and he was being spiritually trained for the stages ahead. 
But Allah knows best. 

The Hadith goes on to say that suddenly (one night 1 ) an angel 
came to him with wahy (revelation) and said *i J\ 9 but he said WU 
WjUL (I am not a reciter). The angel squeezed him so hard that he 
could not tolerate that any more. (Some versions suggest that he 
held the Prophet's £§l throat 2 and squeezed it very hard). He did 
that three times asking the Prophet to read *t J\ and each time he 
said ^jUj uiU (I do not know how to read. I have not learnt to read). 
Each time he squeezed him and the third time he recited the first 
five verses of al-Alaq 

The Hadith does not tell us whether the Prophet Hi repeated 
these verses after the angel or not. But, we can deduce from the 
subsequent words that the verses were retained in his memory and 
he returned home reciting these verses. We have seen what his 
condition was when he went home. 

It is particularly worth mentioning here that while the entire 
Qur'an is a miracle, some of its small surah and small verses are so 
prominently miraculous that one who is familiar with Arabic will 
have no option but to concede that it is not the work of a human 
being but of the Creator. I submit humbly that I am not a scholar of 
Arabic but I am able to read the Qur'an and the Hadith and 
understand them to some extent. Even in this condition I recognize 
that surah al-Alaq's initial five verse are not the words of a human 

O. The first verse of surah al-Qadr is ()-AV j-UJi) yiJi *1J ^ tl]j>\ Ul (Surely We 
have revealed it on the Night of Power) and this implies that the angel came at 
night. 

©. Hafiz Ibn Hajr Asqalani has cited in Fath al-Bari the report of Abu Dawood 
and Tiyasi ^j&*-> A^ti (and he held me by my throat) and he has classified its 
sanad as Hasan) (Fath al-Bari first part P 13 Ausai pr. Delhi) 



324 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



being or an angel and this I can see as well as I see the light of the 
sun. Without doubt they are words of the Lord, full of Majesty. 
These five small verses encompass a whole treasure of Divine 
awareness and an ocean of knowledge on the majesty of His 
attributes of substenance, power, wisdom, compassion and 
kindness and other attributes and powers. We can compose a book 
on that. Not only was the Prophet's m mother-tongue Arabic but 
also he was the most eloquent of Arabs. So, we cannot doubt in the 
least that the moment he heard the angel recite these verses, he may 
have concluded that his Lord, the Creator had blessed him with His 
favours and His Words. 

The Hadith tells us then that he went home with the five verses 
terrified. His heart was trembling and his body showed that. On 
coming home, he asked his family members to wrap him up. (one 
does get the desire to put a garment over oneself in a condition of 
distress and that does provide some relief.) They wrapped him up 
and then the terror subsided, he related the happenings to his wife 
Sayyidah Khadijah i»» He also said: ( ^ c4?> (I 
fear for my life). He meant, the angel squeezed my throat so hard 
that I feared that my soul would fly away! 

She heard him and comforted him. She gave him the glad 
tidings very confidently and said on oath that there was nothing to 
fear. She said, "Allah has given you an excellent character. You 
care for others and are kind and truthful. "She indicated thereby 
that he was the righteous creature of Allah, dear to Him and He has 
bestowed His favours on him, so whatever has happened was also a 
demonstration of His Kindness. She then took him to her paternal 
cousin Waraqah ibn Nawfal 1 . In another Hadith also narrated by 
"Waraqah ibn Nawfal was one 



who had become a Christian iliat^Jt J> \j>\ ^VSfj 

during the jahiliyah (period 



before the coming of the ^r* 5 ' 4^ 6^J 

Prophet m and he wrote in V ^3 

Hebrew. So, he also wrote the or: . . 



Injeel in Hebrew. He was very >{ ^p Ji bxJLi 

aged and was blind." 

O. The father of Waraqah, Nawfal, and Sayyidah Khadijah's father, Khuwaylid, 
were sons of Asad ibn Abdul Uzza. Thus Waraqah was her paternal cousin. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



325 



Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ Waraqah ibn Nawfal is described thus: 
In the version of Saheeh Muslim, the language is Arabic, not 
Hebrew and this is more close to reasoning. 

It is stated about Waraqah that he was fed up with polytheism. 
He travelled to different lands in his search for the True Religion. 
Finally, in Sham he happened to meet a Christian monk who 
followed the true Christian faith (and not the corrupted version 
which gave divine status to Sayyidina Isa 8S$I, to trinity and which 
advocated explanation of sins, etc.) Waraqah became a Christian at 
his hands and learnt it from him. He also learnt Hebrew in which 
the Torah was revealed. (Some scholars hold that Injeel too was 
revealed in Hebrew). So, Waraqah, a true Christian, was a scholar 
of ancient books. 

Ibn Hajar Asqalani has reproduced in al-Isabah a report about 

Waraqah. 

"Waraqah regarded 
idol-worship as evil and wrong. 
He travelled to different 
regions and countries in search 
of True Religion. He studied 
the Books (which were 
regarded as heavenly). 
Sayyidah Khadijah i^^^j 
used to ask him about Allah's 
Messenger i§l and he would 
say that he believed he was the 
same Prophet of this nmmah 
about whom Musa and Isa 
gave good news." 

It is for these reasons that Waraqah was fed up with 
idol-worshp and adopted Christianity (and believed in the 
prophethood and messengership in full.) He was a scholar of Torah 
and other heavenly books. Obviously then, he ied a life different 
from that of the common Makkans. He was a worshipper, an 
ascentic and a man of God. This is why, his cousin Sayyidah 
Khadijah if^iui^j regarded him as a spiritual leader and respected 
him. Apart from the event of the cave on Hira, She mentioned to 
him the other extra-ordinary happenings with the Prophet iH and 



&\Sfi\ O^LP 0 j?J3 jlT} 

'<dLlj cilTj cj£l\ 

1st ^ a,J,ls ^ 3 



(al-Isabah,v6p3l8) 



326 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



sought his opinion. ] He would say in answer *i\ ala *i\ oi jiu 
^r^J^J^^J^ "I think that he would be that Prophet of this 
ummah about whom Sayyidina Musa SfisSl and Syayidina Isa 
gave glad tidings. 

Then, when this happening took place at the cave of Hira which 
is mentioned in the Hadith, she felt that she should let the Prophet 
iH relate the entire report to Waraqah in his own words, for he had 
already expressed his belief that her husband might be a Prophet. 
We must remember that we do not find in any Hadith even an 
indirect indication that the Prophet £H had suggested a meeting 
with Waraqah. Rather, as we see in the Hadith, Sayyidah Khadijah 
14* was the one who took him there. 

When they met him, Sayyidah Khadijah if^Jn^j herself 
requested him to listen to the Prophet's Jl account directly calling 
him his nephew 2 . Waraqah also addressed the Prophet as nephew 
and asked him to narrate his experience, and he narrated whatever 
he had gone through. Waraqah exclaimed without hesitation that 
the angel was the same naamus (the angel that brings revelation) 
whom Allah had sent to Prophet Musa with His message. 

A question may arise here: Why did Waraqah think of 
Sayyidina Musa and not Sayyidina Isa although he was a 
Christian and Jibreel was sent to Sayyidina Isa just as he was sent 
to Prophet Musa The exponents of Hadith explain this by 
confirming these facts and pointing out that Prophet Isa did 
not bring his own Shari'ah. He had the same shari'ah as the Shari'ah 
of Prophet Musa $£©1. Allah had made certain partial changes in it 
through Sayyidina Isa The Prophet was a prophet and 

O. These include: splitting of the heart in childhood, much before prophethood 
manv rocks and stones saluted him, some trees bowed down towards him — 
events mentioned in some Ahadith which are acceptable. There is also the 
incident of the monk Buhayra found in Books of Hadith. These are events 
which he would have definitely mentioned to his wife, Sayyidah Khadijah 
\qs> &\ and she must have mentioned them to her cousin Waraqah ibn 
Nawfal and sought his opinion. It is in answer to this that Waraqah may have 
said what is mentioned in the Hadith, "I feel that he is that Prophet of this 
ummah about whom Prophet Musa — it a^Ip and Prophet Isa f*>LJi <u!p gave 
glad tidings." 

©. This reference was not on account of any relationship but it followed the 
Arab custom who called their elders 'uncle' out of respect and their youngsters 
'nephew' out of love and compassion. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



327 



Messenger who brought a separate and complete Shari'ah and, 
therefore, he had more resemblance to Sayyidina Musa 88® in this 
regard. Thus, we also read in the Qur'an: 

(Surely we have sent to you a Messenger, as a witness over you, 
as We sent to Fir'awn a Messenger.} (al-Muzzammi!, 73: 15) 

This is why Waraqah ibn Navvfal mentioned Prophet Musa 
in referring to Jibreel 3^91. 

Waraqah ibn Nawfal said, therefore, that he was confident that 
the angel who came to the cave on Mount Hira was Jibreel >&9 
who had conveyed Allah's revelation to Sayyidina Musa >&B (and 
other Messengers). He confirmed the prophethood of Sayyidina 
Muhammad iH and wished that he had been a strong young man 
alive when the Prophet's people would expel him from his city, 
Makkah he would then have helped the Prophet all). The Prophet 
®> expressed surprise and asked if his people would really expel 
him (because till then he was dear to eycryone on account of his 
noble character and kindness for everyone. He was called as-Sadiq 
al-Ameen. Therefore, it could not be seen why they would turn 
against him.) Waraqah said, "Every Messenger who has come with 
the Message from Allah which you have brought faced the hostility 
of his people. The same thing will happen to you and your people 
will become your sworn enemies." Waraqah actually said what was 
foretold in ancient heavenly books and what the history of Allah's 
Prophets f)LJ\ disclosed. The Qur'an too reveals that Allah's 
Prophets fiLJs^Js' were treated in this way. 

The final words of Waraqah were that if he would be alive 
when the Prophet commenced his mission, he would help him to 
the best of his ability in spite of his old age. But after a very short 
time Waraqah died. The revelation had also been suspended after 
the first one at the cave Hira. (The explanation of the text is over.) 

Some Aspects of The Hadith 

(1) We know from this Hadith that the first people to confirm 
and belief in the prophethood of Sayyidina Muhammad were 
Waraqah ibn Nawfal and Sayyidah Khadijah but till then the 



328 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Prophet iSl had not been commanded to give the call of the True 
religion. Waraqah died in those times but as one practicing true 
Christianity though he had confirmed the Prophet and professed 
belief in him. From this point of view, we can call him the first 
believer of this ummah. When the Prophet was commanded to 
give the call, we learn from Ahadith, the first Believers were 
Sayyidinah Abu Bakr 4fe, Sayyidina Ali 4^>, Sayyidina Zayd ibn 
Harithah *$k> and Sayyidah Khadijah ^ &\ who had expressed 
belief earlier too. 

(2) The Hadith tells us that Jibreel M squeezed the Prophet's 
throat very hard threee times (like one who strangulates another). 
The scholars have explained it in different ways. I am inclined to 
concur with the opinion that the aim of squeezing the throat in this 
way was to remove his attention from everything for some time, 
even from his own self, and it should be only towards his Lord. If 
the throat of a man of Allah or one who has Divine awareness is 
squeezed in this manner, his entire attention will be directed to his 
Lord and his thought about this world would be cut off to a large 
extent and turn to the higher world. This bent of mind was 
essential at that time because the revelation was being sent to him 
the first time. In other words, a strength had to be created in the 
Prophet's soul and heart to enable to bear the burden of revelation. 
The Qur'an says *ij3 (a weighty word). Then whenever wahy 
was sent later the Prophet went through an experience which is 
described in Ahadith. Even in extreme cold, he perspired when 
revelation came to him. It is also stated in Ahadith that if he was 
riding a camel and he received a wahy, the camel would sit down. 

(3) When he came out of the cave to return home, his heart 
trembled and his whole body reacted from that and, at home, he 
said to Sayyidah Khadijah ^ ^ "I fear for my life." This 
condition too, was the result of the squeezing of his throat and the 
burden of the Divine words. It is Allah's mercy that we do not feel 
the weight of the recital of the Qur'an otherwise, Allah has 
described its glory in these words: 

{Had we sent down this Qur'an j£ *j£ jl^ll* LJjiljJ 
on a mountain, you (O Prophet) '>''\ 
would have seen it humbled, <j* ^ ^ A U--»b^ 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



329 



- split asunder out of fear of m . .... 

Allah} (al-Hashr, 59:21) k ^ JJ ^' 

His Manners 

Allah, the Creator of the Prophet ill and of everyone else, has 
Himself said about the Prophet's manners: 

{And surely you have a s , „ „ tf 

tremendously sublime 

character} (al-Qalam,68:4) (t^A^*) 

The Ahadith and seerah really elaborate on this brief verse of 
the Qur'an. In the Kitab al-Ikhlaq of this Book, Xta'ariful HadUK 
which is a comprehensive section spread over many pages, there 
are teachings of the Prophet iil on manners and important events. 
The initial Ahadith disclose the position of manners in religion and 
in the sight of Allah. To refresh memory we reproduce some of 
those sayings of the Prophet 

(Those people are the best 

among you whose manners are IS^M ^jU^ C)\ 

the best. } 

(Sahceh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 
{1 am sent only that I may 

perfect noble, manners.} <j^>-Vt ^ Uii 
(Muwatta Imam Maalik.) 

{The weightiest thing in a 

Believer's scale on the Day of jtjl* J* £-^Jd £^ d\ 
Resurrection will be good ' + „ „ +\\*^ m \ 1 >\ 
manners. } (Sunan Abu Dawood, 'cT^ f J* &y^ S 

Jami'Tirmizi.) 

When in his last days, the Prophet iH sent Sayyidina Mu'az ibn 
Jabal as preacher and ruler to Yaman, his last advice was: 
{Treat everyone with good , * *** , 

manners. }(Muwatta Imam Maalik) 

Here now are some Ahadith in which the Companions describe 
the Prophet's manners according to their experience. May Allah 
cause us to emulate him. 



330 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(pi— j l£ jWjl d j J) • C*W>4 tfj < cJi^ UJ ^ j ^ I ja ui 

(1963/12) Sayyidina Anas «4^> said that he served the Prophet 

ill for ten years. He never even said "Oof to him, and never 

said to him, "Why did you do it? Why did you not do it?" 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The word oof is uttered in Arabic for something 
unpleasant, displeasure and anger. When the- Prophet iSl came to 
Madinah, Sayyidina Anas 4fe was eight years old (ten, according to 
another report). His mother, Umm Salaym if* At who was a 
very sincere and righteous Believer left him with the Prophet to 
serve him. He was then with the Prophet to serve him. He was 
then with the Prophet iH all through the remaining ten years till his 
death. In this Hadith he has narrated his personal experience that 
the Prophet was well-mannered and soft-hearted. During the ten 
years, he never displayed anger or displeasure. His nature was to 
forgive and overlook. In another Hadith of Sayyidina Anas 4fe 
reported in Bayhaqi he says: 

"I served him ten years. He did not blame me even if something 
was destroyed or spoiled by me. If any of his family members 
blamed me then he would say: What had been decreed had to 
happen." 

However, we must remember that this was his attitude in 
personal matters. Where Allah's limits or commands were 
concerned, he showed no concession. 

^) ill! JJp Jjl olr J 15 il^j ( m i/ M") 

i&r 4flS^ 'dl^i ^\'Ja 'ATjSli ai^Jl k& j)^ VJ> 4*3 

s ' • * ^ s 9 y • ** tfj J J £i >» J ' *" tf ' (J > 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



331 



(1964/13) Sayyidina Anas 4p> said that he was going with 
Allah's Messenger life (somewhere). He had on him a cloak of 
Najran whose hems were thick. They came across a Bedouin 
who pulled at his cloak so hard that the Prophet stumbled on the 
man's chest and Anas 4^ saw that the pull caused marks on his 
neck. The Bedouin then said, m O Muhammad! Of the wealth of 
Allah that you have, give orders (to your men) that they should 
give me some." (Anas 4fe said that) Allah's Messenger iaH then 
looked at him (and instead of showing anger) laughed at his 
conduct and gave instructions that he should be given 
something. (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Najran was a city in Yaman which was famous for 
its cloaks. The 'wealth of Allah' from which the Bedouin wanted 
something was zakah or sadaqat collected in the State Treasure 
and disbursed among the deserving. The Bedouin was extremely 
ignorant and not even receptive to anything reformative. Therefore, 
the Prophet did neither reprimand him nor counselled him but 
laughed at his rude conduct and gave him what he needed. This is a 
lesson for the ummah to forgive and overlook all rude conduct and 
thus win over people's hearts and get them close to them. Allah will 
then guide them. Indeed, those with insight find such conduct in 
the Prophet ^ as his miracles. 



(1965/14) Sayyidina Jabir 4g£> reported that never did it happen 
that Allah's Messenger Hfe was asked for something and he said 



Commentary: Whenever anyone asked the Prophet W? for 
anything, he never said, "No" to the man because that hurts the 
supplicant. 

It might not seem very significant but actually it is very 
extraordinary to never refuse any request. It is the extreme degree 
of kindness and nobility. They are fortunate whom Allah has 
blessed with such generous nature as also those who keep the 
company of Allah's men to develop these attributes. 




^1 (No!). 



(Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 




332 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



eiJudt J-* bt j^Lij ^JLp <dJt JL^ J^Ji ^ Jli ( \ <\ «n/ \ o) 

✓ ✓ J ' » ? « i s ^ y * s 

(1966/1 5) Sayyidina Anas said that after the Prophet ill had 

offered the Fa/r the servents (male or female) of Madinah 

came to him with their vessels in which was water (sothat he 

may put his hand in the water to bless it or to cure the sick by 

dipping his hand into it). So, he dipped his hand into the vessel, 

and it happened often that on a cold morning they brought (cold 

water in the vessel) but he dipped his hand in that too. 

(Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The witners of Madinah are very cold and water in 
vessels turns ice cold. The Prophet $H, however, obliged those who 
brought water and helped Allah's creatures by carrying on the 
practice although he had to endure the cold water. It is also clear 
that this was not an occasional affair but people brought their water 
every day to get the Prophet's ill blessings. This Hadith supports a 
similar regard for a rigiteous man of Allah provided there is no 
exaggeration and adulteration in one's belief. 



, m * * *> * % . s . * . 4l *f J " '* t * I 

d j j) .<U^ j CJJu Uj\j bUJ CjuI pi 

(1967/16) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <$k> said that it was said to 

Allah's Messenger £§l, "O Messenger of Allah! Pray against the 

idolaters and disbelievers." He said, "1 have not been sent as one 

to curse and pray against anyone. Rather. I am sent as mercy." 

(Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The disbelievers and the idolaters were staunch 
enemies of the Prophet £§lt and his religion. They persecuted the 
Prophet and his followers and even expelled him from his 
native city but their mischief continued unabated even after that. 
Some of his Companions requested the Prophet m to curse the 
oppressing disbelievers that Allah may show His wrath to them and 
destroy them like He had punished earlier people. The Prophet HI 
pacified them that he was not sent to curse anyone but he was 
Mercy for the worlds, as Allah has said: 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



333 



{And We have not sent you but as a mercy to the worlds.} 

(al-Anbiya,21:107) 



(1968/17) Sayyidah Ayshah i»i said that the Messenger 
of Allah Igfr never beat anyone with his hands — never a woman 
and never a servant. However, he did that in jihad in the cause 
of Allah. And, never did he seek revenge from one who 
persecuted him (for, in fact, he always forgave and overlooked 
in personal affronts). Nevertheless, if anyone committed an 
unlawful act then he punished the criminal for the sake of Allah 
(in fulfilment of His Commands, or he gave command to punish 
him.) (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidah Ayshah if^i'^j has mentioned two 
things in this Hadith. 

(1) Never was he known to have beaten anyone on his mistake 
— not even a servant, slave, maid-slave, or a wife, except his 
actions in jihad. For instance, Ubayy ibn Khalaf, a Makkan idolater 
chief was killed by him in the Battle of Badr. 

(2) He never took revange for a personal affront even if an 
unfortunate person hurt him. However, if anyone perpetrated a 
wrong or unlawful act in religion then he punished him only for the 
sake of Allah and to abide by His Command. 



^Ip <dJl JL> ^-Jl jlS*U i-SJlP cJU-> JlS {\ \\\l\K) 

.«.« I ^ f « / J 9 I 9 . 9 9 9*99 ^ y s . ^ J »,«• 9 s 9 * 9 9 s \ s s 

bu (4Ui ^ (c5? j) ^ d 0 ir cJu 4^ ^ ^ 



(1969/18) A tabi'ee, Sayyidina Aswad said: I asked Sayyidah 
Ayshah if* *»i what the Prophet ^ did (when he was) at 
home. She said that he helped his household members in their 
chores and when it was time for salah, he gave up everything 
and went to offer salah. (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: It was the Prophet's iil practice to lend a hand in 



334 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



household chores. It is his sunnah. May Allah inspire us to conduct 
ourselves on these sunnah so that we will get reward against 
helping and serving others, and we will also cure ourselves of the 
spiritual disease, arrogance. 

s s } m s 2 s } s % s s , 3 

3 ».«♦'' 3 s 3 * 3 ^ J s . I s 3s . s ^ 3 s 3 * t s 3 s s / S3* ( 3 t S s , • 3 .J , s 

(i*Ujsh o\jj) . '^ii fJkkij C 4J14 44^13 i^i J^4 S ifi 1 j-^ 6^ 

(1970/19) Sayyidah Ayshah if* said that it was normal 

with Allah's Messenger iHl that (when necessary) he patched his 
sandal, sewed his garments, and he worked in his house as one 
of you does in his house, (she also said that) he was (not a super 
human or any other than human creature but) one of the children 
of Aadam (who did even every ordinary chores) who searched 
his garments for lice, milked his sheep and attended to his own 
tasks. (Jaini' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: There is a good lesson to learn in this Hadith and 
the Prophet's iH exemplary life for those who are his heirs in 
religion. May Allah cause all of us to emulate the Prophet's ill 
example. 

* 3 0 , i* * ' 3 3 s s s s 

t s s s 3 • | . s f s3 s s s 3 / s- y s 3 \ i s V \ , s * 

& & s* 

s s s 

. j » 3ts3sss3s 3's^*f £o>\\%s%3'is 3 s 

(1971/20) Sayyidina Anas said that it was the practice of 
Allah's Messenger ill that when he shook hands with anyone he 
did not withdraw his hands till the other man withdrew his. 
Similarly, he did not turn away his face from anyone till that 
man turned his face to the other side. And, he was never seen to 

put forward his knees in front of one with whom he was sitting. 

(Jami, Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Obviously, those who came to him, shook hands 
with him, believed in him were his servants and his devoted 
Companions t^>. He met them as the Hadith says but men of his 
ummah like us are very unfortunate in depriving ourselves of these 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



attributes. 

(1972/21) Sayyidah Ayshah if*^^ said that Allah's 

Messenger Hi did not speak rapidly as you people do, but 

would talk slowly in such a way that if anyone wished to count 

his words then he wou-ld be able to do so. 

(Saheeh Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This is the best way to speak when one teaches 
others. Listeners can understand and hold the teaching in their 
mind. A Hadith in Jami' Tirmizi narrated by Sayyidah Ayshah 
\#s>&\ Concludes thus: 

"He spoke in such a way that the words were spaced out so that 
those who sat with him remembered them." 

(1973/22) Sayyidina Jabir ibn Samurah 4h siad that Allah's 
Messenger iife observed long silence (Sharah as-Sunnah) 

Commentary: The Prophet iH spoke only to teach and train. If 
there was no need to say anything then he remained silent. The 
following Hadith is found in volume one of Ma'riful-Hadith in 
kitab al-Eeman under reference to Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh 
Muslim: 

.cJJpXf »> jiii c #i j & 6ir £ 

"He who believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak what 
is good (which is liable to fetch him reward), or keep quiet." 

Commentary: This was the Prophet's $m teaching on which he 
conducted himself. May Allah cause us also to abide by that. 

We have presented only ten Ahadith from Kitab al-Munaqib wa 
al-Fadail on the Prophet's H manners. Let that be enough example. 



336 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Illness & Death 

We follow the pattern of the compiler of Mishkat al-Masabeeh 
and conclude this chapter with a few Ahadith on the Prophet's ill 
illness and death. 

We may mention here that the Muhadditheen and biographers 
agree that the death of the Prophet ^ occured in 1 1 AH in the 
month of Rabee' al-Awwal on a Monday. However, there are 
different reports on the date he died just as the reports differ 
concerning his birth. As far as my own study is concerned, there is 
no book of Hadith that mentions the date on which he died. The 
books of history and biography mention three different dates: the 
1st of Rabee' ul-Awwal, the second and the twelfth which is more 
commonly accepted like the date of birth. However, some scholars 
have asserted that 12th Rabee' ul-Awwal can never be correct 
because it is confirmed that he had performed Hajj two and three 
quarters of a month before his death and the day of Hajj, 9th 
Zul-Hajjah, was Friday. (This is known also as the Farewell Hajj). 
It is confirmed too that the day on which he died was Monday. 
Given this date (1) 9th Zul Hajj was Friday and (2) Prophet's death 
was on Monday in Rabee 1 al-Awwal — then 12th Rabee' al-Awwal 
can never fall on a Monday. If we consider each of the three (lunar) 
months to be of 29 days (which is most far-fetched and the least 
likely) then the first Monday in Rabee' al-Awwal will be the 2nd of 
the month. And, if one month is made up of 29 days and two of 30 
days each (which is a frequent occurence) then the first Monday in 
Rabee' al-Awwal will be the first of the month. Keeping these facts 
in mind, the most conceiving date is 1st Rabee 'ul-Awwal. But 
Allah knows best. 

We will now read some of those Ahadith in which the Prophet 
HH gave a vague hint to his Companions c^> of his impending 
death, or spoke of it in clear terms. There are some of those 
Ahadith in which a few of the important events that took place in 
the final illness are mentioned. In conclusion, we have reproduced 
the Ahadith that speak of the Prophet's death. May Allah make 
these Ahadith a means of guidance and blessing for me and all 
readers and decree for us a peaceful death on the faith of Islam. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



337 



1 6 i j 



iij <o>tf 1 H & ^ '^J^4\ P* 

Qljl J^l #j cjf^' 1^ $ fifr >J£ c^J 

(1974/23) Sayyidina Uqabah ibn Aamir Juhani 4^ said that 
Allah's Messenger ill offered salah over the martyrs of Uhud 
eight years after (the battle) like one who bids farewell to the 
living and the dead. He then (came to the mosque) and mounted 
the pulpit and said (to the Companions 4^>X "I a ™ with you like 
a farat (one preceding) and J shall be a witness to testify for 
you. Your place of meeting is the Kawthar (Pond) and I am 
looking at that while I am here. And, I have been granted by 
Allah the keys of the treasures of the earth. And, I do not fear 
for you that you might become polythiests after me, but I fear 
that (after me) you would long for worldly things." 

(Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The fact is that the salah of funeral had not been 
offered over the martyrs of Uhud (who included the Prophet's Hi 
beloved paternal uncle, Sayyidina Hamzah 4^). (They were buried 
without the salah of janazah being offered). This Hadith tells us 
that when it was disclosed to the Prophet lH that he would die 
shortly, he visited Uhud one day and offered the funeral salah over 
them. In the Book of Funeral of Saheeh Bukhari it is stated in the 
same Hadith. c4ifc J* 'djii Jii x Ji which explains that he 
offered salah over the martyrs who had been buried eight years ago 
just as one offers over a (fresh) dead body. Then we are told that 
the Prophet's condition in this salah was ^*y^ n like 

of one who bids farewell to the living and dead. The Prophet ill 
then went to the mosque (perhaps it was time for salah and the 
people had gathered there for the congregation), climbed the 
minbar (pulpit) and spoke the few words effectively. "I am going 
before you like a farat to the next world." Among the Arabs, a lead 
man preceded a carvan to its destination where he made necessary 



338 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIU 



arrangement for the carvan. He is known as farat. The Prophet ap 
gave a hint that he was going to the next world when he said in 
words of comfort to the Companions "My preceding you to the 
next world is good for you, for, on reaching there I will do for you 
what a farat does. And like the caravan that joins the farat at the 
destination, you will meet me there." He went on to assure them 
that he would testify for them that they had believed and obeyed 
him and supported him. He also said that they would meet at the 
Kawthar and disclosed that he could see it (the Kawther) while he 
was there talking to them (for, Allah had removed every obstacle 
and placed it before him). He also said, "Allah has given me the 
keys to the treasures of this earth and the world." This was the 
tidings that his ummah would be given those keys (and was 
demonstrated in the times of the Companions). 

In the end, he said that he did not fear that they would revert to 
polytheism but he did fear that they might crave for the world's 
luxuries. For a Believer, only Paradise is what he should crave for 
alongwith the blessings of the next world. Allah has said about 
them: 

<n:Aro^i) a 06>l*^ 

{And to this end, let the strivers strive.} (al-Mutaffifeen, 83:26) 
£,j <3* illl JU 4JJI Jjij $ ^ywJl 'J) & ( Wo/Y i) 

frliU U&t ja & £ ilJt t'J* \x* l\ J12J £A\ J* Ji£ 
"U3#lj tflft JtS £y\ >J3 Jl5 'ajupU 'oJlpU j2j 

4* ill* JU j>^5 'jM Ob* 'j\ 1 j>i J-uii jiS 'J 

(pi-* j lS jWJI at j j) . UXUl j^y\ ^tfj 

(1975/24) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri 4& said that Allah's 
Messenger ill sat down on the minbar (one day) and said 
(addressing the Companions "Allah gave choice to have 
whatever he wants from worldly blessings or take the blessings 
(of the Hereafter) that are with Allah. So the slave chose (the 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



339 



blessings of the Hereafter) that are with Allah." On hearing that 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe wept and submitted to the Prophet Hi, 
"May we and our parents be ransomed to you!" (Sayyidina Abu 
Sa'eed al-Khudri 4fe said;) We were surprised at Abu Bakr's 
reaction and some people said to each other, "Look at the 
Shaykh! Allah's Messenger informs us that Allah asked a slave 
to choose between the bounties of this world and the next but 
the Shaykh, Abu Bakr, exclaims we and our parents be 
ransomed to you!" (Abu Sa'eed went on to say that when the 
Prophet $H died soon after they realised that) the Prophet iil 
was the slave whom Allah had given the choice (and also that) 
Abu Bakr excelled them in intelligence and wisdom (for, he 
understood which none of the others could surmise). 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: We are not told when the Prophet iH delivered this 
sermon. The compiler of Mishkat has cited Darami which has 
transmitted this Hadith of Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri 4fe> with the clear 
addition that the Prophet iaH spoke thus during his last illness, and 
this was his last address. He never spoke again in the mosque 
before his death. In another Hadith of Saheeh Muslim (narrated by 
Sayyidina Jundub 4fe) we are told that he spoke thus five days 
before death (on Thursday). 

The compiler of Mishkat has cited only as much of Abu 
Sa'eed's 4fe Hadith in Mishkafs chapter on Prophet's iH death as 
we have quoted here. But, Bukhari and Muslim have placed this 
Hadith in the chapter on the merits of Abu Bakr 4& and both have 
the following addition in the Prophet's sermon: 

"It is a fact that of all men, one 

who was most kind in 

treatment to me with his wealth 

and his company is Abu Bakr 

and if I were to take a Khaleel 

(friend) besides Allah, I would 

take Abu Bakr for a friend but 

the special brotherhood and 

fraternity of Islam is with Abu 

Bakr. (He then instructed that) 

"all doors opening into the 



t&4 \$\ &j '%£ 

3 / | ♦ fr ^ M J J . | , V s s y 

0 " 



340 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



mosque should be shut except for Abu Bakr's door (which 
should be retained). 1 " 

We learn from this sermon (which was the Prophet's ^ last 
semon in the mosque and which he delivered just five days prior to 
death) that he gave a broad hint that his death was near and he also 
indicated that the position Sayyidina Abu Bakr held in the 
ummah was not held by anyone else. He asked that doors of houses 
opening into the mosque must be sealed save the door of Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr 4fe. He indicated that after him only Abu Bakr would 
have a relationship with the mosque which he himself had. (We 
must remember that the Prophet's mosque of those times was not 
like our mdsques where only Salah is offered but it was a centre for 
every function of prophethood.) 

Some versions suggest that the Prophet Hi gave some other 
important instructions too. 

(1976/25) Sayyidah Ayshah if* ii^j reported that in the 
illness from which he did not recover, Allah's Messenger ^ 
said, "May Allah's curse be on the Jews and Christians. They 
made the graves of their Prophets places of prostration." She 
then said, "If he had not said that then I would have opened his 
grave (to the people). He had feared that his grave too would be 
used as a place of prostration in the same way as the Jews and 
Christians had turned their Prophet's graves into places of 
prostration." (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Some versions suggest that the Prophet ill had 

spoken these words in the same sermon that he had delivered five 

days before' his death from the minber in the mosque (which is 

O. In those times, the doors of some houses of the Companions ^ii^j 

opened into the mosque. They came into the mosque directly from those 
doors. Though this sermon, the Prophet had all the doors, except 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr's & shut. In another version, the word ^ (door) 
is replaced by "^y- which means a window or a ventilator. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 34 1 

mentioned in Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri's 4fe Hadith.) Some 
when the illness was intense. It is much possible that he said this at 
both times, in the sermon from the mosque and from his sick bed 
because he was much concerned about it lest his ummah do as the 
Jews and Christians had done and turn his grave into a place to 
prostrate and become liable to Allah's curse. While he was 
confident that they would not resort to idol-worship (and he 
disclosed that much), yet he was fearful that the devil would incite 
them to indulge in polytheism on the pretext of love for the Prophet 
Hi and get them to prostrate before his grave. Therefore, he 
cautioned his ummah frequently against this thing. 



»»JJ)- jfttf 6>f jiil j i&» ^lij Jjl Ul JJlS J jfe ^ j& 

(1977/26) Sayyidah Ayshah \#*&\ said that Allah's 
Messenger lH said (to her) in his illness, "Call your father, Abu 
Bakr, and your brother (Abdur Rahman) to me so that I may get 
them to write down a message (by way of a will). I fear a 
seeking one may desire and a tumour-monger might say that he 
is more desreving. And Allah and the Believers will not accept 
anyone save Abu Bakr." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The message of this Hadith is that in his illness the 
Prophet H was eager that Sayyidina Abu Bakr <^> may shoulder 
responsibilities after death (known as Khilafah). He wished to 
write down a will. So, he instructed Sayyidah Ayshah \#s> &\ to 
summon her father and her brother. He said that he feared someone 
else might covet the post or another might claim to be more 
deserving. That would create dissension. "So, to protect the ummah 
I wish to write down a will for Abu Bakr." Then, he was assured 
that the Believers would decide in the same manner as he had 
thought and he said to Sayyidah Ayshah^^i y\ <dh ^u" 

u (Allah and the Believers will not accept any other but Abu 
Bakr). It appears from a report in Saheeh Bukhari that this occured 
on the first day of his illness. What is the reality of Khilafat 
Nabuwah caliphate of the prophethood? We will mention that 



342 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

while explaining a Hadith that will follow. 



s s s * 



^ij^-li j^Lj aIAp iili dJlii J&ii ^£ ifjLJ cJlS 

(1978/27) Sayyidah Ayshah -if* At said that while he was 
bed-ridden with illness that caused his death, the Prophet lH 
called Sayyidah Fatimah (to him) and whispered something to 
her. She began to cry on that. But then he beckoned her again 
to him and whispered something else to her and she laughed. 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* h said that) she asked her about that 
and she said, "The first time he whispered to me that he would 
die of that illness so I wept because of sadness. When he 
whispered to me again, he confided to me that amog his family 
members, I would be the first to follow him (and meet him). 
That pleased me and 1 laughed." (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: The text is very explicit. However, Saheeh Bukhari 
carries another version of this Hadith of Sayyidah Ayshah &\ 
if* with the details that when she asked Sayyidah Fatimah ubi 
if* why she wept the first time and laughed when the Prophet 0§<? 
whispered the second time, Sayyidah Fatimah if* did not 

disclose the secret that day, saying that she would not disclose the 
Prophet's ill secret. After the Prophet III died, Sayyidah Ayshah 
if* At asked her again to reveal to her what the Prophet had 
confided to her. This time Sayyidah Faitmah if* &\ disclosed to 
her what the Prophet III had said to her each time. 

Both the things happened as the Prophet had foretold. He 
died of that very illness and Sayyidah Faitmah if* was the 

first member of his family to follow him. Indeed, this is evidence 
of his prophethood. 

4 U J*uH Jltf <ls Jy JpjJl ^Jrj J> j <d* Jilt <0Jl Sr>) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



343 



JjlJ^Aj £p>1 J Las ^JLwj a^Ip <LUt t5 L> Jjl 
<Li% JJu Jj»j CJt '4J jLal ^ik^lJLP J,L> ooJ 'flips' <U,G 

X" & X ^ W X xx *V ^ J 

j'jL 3'^ ^L>j m aji j^ij <y>v 4ju»j (UiJii^- 

X X X 

X X^ X ^ ^ Xj X ^ J x^-»x jS X ^ J* £ if ^ 

X X 

X * X ^ 

(1979/28) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 4^> said that during 
the illness of Allah's Messenger ^ in which he died. Sayyidina 
Ali 4fe> came out of him (one day). The people asked him how 
Allah's Messenger itH fared and he said, "Praise be to Allah, he 
is better today." (His paternal uncle Sayyidina Abbas held 
him by the hand and said to him, "By Allah, after three days you 
will be under the command of other people. I feel that Allah's 
Messenger will die soon, for, I recognise the signs of death on 
the faces of the children of Abdul Muttalib (and I feel through 
that that the time is near). Come with me to Allah's Messenger 
iH> and we will ask him who will have (the Khilafat after him). 
If it will survive with us (the family members), we will know 
that. But, if it will be handed over to others then we will come 
to know of that. And, he will make a will for us." Sayyidina Ali 
4S§£> said, "If we ask him about the Khilafat and he disallows it to 
us (and decides not to give us the Khilafat) then by Allah (after 
that) the people will not give it to us. So, by Allah, I will not ask 
him abotu Khilafat" (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: This relates to the last days of the Prophet's iH 
illness. Hafiz ibn Hajar Asqalani has written in Path al-Bari on the 
authority of Ibn Isha that Imam Zuhri, a narrator of this Hadith said 
that it relates to very morning of the day on which the Prophet iH 
died in the evening. 

It is also known from this Hadith that the condition of the 
Prophet i||> was better that morning because Sayyidina Ali 4^ 
reported accordingly to the people outside the house and thus 



344 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



comforted them. However, his uncle (also the Prophet's uncle) 
Sayyidina Abbas ^> had recognised from experience sings of death 
in the Prophet's iH paternal cousin and son-in-law too) what is 
clearly stated in the Hadith which also records his answer to his 
uncle. The people of our times who place Khilafat at par with 
monorchy might doubt that Sayyidina Ali 4$& craved for the high 
position in government (and some have made this allegation too). 
But, the fact is that Khilafat of the Porphet is different from 
worldly sovereignty and government (in the same was as religion 
and worldly matters are different). The work that the Prophet $k 
did for religion by way orf preaching and teaching the ummah, 
raising the word of truth, jihad, self-sacrifice and justice in the 
guidance of wahy should be carried on by his Khalifah on the 
principles and programme he followed. They should act as his 
representatives. This is Khilafat Nabuwah or Khilafat Raashidah. 
Obviously, this is not a bed of roses like the worldly monarchy but 
it is a thorny passage. The slave of Allah who hopes for Allah's 
help to give it its rights is not at all blameworthy, rather he is 
honoured; Sayyidina Ali 4^> hoped that if he got the chance then he 
would be able to discharge its responsibilites with the help of 
Allah. Therefore, desire for it was a desire of a high standard. 
Thus, when he was the fourth Khalifah after the three, who were 
decreed by divinity aforehand, he discharged his responsibilities on 
the basis of the Prophet's principles. However, his entire period 
of rule was an era of mischief and trial (after the innocent 
martyrdom of Sayyidina Uthman 4^), so his time was spent fully 
in suppressing michief .\jjJJ&\jjS ^Sii jifj (and that was already 
decided). 

iLj 4^^J^^ JlS V^J' & y£ h2 J^J J& 
pfi&j £?rjl\ '<l!p j^p Jtfi 'ojuj ^JL^J ^ UbT isj \ yjJt> 

* 3 *6 s 3 $■* ' 3 * s ' * s 3 s' * >' " 9 C *" % ' 3 3 s X 3 *' 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



345 



(1980/29) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas narrated (on the 
days) when Allah's Messenger £H was near death and many 
people were present in the house, one of whom was Sayyidina 
Umar ibn al-Khattab *£jk> 9 the Prophet lH said, "Come I will 
write down (get written down) a will for you and you will never 
go astray after that." So, Umar 4fe said (to the people), "The 
Prophet is in great pain now and you yave the Qur'an with 
you, and this Book of Allah is enough for you (and your 
guidance and keeping away from error)." Thus, those people in 
the house differed in their views and they began to argue, some 
of them saying, "Bring to the Prophet (the writing material) that 
he may dictate (what he wishes to dictate)." Some others said 
what Umar 4^> had said. So, when there was a difference and 
commotion (because of the argument) and it increased, Allah's 
Messenger Wk said, "Go away from me, you people!" 

Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah (a narrator from Ibn Abbas 4^>)said 

that Ibn Abbas <4fe used to say about this happening that the 

trouble all of it- is what came between Allah's Messenger iH 

and the writing of the will (which he wished to pen down) 

because of the mutual disagreement and commotion. 

(Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) 

As we have mentioned, this report is transmitted by Ubaydullah 
ibn Abdullah from Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 4&>. His other 
student, Sa'eed ibn Jubayr has also found in Sahih Bukhari and 
Saheeh Muslim, It is reproduced here to have the full picture before 
us: 

J± ifi ft fa Uj j4J^\ jit Jis (\ u Mr . ) 

Jjl Jji£ Hit JlS ? cr 4^' f ji c?^ ^ cs-*^ 1 ***** & 

iSbT ft d£\ J&t ^Jj2j Jtfi ^ j jiij d*&\Jl> 

*t . 3 ' 3 } 3 ' , 6 J J / *t t^l -» « t . ^ > 3 % ' 3 . 3 > ✓ ^| . C ^ ■* I* <** / J i , Ji/ • • 

^ c^J*^ ^ « bl i*L)J* tsJJ" J 1 * Oji j£ 



346 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



tej^ jj^r'j y>J' "O.yr Jr? o£s^* »>P^» JW* ^ 
tl» jCii Jll l^sl*i l^JlSjl isJlsJl j£ ci^>j c^tf 

( j <io^ j j) J y eft 

(1981/30) (Saeed ibn Jubayr said that one day:) Sayyidina Ibn 

Abbas 4i£> said, "Oh! The Thursday! How was that day, 

Thursday," and he wept so profusely that the floor became wet 

with his tears. So, I said, "O Ibn Abbas, how was that Thursday 

(which you recall in this way)?" He then said: (It was Thursday 

and) Allah's Mesenger's illness increased and he said (in that 

condition) "Bring JlsS (bring the shoulder blade). 1 will dictate 

a writing for you after which you will never go into error." So, 

(those people who were there with him) differed about it. And 

there should not be altercation and differences in the presence of 

the Prophet. Some people said, "Do we leave him (separate 

from him)? Ask him (what he says)?." Then they kept saying 

about that again and again to him, and he said, "Leave me. The 

condition in which I am is better than what you call me to." 

Then he gave three commands. "First, the polytheists should be 

turned out of the Arabian peninsula. And (second) the same 

treatment as I metted out must be given to delegations and 

envoys (from governments and tribes)." The narrator from 

Sa'eed ibn Jubayr, Sulayman, said that either Sa'eed ibn Jubayr 

did not narrate the third thing or he (Sulayman) forgot it. 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: These are two satements of Ibn Abbas 4& on the 
same incident and there is no contradiction in them save that there 
are some additions or omissions here and there. When he narrated 
it to Ubaydullah, he only mentioned the presence of Sayyidina 
Umar 4fe and what he said, but when he narrated it to Sa'eed ibn 
Jubayr, Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4fe did not mention Umar's 4^> 
presence but mentioned some other matters. These things do 
happen often. 

If we read the two narrations together then we will get this 
picture: It was Thursday (five days before death, for, the Prophet 
Hi died on Monday). The illness became severe, he had a high 
fever and was in much agony. Some people, including Sayyidina 
Umar <4fe. were around. The Prophet said while he was in that 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



347 



condition, "Bring writing material that I may write down 
something for you after which you will never go astray (the 
version of Saheeh Muslim says: "8» jiJUij u*£Jb ^#!" Bring me 
scapula and ink 1 ). Sayyidina Umar 4fe said to the other people 
present there that the Prophet iH was in much agony and they 
already had the Qur'an that was revealed to him. That Book of 
Allah is enough for our guidance and keeping away from error (as, 
indeed, it is often repeated in the Qur'an). Those present there 
began to differ on the matter, some of them insisted that writing 
material should be brought and whatever he dictated must be 
recorded. Some others said the same things that Sayyidina Umar 
4& had said namely the Prophet iaH was in pain and should not be 
given more trouble, Allah's Book is enough for guidance. Some 
other people said at the same time, "ij + 4ku*\ " (This is the 

Porphet's condition. Is he going away? Leaving us? Ask him). 
Then they repeated this to him again and again. This distracted him 
from concentration towards Allah and the peculiar condition of the 
heart. So, he said, "You people should leave me alone and not try 
to distract me. I am in a better thing than what you call me to (for, I 
am turned to my Lord and prepare to go to His presence while you 
call me to yourselves. Leave me alone.) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4^ 
said that the Prophet lH then gave a command for three things, the 
polytheists should be driven out of Arabia and deputations and 
envoys of governments or tribes must be well-treated (and gifts be 
given to them) as he was wont to do. Sulayman the student of 
Sa'eed ibn Jubayr mentioned only two of the three commands, 
saying that either Sa f eed ibn Jubayr had not mentioned the thrid or 
he (Sulayman) had forgotten it. 

This is the full event well-known as Hadith Qirtas. Some of its 
points need to be explained. 

This happened on Thursday, five days after which the Prophet 
died on Monday. He did not dictate that message during these 
days and did not even mention it. It is clear, therefore, that he had 
not been commanded by Allah to dictate that to be written down. 

O. In the times of the Prophet <£S particularly in the Hijaz was scare. So they 
wrote on different things, one of which was animal scapula on which people 
wrote in the same manner as on wood or stone. 



348 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



He got a thought about it and then changed his mind. If that 
was a command of Allah or he had not changed his mind then he 
would surely have had it written down to preserve his ummah from 
going into error. And omission to get it written down would have 
been a dereliction in the duties of his office. (May Allah protect us 
from such thought.) It was exactly like his intention in the initial 
days of illness 1 to get a will written down for Sayyidina Abu Bakr's 

Khilafah for which he asked for Abu Bakr <^ and his son to be 
summoned, but he changed his mind soon, saying 6>jjiJt j <M iJk " 
"J&W* So, we must deduce that the same thing 'happened on 
Thursday and the Prophet iH himself found it unnecessary to get 
his message written down. 

Another point worth considering is that while he was running 
high fever and had much pain, he asked for writing marerial to be 
brought to him. sayyidina Umar who was present there did not 
say anything to the Prophet Hi but addressed the others present 
there and called their attention to the Prophet's difficult condition 
and agony, saying, "He is in much pain now." He meant that they 
should not then give the Prophet gfjl trouble by asking him to 
dictate anything. He had believed firmly through the Qur'an and 
the Prophet's teachings and training that the Qur'an which the 
Prophet iil had brought was enough to guide them away from 
error. In fact, Allah has said about it # ^ ubyU" and 
"i^> j£ I uCj . And the verse was revealed during Hijjat-ul-Wada 2 \ 

(Ail l si>UT fptll^ JbP) r : & "ji+m cJ^JSj {JZjS jpj cJUil ^3t" 

Alah has made clear in these verses that whatever had to be told by 
way of guidance to man has been told in the Qur'an. So, he said, 
"We need not trouble the Prophet in his illness to write down 
anything for us. We have the Qur'an with us. It is enough for our 
guidance and to keep us away from error." 

As stated before, the Porphet iH lived five days more after this 

O. The Hadith in Bukhari Kitab al Marda, chapter qaull al-hareed has words 
from which it is determined that the event took place in the beginning of the 
Prophet's illness. (Saheeh Bukhari p846 or Rashidiya Delhi) 

©. respectively: Al-An'am 6:38, An-NahU 16:89, 6:154, and al-Ma'idaK 5:8. 
Meaning: ( We have not neglected anything in the book (of Decrees)}, 
(Making clear everything}, {Detailing everything} and {This day have 1 
perfected your reigion for you and completed May Blessing on you.} 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 349 

happening, but he did not get that message written down. In fact, 
he did not even mention it again which was a tacit approval of 
Sayyidina Umar's <$k> opinion. Undoubtedly, therefore, this speaks 
of the excellence and merit of Sayyidina Umar 4^>. 

The third point worth considering is that the Hadith 
(reproduced here on the authrouty of Bukhari and Muslim) does 
not say who was instructed by the Prophet iH to bring material for 
writing. However, while explaining this Hadith in Path al-Bari, 
Hafiz Ibn Hajar <Up &\ has cited a report of Sayyidina Ali on 
the authority of Musnad Ahmad. It says clearly that the Prophet iH 
had Sayyidina Ali to fetch the writing material Sayyidina Ali 
4fe has said: 



'The Prophet ■» fa tfj, J± jfi 

commanded me to bring a ^~ "* 

shoulder-blade so that he u-sx[ (d^ ^) jfe $ jl 

might get written ' 

something after which his * {jrr ^ 

ummah may never go £j» ,#, *<j* Jj'j*" 

astray." (* tr^r^Ua^jUn 

We know that Sayyidina Ali ^ knew how to write and he was 
asked to fetch the material that he may write what the Prophet ^ 
might dictate. But, it is clear and well-known that he too did not 
write anything which is evidence that, like Sayyidina Umar 4^, he 
also did not wish to put the Prophet HI to inconvenience in his 
illness. Perhaps, he too agreed that Allah's Book was enough for 
guidance. 

Another point to be considered is that Sa'eed ibn Jubayr's 
version states that when the Prophet iH demanded the writing 
material, some people said *\ jiii SuUli". To understand this 
we must picture in our mind the agony the Prophet JsH was going 
through during which he declared that he wished to pen down 
something after which his people would never fall on the wrong 
path, so, some of the men felt that the time of his final departure to 
the Hereafter was near, so, they exclaimed "* * y *4 pL \ 'auU" 
(What his condition. Will he choose separation? Is going away 
from us? We must ask him.) The word j** means to choose 
separation, and go away leaving someone- behind. Instead of J-^>j 



350 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(wasala) the word ^ (hajara) is used. Some people have thought 
that it is j*i (hujara) which means irrational talk of the sick in an 
state and is called hazayn. In that case this sentence would mean: 
what the Prophet Hi says about writing something, is it delirium? 
Ask him? This meaning can never be correct, for the patient who 
talks irrationally cannot be in a condition that we may ask him for 
something. In short the word (istafhimuhu) is evidence 

that (hajara) is not derived from j*J* (hujara) meaning hazayn. 

Besides, the Prophet iH had said, "Bring me material to write 
that I may have something written down whereafter you would 
never go astray. This certainly was not something about which one 
may suspect hazayn or delirium. Although if j£At (a hajara) is 
made a (negative ) tag question we get this meaning yet it is a fact 
that it does not mean hazayan (delirium) here. 

It is also worth great consideration that the words "fl j^fc' ii 
were not spoken by Sayyidina Umar 4^>. Some other people had 
said that and their names are not mentioned in the Hadith except 
that the words i jJtfi (so they said) introduce their exclamation. The 
Shia writers however, insist on attributing these words to 
Sayyidina Umar to target him for their accusations and they 
allege that he regarded the Prohet's iH words as hazayan (may 
Allah forgive us!) but we do not find any reliable book of Hadith of 
the ahl us-sunnah attributing these words to Sayyidina Umar 
All he had said then was what is mentioned in the first version of 
the Hadith of Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim ij\'J&\ (P ^) 
(*\}\ olT (you have the Quran; the Book of Allah is enought for 
you). Of course, the words " 'a were, after all, spoken by 
some of the Companions but they mean what we have stated 
above and they point out to their love for Allah's Messenger 

The exponents of Hadith have also explored possibilites to find 
out what the Prophet iH intended to dictate when he said, "Bring 
me writing material, I wish to get something written down after 
which you will never go off the path." Obviously, whatever they 
suggest is surmise. The Shia claim that he wished to leave 
instructions for Sayyidina Ali as Khalifah, but that could not be 
penned down because of Sayyidina Umar's interference. But, they 
have no reason to say that. It is their claim on which their belief of 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



351 



Imamat is based-rather, their entire religion is based- that on the 
return journey from Hajjatul-w?ada\ just seventy or seventy-two 
days before his death, the Prophet ill had assembled all his 
companions of the Hajj\ the Muhajirs and the Ansars at Ghadir 
Khum. He stood on the minbar (pulpit) which was specially built 
for this address and proclaimed Sayyidina Ali as Khalifah and 
Imam after him. He did not stop at that but also had everyone 
swear allegiance to Sayyidina Ali 4^0. (Although this is an invented 
tale, the Shias no doubt believe in it and this belief is elaborated in 
their most reliable books al-Jami'al-Kafi, Ihtijaaj Tabarasi, etc.) 
So, when that thing had been decided and it was finalised in the 
presence of thousdand of men in a very grand way then what was 
the need to leave a written will for that. Of course, the explanation 
of those people is plausible who say that the Prophet ill had 
intended to write down Sayyidina Abu Bakr as his Khalifah but 
changed his mind when he realiesed that his succesion was decreed 
already by divine command. Allamah Badruddin Ayni has written 
while explaining this Hadith in Umdah al-Qari Sharah al-Bukharv. 

"Imam Bayhaqi has stated that 

Sufyan ibn Uyainah (who is 

one of the narrators of this 

Hadith Qirtas) has quoted 

Knowledgeable men (as 

saying) that the Prophet had 

intended to appoint Sayyidina 

Abu Bakr as Khalifah (and 

get it written down). 

Then, on learning that it was 
predetermined by divine fate, 
he abandoned the idea of 
having it written* down. In the 
beginning of this illness too, he 
had expressed desire to write 
down that Abu Bakr would 
be Khalifah and then decided 
against writing it down saying 
j£L> u ^ j j^jJtj & and 

(instead of writing anything) he commanded him to lead men in 



& 6^ c£^3 J 1 * 

iSUspi J&ji 3y p ilp ill 1 



352 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

salah (which was a practical successorship)," 

We must remember that Sufyan ibn Uyainah was a taba' 
tabVeen (an epigone successor of the successors of the 
Companions cjfe>). The Knowledgeable men that he refers to could 
be the tabVeen too. This shows that even the tabVeen believed that 
the Prophet had desired to write down Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4s& 
as Khalifah and this is the purport of the Hadith Qirtas. 

Whatever we have written thus far in explaining the Hadith 
Qirtas is based on the presumption that the Prophet iH had asked 
for writing material to get some instructions written down (which 
intention he abandoned and did not write anything). Hafiz Ibn 
Hajar while explaining this Hadith Qirtas in Fath al-Bari has 
mentioned a possibility. He has suggested that, in fact, the Prophet 
Hi had no intention ever to write down anything, but, he wished to 
examine his Companions qfe>. "Have they got it firmly in their 
hearts that the last Book of Allah, the Qur ! an is enough for the 
guidance of the ummahT Indeed, Sayyidina Umar £j§k> confirmed 
"Ai w>bf ji^i ^ *lp (You have the Qur'an with you and Allah's 
Book is sufficient for you), and other people who were there also 
supported his contention. That satisfied the Prophet !H. 

(Fath al-Bari vl8 p 101, Ansari press, Dehli 1307 AH) 

We must bear in mind that we have in the Qur'an, again and 
again, Jj~^i (obey the Messenger) with Ai ij«J»i (obey Allah). 
Obedience to the Prophet's H commands and sayings and 
observance of his practice have been ordained to us even 
otherwise, so they are included in obedience to the Qur'an and the 
Quran encompasses that. Hence, we should not suppose that the 
words ibi ^bS" (Allah's book is enough for you)exclude the 

sunnah and guidance of the Prophet ro. 

The concluding portion of this Hadith is that Allah's Messenger 
gave three commands in this very sitting. (The words of a 
version in Saheeh Bukhari itself are "u/te* j\f he gave three 
instructions orally at that time.") One of them was that the 
polytheists must be driven out from the Arabian peninsula. (The 
word is mushrikoon and it includes all disbelievers, be they 
polytheists or People of the Book. Another version says ^ j$J» yr y-i" 
"^jUJij (expell the Jews and Christians). This means that the 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



353 



Arabian Peninsula is a centre of Islam and its fort and only poeple 
of Islam may live here, the disbelievers should not be allowed to 
reside here and those that are there must be expelled outside the 
land. (The honour to abide by this command was with Sayyidina 
Umar for, he put that into action in his times.) The ulama have 
different definitions on the area of the Arabian peninsula. The most 
accepted one is that this Hadith defines it as Makkah, Madinah, 
Yamamah and the areas bordering them. 

The next instruction was that when governments or tribes send 
deputations or envoys (even non-Muslims) then they should be 
treated with kindnes in the same way as was the Prophet's practice. 
He used to give them gifts and his kind treatment had a good effect 
on them. 

About the third instruction, one of the narrators of the Hadith 
said that his Shaykh Sulayman mentioned only these two things, 
saying that either it was not mentioned by Sa'eed ibn Jubayr 4^0, or 
he himself forgot it. Exponents of Hadith have tried to determine 
that. The suggestion being: hold fast to the Qur'an or, not make 
any grave an idol to be worshipped l£ ^ijAAsfl" . In Muwatta 

Imam Maalik this instruction is also reported with a >$Ji 1 yr j*\ 
(Drive out the Jews). They are all conjectures here but certainly 
sayings of the Prophet 



y 9 V y -\? V <M * . y )y s s y y y y 



s m s . * y y j y y > I y y y y 

y 1 J & 1, * 9* y > y ' ' . * l \ * »' y • ' v y » 3 . , ' y . y * . y . , * y s 

$W J* J*J Zf* " J, J> jH £>' ipb-J '4«rj 

cji3 >i j^j eikXi^ jj ^ ^ jVi j Skrj £*j 

^ ✓ y y y y 

yy y <5 y . i* tfS fi* y y y J y , y y yy 

3 % f ' 6 % f *> y 4> y y 

(1982/31) Sayyidah Ayshah iftfin reported that when the 
illness of Allah's Messenger 8§b worsened and his condition 
became more painful, he sought permission of his (other) wives 



354 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



that his treatment and nursing should be carried on at her house 
(and he should stay with her perm?nently). All of them gave that 
permission (willingly). So, two men carried him to her house in 
such a way that impressions of his (dragging) feet were visible 
on the earth, one of them was Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib and 
another Companion. Sayyidah Ayshah \#*£k\ said further: 
When Allah's Messenger came to my house, his agony became 
severe (one day), he said to us (his wives) "Pour seven skins of 
water on me whose knots have not been opened so that (my 
condition may improve and) I may (go to the mosaque and) 
speak to the people with some important instructions." (She said 
further:) We made him sit in a tub which belonged to his wife 
Hafsah if^Ai^j . Then (abiding by his advice) we poured 
water from the skins on him till he gestured with his hand that 
we had done our work. (She said that he was thus comforted.) 
He went to the mosque, led the salah and also delivered a 
sermon (which he had longed to deliver). (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: To understand this Hadith well, we must remember 
that the Prophet 0 had nine wives whose houses (small rooms) 
were separate. It was his practice to dispense justice and go to each 
house one night by turns. He was so particular about it that some 
scholars thought that it was fard or wajib on him to do so. Anyway, 
in Safar 1 1 AH (on a date which is not agreed upon) he became ill 
and did not recover from it. We know from Ahadith that day he 
was to have stayed at the house of Sayyidah Maymoonah \$s>k\ ^ > 
Next day, he shifted to the house of the wife whose turn it was, and 
this pattern continued during his illness for many days. He would 
transfer himself to the house of his wife whose turn it was for him 
to spend the night. This was very cumbersome for him and he 
wished to stay at any one place and he had the house of Sayyidah 
Ayshah \#*&\ in mind for many reasons. The obvious meaning 
of the Hadith under discussion is that he expressed this desire to 
his wives and sought their permission. However, Ibn Hajar has 
written in Fath al-Bari while explaining this very Hadith that Ibn 
Sa'd has reported from Imam Zuhri through a proper line of 
transmission that Sayyidah Fatimah \#*&\ requested his wives 
for permission. 1 They were all willing and he moved over to 

0. Fath al-Bari vl8 p 105, Ansari Press, Dehli. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



355 



Sayyidah Ayshais \qs>&\ house, that was a Monday, exactly a 
week before his death, as reported by Sayyidah Ayshah 
herself. He was so weak and lean that he could not walk by 
himself. Two men supported him while he dragged his feet. 
Sayyidah Ayshah \#s>&\ named one of them as Sayyidina Abbas 

and she did not name the other. The exponents of Hadith 
explain it this way that while Sayyidina Abbas 4^> supported him 
on one side continuously, the people at the other side kept 
changing. Sayyidina Ali 4fe helped once then he was replaced by 
Fadl ibn Abbas 4fe and he by Usamah. Any way, he was conveyed 
to Sayyidah Aysah's house which was destined to be his permanent 
resting place. That was a Monday. 

Further down in the Hadith, we read that his condition 
worsened and he was bathed with water from seven water skins on 
his own guidance. Then he was better and he went to the mosque 
where he led the congregation and spoke to the worshippers from 
the minbar. This did not happen the same day but three days later 
on Thursday as is explained in another Hadith, and that was the 
salah of zuhr and the last salah that he led in the mosque. The 
sermon that he delivered after that was the last of his life. This was 
the same salah and last sermon which is mentioned in the report of 
Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri which we have already read. 
The version of Sayyidah Ayshah \#s>&\ in Saheeh Bukhari 
(chapter: " jJi ^ (JjjJJ pU^i J*£ Ujj 4^" clearly mentions that it was the 
time of zuhr and the salah had begun, in conformity with the 
Prophet's iH guidance, under the leadership of Sayyidina Abu Bakr 
4^>. The Prophet lH felt comfortable and came to the mosque 
supported by two Companions Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4& who 
was leading the prayer prepared to move back on seeing him but he 
instructed him through gestures to stay where he was and asked the 
two men to place him next to Abu Bakr 4S§&. Now, he became the 
imam and Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4& was one of the followers. After 
the salah he delivered the sermon which we have read in the 
Hadith of Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri 4^ and we have also 
mentioned there on the authority of Saheeh Muslim that the day 
was a Thursday, and the same Thursday when the incident 
mentioned in the Hadith Qirtas took place. 



356 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Now, if we keep before us all the Ahadith, we get this sequence 
of events. Five days before his death on a Thursday his condition 
deteriorated before znhr. He wished to put some instructions into 
writing and asked for the writing material to be brought but he 
gave up the idea of writing it down (as we have explained under 
the Hadith Qirtas). However, he did wish to pass on oral 
instructions to his Companions Accordinly, when it was time 
for zuhr, he asked his wives & ^ j to pour water over him from 
seven skins which had not been unsealed. 1 They made him sit in a 
large trough and gave him a bath as he had instructed. His 
condition improved and he took support of two men and went to 
the mosque where he led the salah and then delivered a sermon. 
What he said has been mentioned in detail in the Hadith of 
Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri ^> and its explanation. He was 
particular to confirm Abu Bakr's distinction in the ummah and 
that no one else in the ummah had the same station as he did. Of 
course, he had already appointed him Imam in his absence. If we 
keep all these factors in mind we are convinced that his intention to 
put something in black and white that afternoon concerned Abu 
Bakr's succession although he no longer thought it necessary to 
write that down. However, by making him the Imam and speaking 
highly of him in his last sermon in the mosque, he did give 
guidance towards his khilafah and imamat and that was sufficient 
guidance for the Companions. 



» s s s & 



* J * % - S s s s s - 

«* *. mi I ■* I. \ 9 t * 9 • 9 9 s 9 9 » a -'I. • — , .. / ^ y 9 9 y » . ^ 9 «• y \ y y 



*Ui J^-»3 0 1 {j» j t-^ 1 J-^J ^ f*?> ^SJ^fu 

•i'jiiJ^ls jUj ^ o^JJl J\ j^JZ o» fc>3 t& fib J** 

^'tjli'll (i-j dp till J-e Jjl J'j^y. \J-'ji ^ \'ys% 0» 

O. This was a kind of treatment in the Hijaz of those days for a particular type 
of fever. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



357 



(1983/32) Sayyidina Anas ibn Maalik reported that on 
Monday (the day the Prophet died), the Muslims were 
offering the salah of fajr and Abu Bakr 4^ led them as their 
imam. Suddenly, Allah's Messenger lH raised the curtain (over 
the door) of Sayyidah Aysha's house (where he resided) while 
they (the Muslims) were standing in the rows offering salah. 
(on seeing that) he smiled and signs of laughter were detected 
on his face. When Sayyidina Abu Bakr's $h eyes fell on him, he 
prepared to move back into the rows, supposing that the Prophet 
$11 wished to come for salah. (Sayyidina Anas *$k>, the narrator, 
said:) On seeing Allah's Messenger's w face, the muslims were 
pleased and happy and that they even thought of coming out of 
salah, but Allah's Messenger beckoned to them with his 
hands that they should complete their salah and he went into the 
house dropping the curtain behind him. (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: We have seen the report of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn 
Abbas and an explanation of Sayyidina Ali's ^> statement that the 
Prophet's HH condition had improved in the morning of the day he 
died. This Hadith of Sayyidina Anas confirms that he got up by 
himself and stood at the door and was happy to see his 
Companions cjfe> engaged in the salah. Sayyidina Abu Bakr was 
about to step back and even the Companions cjfe> thought of ending 
their salah at that point but he gestured to them that they should 
carry on behind Abu Bakr 4^ and complete the salah. That 
morning the Prophet was so better that Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4#> 
went to his own house which was far away from the mosque. 

jlT Jill JL> J)Jaj l\ dill iiJlp () ^AilTT) 

(1984/33) Sayyidah Ayshah if* it said, "It was the practice 
of Allah's Messenger Hi when he fell ill to recite the 
mu'awwizat and blow ove himself and rub his body with his 
hand. So, when he had the illness which resulted in his death 



358 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(and it became difficult for him to carry on this practice because 
of weakness) 1 read the mu'awwizat and blew over him took his 
hand and rubbed it over his body." (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: Mu'awwizat refer to the last two surah of the 
Qur'an (al Falaq and an-Naas). The Prophet ^ often recited these 
two surah and blew over himself. But these could also include the 
supplication which seek protection from every kind of mischief and 
trial. 1 

In another version of this Hadith, Sayyidah Ayshah if* iui 
said that she took the hand of the Prophet iil and stroked it over 
his body because the blessing that was found in it could not be 
found in her own hand or anybody else's hand. 



iSl '4JJ lillp cJlS ^uJb J^ii jy> Jtfi 'A*? 

(fi J y f } ' m ^ 3 * / £l 3 ' 9 ' 3 s ' ^ y ' s 

*jrfLJb J-iall* c£ y» ^^wLJb ^ ^--4 J u-xiUi 

alKi f^jd 4^ ! J^ J^J* cr** 1 ^ J-*<$ ^ ^ oiUi 



. ^ j ail ^ ^Ji ol^ ^3 ^Ub ; J^jJl 

(1985/34) Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ash'ari 4*> said that the 

Prophet fell ill and his illness became severe (and he was 

unable to come to the mosque and lead in salah) so he said, 

"Instruct Abu Bakr (from me) to lead the people (who have 

gathered in t^e mosque) in salah". Sayyidah Ayshah if* At 

pleaded, "He was soft-hearted and when he would stand in your 

place to lead the congregation, he would (be overcome with 

feelings and weep profusely and) not be able to lead in salah" 

(In spite of that, the Prophet SH) said, "Convey my order to Abu 

Bakr 4<§£> to lead men in salah." Sayyidah Ayshah \$s> &\ 

repeated her words but the Prophet iH said again that his order 

should be conveyed to Abu Bakr to lead the salah. (At the 

same time,) he said to Sayyidah Ayshah i&fifo^j in anger 

jui^^Sye} Then his messenger went to Sayyidina Abu Bakr 

(an d conveyed his order to him). And he led the people in 

O, These supplications are found in Ma'arif au-Hadith Book of Suppliction 

under isti'azah or supplication for refuge. 
0. You are like the companions of Yitsuf. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



359 



prayer (in the Prophet's lifetime till his death). 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Abu Bakr's 4$h leading men in salah is 
reported in a number of chapters of Saheeh Bukhari on the 
authority of different Companions both briefly and in detail. This 
Hadith is found in the Chapter &\ jjiiiij JJi Jii Ahl 

ul-Ilm wal Fadl ahaqqu bil Imamah. Ahadith on the same matter of 
Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Umar 4fe and Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ 
are found respectively in the same chapter and the one ahead of it. 
Imam Bukhari has also recorded a Hadith of Sayyidah Ayshah 
if* on the same subject in the chapter "«u ^JjJ <(*U^i J^r Uji ^G" 
Innama ju'ila al-imamam liyu'tamma bih; fulldetails are known 
from this Hadith, the gist of which we present here. 

When the Prophet gH moved over to the house of Sayyidah 
Ayshah if* in eight days before his death and his illness went 
on worsening, he did not give up going to the mosque and leading 
the congregation although he had become very weak. Then one 
day, the azan of Isha salah was called out and people had 
assembled for salah but the Prophet Hi became unconsious. When 
he recovered, he asked if the people had offered salah but was told 
that they waited for him. He asked for a trough to be filled with 
water, for, he thought he might feel better after the bath. But, after 
he had had the bath and was getting up, he again fell unconscious. 
Again, on recovering, he asked if the people had offered salah but 
was told that they waited for him. He again had the trough filled 
and had a bath and decided to get up to go to the mosque, but 
became unconscious again. As before, when he recovered, he asked 
if they had offered salah, was told that they waited for him, so he 
asked for water in the trough and had a bath. But, as he prepared to 
go to the mosque he became unconcious. (So this happened thrice). 
Then he regained conciousness and was told, when he asked, that 
the congregation was not held in the mosque till then. So, he said, 
"Now tell Abu Bakr from me that he should lead the salah." We 
have seen in Abu Musa's 4^ Hadith as it is in other Ahadith- that 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ submitted that her father was sensitive 
and if he stood on the Prophet's iH place to lead men in salah, he 
would be overcome with tenderness. She suggested that Sayyidina 



360 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Umar 4fe be asked to lead prayers instead of her father, but the 
Prophet iH did not accept her plea and when she said the same 
thing again, he scolded her. He said, "Convey my message to Abu 
Bakr ^k> that he should lead the congregation." So, Sayyidina Bilal 
conveyed the Prophet's iH order to Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^. (He 
had not known what Sayyidah Ay shah if* &\ had received for 
an answer to her pleas on his behalf.) He thought of his own 
tenderness and requested Sayyidina Umar 4sk> to lead the salah but 
he said, "The Prophet iH has instructed you to lead and you should 
do as he has said." So, Sayyidina Abu Bakr led the 
congregation in salah. As we have already said this was the salah 
of isha and the first one led by Sayyidina Abu Bakr «4^> during the 
Prophet's $jl illness on his command and he continued to lead the 
congregation on his command till his death. 

In the same Hadith of Sayyidah Ayshah if* Ai it is also 
stated that the salah of zuhr had commenced in the mosque under 
the lead of Sayyidina Abu Bakr one day on the Prophet's 
command. The Prophet Hi was feeling better, so he went to the 
mosque supported by two men. On sensing the Prophet's H 
arrival. Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^> made to step back and join the 
muqtadis (followers) but the Prophet iH indicated to him stay 
where he was and instructed the two men who supported him to 
take him next to Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^>. From that point, the 
Prophet H 1 took over as imam and Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe became 
a muqtadi but because his voice did not carry over to all 
worshippers, Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^ relayed the takbeer, etc. of 
the Prophet H>, It is stated by some narrators that Abu Bakr 
followed the Prophet Hi while the rest of the worshippers followed 
Abu Bakr 4^>. This was the same salah of zuhr which we have seen 
in different Ahadith and after which the Prophet iH sat on the 
minbar and delivered a sermon in the mosque. It is also agreed 
upon that after appointing Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^> as Imam, the 
Prophet Hi came to the mosque for this salah of zuhr, but there is 
no concensus on whether he offered any other salah in the mosque 
during these days. 

We might also mention here that Sayyidah Ayshah if* At ^ j 
requested the Prophet iH that Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^> was 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



361 



weak-hearted and would not be able to take his place as Imam. Her 
real motive (as she disclosed in this Hadith) was that other people 
will not look at one who stands at the Prophet's lH place with 
approval. The Prophet ^ noticed this difference in her heart and 
tongue, so scolded her, saying: J^y„ j&i. Sayyidah Ayshah 

^ ^ is*-) cou ld not understand that the Prophet's Hi intention in 
appointing Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ as imam in his lifetime was to 
pave the way for the greater imamat of the ummah (khilafah) after 
his death. 

(c^jbxJi oljj) ".^Ul c_£Ji ^ikfcl oA*- j a 1 J 1 

(1986/35) Sayyidah Ayshah if* & ^j- said that Allah's 
Messenger lH used to tell tell her in his illness that brought his 
death, "O Ayshah! I still feel the pain from the (poisoned) food I 
had eaten at Khaybar and now, at this time, I feel my aorta being 
cut because of that poison." (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: In 7 AH when Khaybar was conquered and a 
covenant was also agreed upon, the Jews sent a roasted sheep for 
the Prophet iH. There is a Hadith in Mishkat transmitted from Abu 
Dawood and Darami that a Jewess had mixed a deadly poison in 
the roasted sheep so severe that anyone who ate it would die 
instantly. She had learnt that the Prophet Hi loved to eat the foreleg 
portion and she had put more poison into it. When the sheep was 
presented to him and he took a morsel from it, he withheld his 
hand and asked his Companions to hold back their hands, "Do 
not eat. It is poisoned." He immediately summoned the Jewes and 
asked her if she had poisoned it. She asked, "Who told you that?" 
He said, "The portion of the sheep (the foreleg) in my hand has 
disclosed to me at the command of Allah that it has poison in it." 
She confessed that she had poisoned it and she did that to find out 
that if he was a true Prophet, the poison would not affect him but if 
he was liar, he would perish and they would have peace. She said, 
"Now I am convinced that you are a true Prophet." The Prophet iH 
forgave her. There are other details of this incident in different 



362 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Ahadith but they are incongruent here. 

We have mentioned Khaybar here that readers may know that 
the Prophet lH had eaten a poisonous morsel there to which the 
Hadith refers. The poison was so strong that one morsel was 
sufficient to kill but Allah saved His Prophet though some effect 
persisted and he felt its pain now and then. The Divine wisdom 
behind it was to let the Prophet iHl complete his mission before the 
poison would take its effect, and thus also afford him the 
opportunity to die a martyr in Allah's way. 

The saying of the Prophet iH and his condition related in this 
Hadith pertains to the day of his death. Some of the following 
Ahadith will mention the increase in agony and worsening 
condition on that day. 



■* I «■* ' I I. I ' if. 4 3 X y 3 3 



Ajfi 4Jl JJo 4JLJ1 Jj-ij C A a / .i : cJlS <LSJlP ^ (\ <\AV/V\) 

' >s & s XX X y ** s •* s i ' X 

s 9 * \ ' ' 9 ' ,t ' 9 \ \t ' 1 9 m y / 3 s ♦ «*<■».. * & X X • . s •» 

ja C~nul jjJJI £a : JjJj Uau-«3 <6^jJJ» AjJ*-S Jaf 

^ X 6, % , tf 4 2 

O 'jy* 'Ail C-UiS 'J^JUJl J frl^JLll j j^liJl J j~Jl 

(1987/36) Sayyidah Ayshah ifp.il ^ said that she had heard 
Allah's Messenger say (when he was healthy), "It is with 
every Prophet that when he falls ill (with the illness leading to 
death), he is given a choice between the world and the Hereafter 
(so he may tarry in the world some more time or choose to go to 
the next world." She says further that) she also heard him say 
when breathing was difficutl in his final illness that led to death. 

"C&^'l S^f^ 1 J C^^J ^ lh fife c?" 

(n<\:t*L-Jl) 

{With those whom Allah has blessed of the Prophets and the 
truthful and the martyrs and the righteous}. (An-Nisa,4:69) 

(She said,) "So I understood that he has been given the choice 
(and he chose the next world)." (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidah Ayshah if* At ^ has described the last 
moments of the Prophet's H> life when breathing became heavy. He 
turned to Allah and recited part of verse 69 of an-Nisa. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



363 



i a i» N 

m Jj> Jji £f *J* f*i Jr? cits <iLu ( ^ <\ a A/rv> 

' ' "Itt t " * 3 s 3 3 * s 3s s 3 3s3*'3 3s3*s*% s k s s 3 \ s 




^ J "* J ' * ^ J** *** ' 3 * * ' » % * 



llili j Q <^*} <u>r^ 3^ diii ^v^i j-Jt c^H 

4^ J^j £l ?, --^ J <4 ^ 1 : ^ ^ 

S _ > S 3 * . * ' m •* 3 

(1988/37) Sayyidah Ayshah If* said, M Of the blessings 

Allah has bestowed on me is that His Messenger died in my 
house, during my turn and between my chest and my clavicle 
(while he was resting on me) and, in his last moments, Allah 
joined his saliva with mine (his saliva coming into my throat 
and mine going into his). My brother Abdur Rahman came into 
the house. He had a miswak in his hand while I had rested the 
Prophet iH on my chest) and I observed that he was watching 
the miswak of Abdur Rahman, so I understood that he wanted 
to use it. I asked him if I may take the miswak from Abdur 
Rahman for him and he nodded in affirmation. I took the 
miswak and gave it to him but he found it hard and I asked him 
if I might soften it for him. He nodded approval, so I (chewed it 
and) made it soft and he brushed his teeth with it. (Thus his 
saliva came into my throat and mine into his). Water was placed 
before him in a vessel. He dipped his hands into it repeatedly 
and stroked his face with those hands, saying 
"cj\'JL> l\ iiit (There is no god but Allah. There is great 
agony in death). Then he raised his hand and said, "l^y$'J*J>" 
(with the elevated Companion). His soul was taken away in this 
condition and his raised hand came down." (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: Sayyidah Ayshah if* & has recalled here only 
the very special blessings of Allah which were bestowed on her in 
the last moments of the Prophet's life. The Prophet died in 
her house. Also, that day was her own turn not with standing her 



364 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



house eight days ealrier. Another blessing was that at the time of 
his death, his head was resting on her body between the chest and 
clavicle - his back being on her chest and head on the clavicle. The 
third blessing of Allah was through the visit of her brother, Abdur 
Rahman, who carried a miswak in his hand which she softened by 
chewing it and gave it to the Prophet $H who had found it hard 
before that so that their saliva entered one another's mouth. The 
truth is that she has every right to be happy and proud of these very 
special blessings of Allah. She then spoke of the very last moments 
of his life when he dipped his hands in water and rubbed them on 
his face, saying "of^c^UJ \ ^\ <dJt *i\ Those who are near Allah 
face such agony that their ranks may be raised. The Prophet iH 
then raised his hand and said to Allah ^4". We must 

picture that the j-A* J*\ (the highest of high) was brought before 
him which is the place of the Prophets the siddiq (truthful), 
the shuhada (martyrs) and the saliheen (righteous), and he 
indicated with his hand to Allah. "Consign me to that place!" So, 
his soul was taken away and the raised hand slid down. The Qur'an 
says after mentioning the Prophets, the truthful, the martyrs and the 
righteous. {\\\t j^y' {And an excellent 

company are they! } (4,69) 

On the face of it, this is what the words Js*^ <y of the 
Hadith imply and we get the same implication from the Hadith of 
Sayyidah Ayshah tf^At^j in Bukhari and Muslim reproduced 
here before this. But Allah knows best! 

While explaining this Hadith in Fath al-Bari, Ibn Hajar has 
cited the reports of Mustadrak Haakim etc. Which say that at the 
time of his death, the Prophet Hi was in the lap of Sayyidina Ali 
4&>, but he has remarked " i*Ji cjLL ^ jU* ? if* ji> J$j" (In 
the reports there is one or other Shia narrator, so they are not worth 
turning to). He has then examined the line of transmission of all of 

them. (Fath al-Bari vl8pp 103, 104. Ansari Press, Dehli) 



s 3s A. * j, s y s s 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



365 



JCU tilt JJ» j ^ j cii ^'b jtf jS ^ij <^ a^p 4i-( 



43 'j* cJ£ JLi foiji Ju^i uj : jii o^'^ m & aiit 
•a* j> A & ^ $3 Jjij jilj jgf ilji yj Ji> 

(1989/38) Sayyidah Ayshah if* At reported Sayyidina Abu 
Bakr 4i§fe> came from his house in Sunh riding a horse. He 
alighted from the horse and came into the mosque but did not 
speak to the people who had assembled there and went straight 
into Sayyidah Aysha's if* Ai who had been covered with a 
stripped Yamani cloak. Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ removed the 
cloak to uncover the Prophet's $H face, bent down on him and 
kissed him. He said, "May my parents be ransomed to you! By 
Allah. He will not cause you to die twice. The death that was 
predetermined has overtaken you. M (This far is the narration of 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* M which Imam Zuhri reported on the 
authority of Abu Salamah.) Imam Zuhri reported hereon also 
from Abu Salamah but as narrated by Sayyidina Abdullah ibn 
Abbas 4^>; Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^ came out of Sayyidah 
Aysha's if* At house. Sayyidina Umar 4& was talking to the 
people (in his usual manner). Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^> said to 
him, "Umar, sit down! (Do not speak like that) but he did not 
pay heed to him so (Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4$k> sat on the minbar 
and) the people came over to him leaving Umar ^k> to listen to 
him. He said (after praise of Allah, invocating blessings on the 
Prophet Hi and testifying to unity of Allah and to the 
prophethood): 

To Proceed! If anyone of you j££ ft? £ \X\ 

worshipped Muhammad then y ^ 

he has died, but if anyone of jJj filial jUlx^J 



366 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



you worshipped Allah then He 
is Ever-living, One Who never 
dies. He has no end. He has 
said in the Quran: 

{And Muhammad is but a 
Messenger; Messengers have 
surely passed away before him. 
So if he should die or be slain, 
will you then turn back on your 
heels? If anyone turns back on 
his heels, he will not harm 
Allah in any way; and soon 
Allah will recompense the 
grateful.} (Aal Imran, 3:144) 

(The narrator,) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas said, By Allah! It 
seemed that before Abu Bakr 4^> recited this verse, the people 
had not known that Allah has revealed the verse (they had been 
unaware of its message). Then everyone took it up and everyone 
had it on his tongue and I heard everyone reicte \\"(Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: We have seen from the foregoing Ahadith that the 
Prophet's ill condition had improved noticeably on the morning of 
the day he died. Therefore, Sayyidina Abu Bakr $h went away to 
his house in Sunh but while he was there, the Prophet iH died. 
People assembled together as they learnt of his death, Sayyidina 
Umar $k> being one of them and he was not prepared to believe — 
nay, even to hear — that the Prophet Hi had died. Ibn Hajar while 
explaining this Hadith has cited a report by Sayyidah Ayshah 
ifiP &\ on the authority of Musnad Ahmad. "When the Prophet ill 
died and I had covered him with a cloak, Umar and Mughirah ibn 
Shu'ban came and sought permission to come in and see the 
Prophet Hi. I screened myself and gave them the permission. They 
came in and Umar said on seeing him, (what a fainting!). 

Then, as they were going out, Mughirah said to Umar that (it was 
not fainting but) the Prophet Hi had died, but Umar scolded him 
harshly and said that the Prophet iH would not be taken away till 
such-and-such work had been accompliseh. Anyway, Umar 
continued in the same manner and vociferously insisted before the 
people in the same way as he had been insisting. "Sayyidina Abu 



y y 1 * » & **» 9 J * ^? & 6> s % s s 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



367 



Bakr meanwhile, came on horseback. He first entered the 
mosque where the people had gathered but without speaking to 
them went into Sayyidah Ayshah's house, removed the covering 
from the Holy Prophet's iH face and, tears in his eyes, kissed 
him. He said, "May my parents be sacrificed to you, the death that 
Allah had ordained for you has come." (It is reported in another 
Hadith of Saheeh Bukhari that he also said: 6j*r<j 4\ ^3 4! to all 
belong and to Him shall we return.) Then Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe 
went out and found Sayyidina Umar expressing his thoughts. 
He asked him to sit down but he did not pay heed to him and, in 
fact, refused to listen because he was overcome with emotion. 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^£> sat on the minbar and the people came 
over to him from Sayyidina Umar 4& and he delivered the sermon 
we read in the Hadith under discussion. He also recited the verse 
144 of surah Aal Imran. 

This sermon and the verse of the Qur'an convinced everybody 
that the Prophet $1 had to die one day, and he did die. And, they 
had to live and die on the path shown by him. Also, this verse came 
to be recited by every tongue and each of them thereby taught 
himself and the others to observe steadfastness on Islam and the 
Prophet's guidance. 

Imam Zuhri &\ has cited Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyib $k> as 
saying that Sayyidina Umar 4^> said, "When Abu Bakr recited the 
verse "JW^ u/, I realised my mistake and it seemed as 
though I was lifeless and my feet were numb disenabling me to 
stand. And, my heart knew that Allah's Messenger iS had died." 

,JLj 4* ilb* JU> 4JJ1 Jj^j j4 tti ciis iiiiP ^ o w ./ri) 

(1990/39) Sayyidah Ayshah if* k ^ said that when Allah's 
Messenger died, the people disagreed about his burial. 
' Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^, however, said, to them, "I have heard 
one thing from Allah's Messenger about this. He said: Allah 
causes all His Prophets to die where He likes him to be buried. 



368 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



So, he must be buried at the place of his bedding." (Jami 1 Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Companions could not agree on where the 
Prophet should be buried. Some of them suggested that he should 
be taken to Makkah and buried there. Some others opined that he 
should be buried in the Baqee f in Madinah itself. But, Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr 4^> reminded them that he had heard from the Prophet 
iH that the Prophets died on the spot where they or Allah 
liked them to be buried. Hence the Prophet ill must be buried at 
the spot of his bed. Accordingly, that was done and the Prophet Isll 
was buried in Sayyidah Ayshah's & house where his bed 
was on which he had rested and died. What a fortunate place that 
piece of land is that houses the chief of the Messengers, the Seal of 
the Prophets, the beloved of the Lord of the worlds till the Day of 
Resurrection. 

. iJui iXili fa 3 ^Tjbj 4* iill 

(May blessings of Allah be on him and may He favour him and 

shower peace, for ever, always!) 



SAYYIDINA ABU BAKR 4$> 

Allah's Messenger iH mentioned at different times and from 
different aspects the merits of Sayyidina Abu Bakr -in fact, his 
excellence over and distinct standing among the ummah. We have 
seen a number of Ahadith while discussing the Prophet's death 
in which it is clear that in the sight of the Prophet Hi he was the 
• most excellent individual in his ummah, and he had him in his eyes 
as his Khalifah after him. Apart from the oral declarations, in his 
final illness, Sayyidina Abu Bakr should deputise him as an 
imam (leader of congregational prayers), and thus made his 
intention very clear. 

Apart from those Ahadith which we read on the Prophet's Hi 
death in which his merit is brought out, there are certain on Abu 
Bakr's merit being sayings of Allah's Messenger and 
testimonies of some noted Companions t^>. We present here. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



369 



rfii ij i& iju uaIp 'J Ail < istf *^-u <o£sir jls j i i; ujlp j^iju 
il^Ji c^jJj * ^ ju ^Juiu iJ jjJ-i ju ^u) ^ 

(1991/40) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah reportd that Allah's 
Messenger Hi said, 'There is not anyone who may have been 
kind to us, or helped us without my returning to him (his 
favour) except Abu Bakr. The kindness that he has shown us, 
only Allah will reward him for that on the Day of Resurrection. 
No one's property has been of benefit to me as much as Abu 
Bakr's. And if I were to take a Khaleel (close friend from my 
Companions) then I would take Abu Bakr as one. But, you must 
know that I am Allah's Khaleel (who is my real friend and 
dear)." (Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It was the Prophet's iH habit that when anyone 
presented to him a gift, he reciprocated with a like one or better 
than that, at the same time or later. In this Hadith, he said about 
Sayydina Abu Bakr 4^&, "While I have made up the favours of 
everyone else in this very world, Allah will compensate Abu Bakr 
4fe in the next." His grandson Urwah 4& said that Abu Bakr 
had forty thousand dirham when he had accepted Islam all of which 
he spent for the cause of Islam according to the Prophet's 
instructions. He bought seven slaves who had become Muslims and 
gave them liberty while their disbelieving masters had been 
torturing them for accepting Islam. Sayyidina Bilal 4fe was among 
them. As it were, Sayyidina Abu Bakr had said to the Prophet 
iH, "I and all my wealth are yours and you may use as you please," 
and the Prophet ill did in fact do exaclty that. In his last sermon, 
the Prophet iH mentioned this characteristic of Abu Bakr 4^ and 
gave explicit guidance about him as his Khalifah as, indeed, we 
have seen previously in Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri's^ 
Hadith. 



370 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(^L^) j t£$*^\ 0\jj) 

(1992/41) Sayyidina Jubayr ibn Mut'im ^k> reported that a 
woman came and spoke to the Prophet 111 about a matter. He 
asked her to come back later some time. She said, "Tell me if 1 
come later and do not find you?" Jubayr ibn Mut'im said that 
it seemed that she meant he may not be alive when she came 
back. He said, "If you do not find me then go to Abu Bakr." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Perhaps the woman had come from a distant place 
and requested the Prophet for something which he promised to 
do later on. When she asked what she would do if he were not alive 
the next time, he referred her to Sayyidina Abu Bakr Thus, this 
is a clear indication of Abu Bakr 4^> is his Khailfah because of 
direct reference to him on the Prophet's ill death. 

(1993/42) Sayyidah Ayshah reported that Allah's 

Mesenger said, "It does not behove a people (or a group of 
them) who have Abu Bakr 4fe Among them to have any body 
other than him as their imam. . (Jami* Tirmizi) 

Commentary: These words say very explicitly that if Abu Bakr 
4fe is among the people then as long as he is there they must 
choose him as their imam. This is among those sayings of the 
Prophet ill which point out to Abu Bakr as his Khalifah. 

^ Jl5 JLj 4* till J* Jjl J>^3 &<'ji*$&0^ 

(1994/43) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4& reported that 
Allah's Messenger ill said to Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4<k>, "You 
were my Companion in the cave and in the Hereafter you will 
be my Companion at the Kawthar (pond)." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: When the Prophet ^ began his hijrah from 
Makkah, he staved for three davs in a cave in the mountain Thaitr 
near Makkah. Sayyidina Abu Bakr was with him in the cave. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



371 



This was an unmatched example of faithfulness (there being 
tremendous risks) throughout the journey to Madinah but 
especially in the cave. The Prophet ^1, therefore, rememberred it 
particularly. The Qur'an also mentions it 

s / s 

{he being the second of the two; when they were both in the 
cave, when he said to his companins, "Grieve not, surely Allah 
is with us. n } (at-Tawbah,9:40) 

We shall see further down in the words of Umar 4s§b evidence of 
Abu Bakr's 4fe fidelity in the cave. 

t>>"< 4* ^ J-* Jj-^J ^ : *jdj* ( n <\ o/i 1) 

c^^i jiii <£? ^jji aLyi ^151$ <^ jj^- 
u .'j!\ & &x> s i /Jul u; 3j) ui" fc 3 4*&\ 

(1995/44) Sayyidina Abu Murayrah 4fe reported that Allah's 
Messenger l|l said, "Jibreel came to me, held my hand and 
pointed out to me the gate of Paradise through which my 
ummah will enter it." Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4*$b (heard that and) 
said, "O Messenger of Allah ill! I wish that I had been with you 
and seen the gate!" So, Allah's Messenger ic|l said, "Know, O 
Abu Bakr. you will be the first of my ummah to enter Paradise." 

(Sunan Abu Davvood) 

Commentary: It is possible that the Prophet spoke of the 
moments during mVraj (ascension to heavens) when Sayyidina 
Jibreel SfeB showed him the gate of Paradise. It is also possible he 
may have taken the Prophet to Paradise on some other occasion 
with Allah's permision. This can be a journey to the higher world 
just like mi 'raj or it could be an inspiration. Any way, the Prophet 
Hi did give glad tidings to Sayyidina Abu Bakr <$k> that he would 
be the first person of his ummah to enter Paradise and this is a 
greater blessing than seeing the gate. Surely, this is proof that 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4&> is the most excellent of the ummah. 



372 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 




(1996/45) Sayyidina Umar 4^ said, "Abu Bakr 4^ is our Sayyid 
(chief), the best of us and the most dear among us to Allah's 
Messenger lH (no one else being as dear to the Prophet Hi as 



Commentary: This is Sayyidina Umar's view of Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr's 4sk> merit in the light of the Prophet's 0 sayings and 
conduct of dealing. 



& A» : : J15 # ±Ui <S* (mv/H) 



Jtf # jtf CJS : ^#1 : JlS ife 6* ill! ^JO* 



(1997/46) Sayyidina Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah said that he 
asked his father (Sayyidina Ali 4^), "Who is the most excellent 
in the ummah after the Prophet fife?" He said, "Abu Bakr." He 
asked, "Who next?" Abu Bakr." He asked. "Who next?" And, 
his father said "Umar." (Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah said that) 
he feared that (if he asked again then) he would say "Uthman" 
(so 1 asked in this way "Then after Umar, you?" But, he said, "I 
am nothing more than a man among Muslims." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah was Sayyidina Ali's 
4fe son, not from Sayyidah Fatimah \#s> ibi but another of his 
wives, Hanafiyah whose real name was Khawlah. She was famous 
as Hanafiyah after the name of her tribe. She was one of the 
captives taken from the jihad against the fake Prophet, Musaylimah 
Kazzab during Sayyidina Abu Bakr's 4^> times and was given to 
Sayyidina Ali 4^>. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah was a distingushed 
tabVee in knowledge, piety and righteousness. When he asked him 
if he was the most excellent man after Sayyidina Umar 
Sayyidina Ali said humbly that he was an ordinary Muslim. 
Actually, at that time, he alone was the most excellent in the 
ummah. Sayyidina Uthman had been martyred. While this is 
reported by Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah, there are a number of 



he). 



(Tirmizi) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



373 



Ahadith from Sayyidina Ali 4§£> in which he has declared that 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe and Sayyidina Umar are the most excellent 
of the ummah, "And if anyone places me above these two then I 
will apply the hadd (punishment according to SharVah) on him." 

(tf jbJi At j j^liiV ,i> j Up ill! 

(1998/47) It is reported by Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Umar 4^ 
that in the times of the Prophet JlH they did not regard anyone 
equal to Sayyidina Abu Bakr Then, (they placed) Umar 
and after him Uthman Then, they left all the Companions of 
the Prophet ^ (by themselves), not giving excellence to one 
over another. (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Ibn Umar 4^ means to say, "We 
observed the Prophet's iH manner of treatment and regarded Abu 
Bakr 4^ as the best of his ummah followed by Umar 4fe, followed 
by Uthman $k>. They were our elders and the Prophet iil often 
consulted them in important matters. Ali 4fe was a young man 
during the Prophet's Hi times and had not yet attained that rank 
though he undoubtedly followed the three in excellence, and in 
some characteristics he was very prominent." 

Besides, Ibn Umar 4ife has spoken about personalities. He has 
not touched upon the ranks and position on the basis of attributes 
like the ashrah mubashirah (ten given glad tidings), the 
Companions of Badr, the Companions of Bay't Ridwan (the 
allegiance under the tree), the first among the Muhajirs and Ansars 
(jjjujri p^ic- iut . He does not reject excellence on this basis but 
he only concerned himself with the merit of these three men in the 
Prophet's times, ^i^j 



374 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



S 3 . 3 S S y , m S y y y y 



(1999/48) Sayyidina Ulnar 4fe reported: Allah's Messenger 
ordered us to give sadaqah (contribute in Allah's cause) and he 
gave the order when (by a coincidence) I had much wealth. So 1 
thought to myself that if ever 1 can surpass Abu Bakr, this is the 
time. I went home and from whatever I had there, I took exactly 
half of it and presented it to Allah's Messenger who asked me 
what I had left behind for my family. I told him that I had left 
home exactly what I had brought here. But, Abu Bakr brought 
all that he had and the Prophet ill asked him what he had left 
home. He said that he had left for them Allah and His 
Messenger. So, 1 realised that I could never surpass Abu Bakr in 
anything." (J ami' Tirmizi, Sunan Abu Davvood) 

Commentary: It is possible that the fifty per cent brought by 
Sayyidina Ulnar ^k> might have been more in value than the 
hundred per cent brought by Sayyidina Abu Bakr However, the 
motivation of Sayyidina Abu Bakr was stronger and he left 
nothing for his family. 



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, j y y y y ^ 3 ^ % . y y 1<» << 

/ ' J' ^ y y y y y . ^ y S> y y y „ , V . £ JP -.^ ' • • -'I-*'" 3 \ ' 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



375 



^ -yjtij sL>ji\ oijji jJLij aIIp iiii ^^u? Jji j^-i»3 ^^i till 

(2000/49) When Sayyidina Abu Bakr was mentioned before 
him, Sayyidina Umar 4fe began to weep. He said, "I wish with 
my heart that the deeds of all my life should be equal to the 
deeds of one day of his days of life and of one night of his 
nights of life (meaning that Allah may reward me for life long 
deeds as much as Abu Bakr would get for his deeds of one day 
and one night set out. I refer to that night when he set out with 
the Prophet for hijrah and (with intent to conceal themselves) 
went towards the cave (Thawr). When they came upon it (and 
the Prophet &§l wished to enter it), he said to Allah's Messenger, 
"By Allah, do not yet enter it. I will go in first and if there is 
something harmful inside(like a wild animal, snake, etc) then I 
will face that which happens and you will be safe." So Abu Bakr 
went in the cave, swept it clean. He found some holes when he 
plugged with pieces torn from his lower garment but two 
remained, so he placed both feet across them and then said to 
the Prophet io§l. "Now you may come in." So he went in. (Much 
of the night had passed and the Prophet felt sleepy.) The 
Prophet placed his head on Abu Bakr's lap and went to 
sleep, but. meanwhile, a snake stung Abu Bakr on his loot (and 
he felt much pain) but he did not even budge lest the Prophet 
be disturbed and wake up. Finally, from the severity of the 
pain, tears dropped from his exes and fell on the Prophet's S@k 
face. (He woke up and saw tears in Abu Bakr's eyes, so) he 
asked, "Abu Bakr, what's wrong?" He said, "May my parents be 
ransomed to you! A snake has bitten me." The Prophet 
applied his saliva (where the snake had stung Abu Bakr 4^>) and 
the pain subsided immediately. Then (some time before Abu 
Bakr's death) the effect of the poison reappeared and he died of 
that .(In this way he became a martyr in the cause of Allah just 
like the Prophet had got the effects of poison from Khaybar 
later on in life.) As for the dav - thus far was Abu Bakr's deed of 
one night - (about which he had siad he would like to get reward 



376 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



for one day against his life long deeds)! It was that day of Abu 
Bakr's life when Allah's Messenger ^ died and Arabs (of some 
regions) turned apostae, refusing to pay zakah. So, Abu Bakr 
said, "If they refuse to give me even a tether 1 then I will wage 
jihad against them. n I (Umar 4^>) said to him, "O Khalifah of 
the Messenger! (At this time,) treat these people gently and in a 
friendly manner." But, he said to me (angrily), "During 
pre-Islamic days, you were tough and powerful, have you turned 
weak and coward in Islam? (What a change!) The wahy 
(revelation) has stopped (coming with the departure of the 
Prophet), religion is perfected. Will it be made fautly? Will it be 
damaged? While I am alive? (That will not happen)." (Razeen) 

Commentary: The concluding part about Sayyidina Umar's 4^ 
recommendation to treat the rejectors of zakat lightly and 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr's determined descision against them need 
to be explained. 

With the death of the Prophet Hi a dangerous situation had 
arisen for Islam. The Companions were depressed. Besides, the 
Prophet iH had instructed that an expedition be sent under the 
leadership of Sayyidina Usamah and Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ 
abided by this decision of the Prophet iH and sent the large army 
under Sayyidina Usamah 4fe. Thus, much of armed strength was 
not at the disposal of the Khalifah. Further, during the last days of 
the Prophet iH, Musaylimah, the liar, had claimed to be a Prophet 

and he had raised his head in Yamamah close to the Hijaz, and 
some tribes had taken his side. They had formed something like a 
government. Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^ also addressed himself to this 
mischief and sent Sayyidina Khalid ibn Waleed 4fe> with an army to 
tackle this man. It was under these circumstances that people of 
some regions of Hijaz (who were fresh Muslims) refused to pay 
zakah. Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe called that apostasy and declared 

O. the word used in the Hadith is IqaL The generally used sense of this word is 
the rope with which a camel's feet is tied so that it may not wander away. The 
other meaning of iqal is the young of a camel or goat. In that case the words 
of Hadith would mean: if they who refuse to pay zakah do not give the young 
of a camel or goat which is due on them then 1 will wage jihad against them. 
Zakat is a pillar of religion and rejecting it is to disbelieve. If people of a 
nation q.£ region refuse to pay zakah then they are murtid (apostates) and 
liable to be killed. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



377 



jihad aganist them, that would leave no army at the centre and, if 
anyone were to attack Madinah or the hypocrites were to make 
mischief, the would be no army to defend. Therefore Sayyidina 
Umar 4& and Sayyidina Ali suggested that the exigencies of 
time demanded that jihad should not be waged against rejectors of 
zakah. However, Allah had put into the heart of Sayyidina Abu 
Bakr 4^ that it was necessary to nip in the bud the mischief of 
apostasy and it could not be allowed time under any exigency 
whatsoever. Zakah is an essential part of religion, like salah. It was 
part of faith. To overlook refusal to pay zakah was like overlooking 
amendments in religion. So, he said "and because religion was 
completed and receipt of wahy had stopped it is our duty to protect 
religion in the form the Prophet ill had left it for us.' 1 He 
concluded his speech with the words: '^^j^JJi JaiJf" 'Ts religion 
to shorten while I am alive?" 

In this event we have to observe particularly that Sayyidina 
Umar 4^ had a view different from the steps of Sayyidina Abu 
Bakr 4^> was contemplating. But, later that very decision was 
regarded by him as extremely great and he felt that the deeds of his 
lifetime were inferior to that one deed of Sayyidina Abu Bakr 
And, he conceded that! .WaU^j u^p 'J\*>&\ 

SAYYIDINA UMAR 
IBN AL-KHATTAB 4k> 

Having read the Ahadith about the first Khalifa which included 
sayings of the Prophet and comments of other companions, we 
now read similar accounts about the second Khalifah, Sayyidina 
Umar 

.y* 'AilS jj\ J> ^Si ^19 '0 f1\ (^M 

(2001/50) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& reported that Allah's 
Messenger Hi said, "Among the earlier iimmah there have been 



378 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

muhaddath (who are blessed by Allah with imspiration). So, if 
there is one in my ummah (who is so blessed) then he is Umar." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Muhaddath is that fortunate slave of Allah who 
receives abundant inspirations from Allah. He has a special 
treatment from Allah and though he is not a Prophet, he is one of 
the ummah. The Prophet means to say that there were such people 
in previous ummah and if anyone has been given this blessing then 
he is Umar. The saying of the Prophet is clear. There are people 
in his ummah too as they were among the previous ummah and 
Savvidina Umar 4fe is one of them. 

(2002/51) Sayyidina Ibn Umar 4& reported that Allah's 
Mesenger Si§? said, "Allah has placed Truth on Umar's tongue 
and in his heart." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

\ - ■ ^ 

jb y oi jj) ."44 j>; jip jlj j^Ji ait o!" 

(2003/52) Sayyidina Abu Zarr 4fe reported that he heard Allah's 
Messenger say, "Allah has placed Truth on Ulnar's tongue 
and he speaks only the truth." (Sunan Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The message of both Ahadith is the same: whatever 
Sayyidina Umar 4& says with his tongue and gets in his heart is 
Truth. He thinks that which is True and speaks accordingly. But. 
that does not rule out possibility of mistake in deduction which 
even the Prophets and liable to make, but they are informed 
by Allah and they make corrections. So, Sayyidina Umar 4#b did 
commit error in deduction sometimes but when he learnt the truth, 
he made amends. Thus, among his mistakes in deduction or 
judgement were the one at the time of the Prophet's 0 death and 
his views on tackling the rejectors of zakah. He corrected himself 
when facts came to light. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



379 




Mesenger Wk said, "If we suppose that there were Prophet after 



Commentary: He said, "Allah has terminated prophethood with 
me and no Prophet will now come until the Last Day. (This is 
declared by the Qur'an too.) Suppose Allah had not decided that 
and there was to be a Prophet after me then he would be Umar ibn 
al-Khattab." Thus, his merits are highlighted in this Hadilh too, as 
they have been in the previous. 

.^^LJ^^:Ll^ . . o/ot) 

(2005/54) Sayyidina Ali 4^ said, "We did not think it 
impossible that peace and comfort should speak with Umar's 
tongue." (Dafa'il Nabuwah, by Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Ali <4fe referred to the peace and 
tranquility that grew in hearts of listeners when Sayyidina Umar 
spoke, and they did not think it impossible that Allah had placed 
this condition on his tongue and speech. Exponents of Hadith also 
say that the Arabic word as-sakinah which we have translated 
'peace and tranquility' is a particular angel. Then it would mean that 
when he spoke, the particular angel of Allah spoke with his tongue. 

^ J> idJJ^S^j CJJilj j** JlS »JU j+* {j* 0*0' >^l°°) 

(2006/55) Sayyidina Ibn Umar ^ reported that Sayyidina Umar 
4fe> said, "My thinking abided with my Lord on three matters 
(on which His Command was about to be revealed): the station 
of Ibrahim, the hijab (or veil) and the captives of the Battle of 
Badr" (Saheeh Bukhari Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The fact is that in the Ahadith there are at least 
fifteen matters on which Sayyidina Umar's 4fe thought or opinion 
coincided with the message of revelation. He wished. "Would that 
a revelation be received in such a way!" and, indeed, the revelation 



me then he would be Umar. 



(Jami 1 Tirmizi) 



380 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



did uphold his view. This Hadith names only three occasions: 

( 1 ) Command about the station of Ibrahim, 

(2) Question of hibaj or viel and 

(3) Command on the captives of the Battle of Badr. 

The station of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) is a white stone on 
which Sayyidina Ibrahim stood to build the Ka'bah (and the 
stone has the imprints of his feet till today. These imprints were 
made there miraculosly). The stone is preserved from that day till 
today. It used to lie in the open near the Ka'bah till the times of 
Allah's Messenger j$9 (but now it is encased 1 ). 

Sayyidina Umar 4^ had expressed the wish to the Prophet 
that it would have been wonderful if the station Ibrahim were made 
into a place of salah. Soon, the verse 125 of surah al-Baqarah was 
revealed: 

{Take to yourselves Ibrahim's station as a place for prayer.} 

Simply, the verse tells us that the two raka'at after observing the 
tawaf should be offered near the station of Ibrahim. The jurist 
concur on the view that if the salah cannot be offered here then 
they may be offered anywhere else in the mosque (Masjid 
al-Haram), 

The next matter concerned Hijab. Women were not required to 
observe it and the Prophet's III Companions 4*e> used to visit him at 
his home as any Muslim visited other houses. Sayyidina Umar 4s^> 
wished that the Prophet's Hi wives ^ should be required to 
observe hijab. So the verse 52 of al-Ahzab was revealed: 



{And when you ask them (the Prophet's wives) of any goods, 
ask them f rom behind a curtain.} 

The third matter concerned the captives of the Battle of Badr. 
Sayyidina Umar suggested that all of them should be killed 
because they were sworn enemies of the Prophet and of Islam 
and to let them go scott free would be like letting poisonous snakes 
survive. However, Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Allah's Messenger 

O. This was done in the times of Shah Faisal «uU-iii^?-j. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



381 



showed mercy and they set them free against payment of 
ransom. Then the verse of an-Anfal was revealed upholding 
Sayyidina Umar's ^> view. 

In each of the three cases wahy upheld Sayyidina Umar's 4fe 
opinion. But, he displayed manners and said, "My thinking abided 
three commands of Allah." Surely, this demonstrated his good 
manners and it was the teachings of the Prophet iH put into 
practice. 

(2007/56) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4& reported that Allah's 
Messenger SH made supplication (in the night): O Allah! 
Strengthen Islam through Abu Jahl ibn Hisham or Umar ibn 
al-Khattab. Then, Umar got up in the morning, came to the 
Prophet and embraced Islam, and offered salah in the Masjid 
al-Haram openly. (Musnad Ahmad, Jami* Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Allah has made this earth as the world of causes 
and effects. Planning and practical effort is necessary to achieve 
every aim, as also suitable men to help. Both Abu Jahl and Umar 
ibn al-Khattab were his greatest enemies and also of Islam but they 
both had tremendous capabilities. (Perhaps it was disclosed to the 
Prophet |jl that one of the two could be given guidance.) So, he 
made supplication at night. 

This honour was the lot of Umar and he became a Muslim. He 
served Islam we and, especially- in his ten years as Khalifah, he 
came out brightly in the ummah. 

The story of his Islam is related in detail in Mishkat from 
Dalail an-Nabuwah of Abu Abdullah Haakim as narrated by Ibn 
Abbas 4fe>. The gist of it is: Abu Jahl a chief of Makkah and a 
wealthy man took responsibility to give away a hundred camels, 
and a thousand ooqiyah silver as prize money to anyone who killed 
the Prophet iH. Umar got Abu Jahl to confirm his offer and he 
agreed to pay that on spot. So, Umar took a sword in hand and 



382 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



went to give his evil intention a practical shape. A man met him on 
the way and asked where he was going. He disclosed his intention. 
The man reminded him that the Bani Hashim should be feared (for, 
they would come out in the Prophet's Hi support and that would 
lead o blood-shed). Umar said, "It seems that you too have 
accepted Muhammad's iil religion." the man said, "Let me tell you 
that your sister (Fatimah) and brother-in-law (Sa'eed ibn Zubayr) 
have also become Muslims." So, Umar marched straight to his 
sister's house. They were reciting the surah Ta Ha. Umar 
overheard them at the door and then had it opened and asked, 
"What were you reciting?" His sister told him that they had 
embraced Islam and she was reciting the verses of the Qur'an. He 
asked her to recite to him something of it. So, she began to recite 
surah Ta Ha. When she came to the verse: OiU-^Sh ii 'yd\ ^ iili" 
u ^lAii 1 Umar's condition changed abruptly. He exclaimed, 
"Surely. Only He, Allah, is worthy of worship!" He recited the 
Kalimah Shahadah. 

He spent the night at his sister's house and was very eager to 
meet the Prophet iil, saying, again and again, "J^Ai ^Ji oilj-ii}". 
Then Khabbab ibn al-Arat came to him and informed him that the 
Prophet iil had made supplication to Allah to strengthen Islam 
with Umar or Abu Jahl, and he thought that the Prophet's Hi 
supplication was accepted for him. In the morning, Umar 4^ met 
the Prophet and embraced Islam. He said straight way, "We 
worshipped Laat and Uzza in the valleys and plains and on 
mountains peaks, but shall we worship Allah hidden from others? 
No. By Allah, we will worship Him openly in the courtyard of the 
Ka'bah. (till then Muslims did not offer salah in Majsid 
al-Haram). 

Ibn Hajar has reproduced in Fath al Bari the report of Ibn 
Abbas 4fe on the authority of Abu Ja'far ibn Abu Shaybah's 
Tareekh. It reads: On accepting Islam, Sayyidina Umar resolved 
on the spot that they would offer salah in Masjid al-Haram, and 
they did that immediately. Fath al-Bari also carried Sayyidina 
Abdullah ibn Mas'ood's report on the authority of Ibn Abu Shaybah 

O. Allah! There is no God but He. To Him belong the most Beautiful Names. 
(20:8) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



383 



and Tabarani: 

/jil c-3 $ t^k^iU Jji j 

"By Allah! Before Umar became Muslim, we did not dare to 
offer salah in public near Bayt Allah. (Only after Umar entered 
the folds of Islam was it possible to do that.) 

Ibn Hajar 4e&> has cited many Ahadith from different books 
about the Islam of Sayyidina Umar 4fe. They include: Sayyidina 
Mas'ood 4*>, Ibn Abbas 4& Anas 4&>, Sayyidah Ayshah 4& Ibn 
Umar 4fe and Sayyidina Ali (Fath al-Bari, Manaqib Umar) 

Jl^j &± JL> aJJl cJu^ JlS ji* J>\ (Y * • A/oV) 

(2008/57) Sayyidina Umar 4&> reported that he heard Allah's 
Messenger say, "While I was asleep a bowl-full of milk was 
brought to me. So I drank it to my fill to the extent that I could 
see it in my nails. Then I gave the milk that remained to Umar 
ibn al-Khattab that he might drink it." Some Companions ^ 
asked him how he interpreted it and he said, "knowledge." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The sufi scholars have said that the example of 
knowledge of Truth within overall knowledge is the example of 
milk. He who dreams that he is given milk to drink is, indeed, 
given knowledge of truth. Milk is the best diet for the human body 
so too knolwdge of Truth as given by Allah is the best food for the 
soul. 

We know from this Hadith that Sayyidina Umar 4fe had an 
abundant share in the knowledge of Truth that Allah had granted to 
the Prophet This is borne out by the way he conducted the 
affairs of the Muslims ummah for ten years as a Khalifah of the 
Prophet 111 after the death of Sayyidina Abu Bakr 

Scholars need pursue the work on the scholarly achievements 
of Sayyidina Umar «4fe, Izalat ul-Khafa by Shah Waliullah 



384 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

gXM <Ja*3 j^Jpj <t5 lP ^ye_fi ^Ul (-ulj <^UUI Jj* 
JaLj olk*Jt 'J> yU JpJ>s oj^ <<J& 

s y * 

(2009/58) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri reported that he 
heard Allah's Messenger III say, "While I was asleep, I dreamt 
that people are brought to me, all of them wearing shirts. Some 
of the shirts reached only up to the chest and some a little below 
the chest. Umar ibn al-Khattab was also brought to me. His shirt 
was so long that it trailed on the ground and he dragged it along 
as he walked." Some of the Companions 4fe asked him its 
interpretation and he said, "Religion." 

(Saheeh Bukhari Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Dress and religion are compared in this way that 
the former protects a man from the vicissitude of weather and is an 
adornment too while religion is an adornment in the next world and 
a protection from punishment. Different people of his ummah were 
presented to the Prophet W> in his dream. They were at different 
levels of piety and Sayyidina Umar ^ had a perfect religion. 

&y&&> JL2J jftrj fej^b; ^ % ? tr j ^ <*! 

* j-* * . s }s , 9 s . s . 9 t 9 

(^J^ 1 C/r,3 Js*^ 31 C~*w> 

x ^i* tf i< ^ ^ 9 f 9 * ' ' " ' s 9 * s 

J> t m * * * > ' > ^ ******* V \ s v s it,* * ** t * t " .« I ' * . ^ ' 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



385 



(2010/59) Sayyidina Miswar ibn Makhramah 4efe> narrated: when 
Umar *$$k> was stabbed (by Abu Lulu Majoosi) he showed signs 
of agony. Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4fe supposed that he cried in 
agony from lack of patience, so to comfort him, he said, "O 
Chief of the Faithful! Do not express agony. (Remember the 
blessings of Allah, how great bounties He bestowed on you!) 
You have been the friend and companion of Allah's Messenger 
ii& and you discharged the rights of the company well so that 
the Prophet parted from you while he was pleased with you. 
Then, you were the companion of his Khaifah, Abu Bakr 4*fe 
and discharged rights of his company well, and he too separated 
from you while he was pleased with you (and made you 
Khaiifah after him). Then (in your reign as Khalifah) you kept 
good relations with all Muslims (giving their rights to them) and 
if you leave them now, you will part from them while all of 
them are pleased with you." (He meant to say that if the Prophet 
iH> then Abu Bakr 4fe and then all the Muslims were pleased 
with him, that is a sign that Allah is pleased with him. So, he 
must not show signs of unrest and agony. Remember Allah's 
blessings and be calm.) Sayyidina Umar said in reply to 
Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4fe, "What you have said about the 
company of Allah's Messenger $H and his being pleased with 
me, it is Allah's choicest blessing on me. And what you have 
said similarly of the company of Abu Bakr and his being 
pleased with me, that too was Allah's favour on me. (That was 
not my personal achievement.) And as for the expression of pain 
and restlessness (it is not because of the wound but) it is 
because of you people (lest you involve yourselves in trial and 
mischief. And as for how I will fare in the Hereafter) by Allah! 
My conduct is that if 1 had gold as much as would fill up the 
earth then I would give all that up to ransom myself from the 
punishment of Allah before 1 see it." (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: The concluding portion of Sayyidina Umar's 4fe 
reply to Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4& was based on a saying of the 
Prophet Hi, "Umar is a closed door to mischief and trials" As long 
as he lived, the nmmah would be safe from fitan but when he dies 
the door will open for mischief and trials. And it happened exactly 
like that. A series of mischievous acts were perpetrated by devils of 
jinn and men and it come to such a pass in the final days of 



386 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Sayyidina Uthman 4fe that he was martyred by those who called 
themselves Muslims. This was followed by a evil war that left 
thousands of companions and tabi'eens dead (martyrs). This is what 
had worried Sayydina Umar in his dying moments, making him 
forget his wounds. After that he exclaimed that if he had as much 
gold as would fill up the earth, he would give all that up to seek 
release from Allah's punishment even before seeing it. This was to 
let Sayyidina Ibn Abbas known that truly he feared the 
punishmdent. I understand that this fear in him is evidence of his 
perfect faith and perfect awareness of Divinity. The greater one's 
faith and awareness the greater his fear of Allah. The Prophet said: 
^u>i j jbu ui(I have more knowledge and awareness of Allah 
than you, and also have more fear to Him than you). The Qur'an 
says frequently that those of His slaves are more deserving of 
Allah's mercy and Paradise who fear Him constantly. The fate of 
the believing righteous men is described in surah al-Bayyinah and 
then they are said to be hjl s ^ (the best of creatures). They will 
reside in eternal Paradise in the next world. They will be pleased 
with Allah. And, the final words are: 

(A: \ a *uJ») ^ cM ^> " 
{That is for him (who is a righteous believer) who fears his 
Lord (that is, His grasp and punishment)} 

Martyrdom 

The wound that is mentioned in this Hadith was the one that 
caused his death. 

Iran was conquered in his times. The Majoosis, that were taken 
captives in the war, were distributed among the Muslims to serve 
them as slaves and servants in accordance with laws of SharVah. 
Their masters were required to look after them, feed and clothe 
them and treat them well. There was among these captives an 
unfortunate wretched, Abu Lulu, who was given to the well-known 
Companion, Mughira ibn Sha'bah «4fe. He conspired to murder 
Sayyidina Umar 4& Farooq. He took a dagger and treated it well in 
poison. In the night, he concealed himself in the mihrab (arch) of 
the mosque. It was Sayyidina Umar's 4^> habit that he offered the 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



387 



fajr salah very early after dawn and recited long surah therein. It 
was the 27th of Zul Hajj and he began the fajr salah and had just 
called out the takbeer tahreemah when the wretched Irani Majoosi 
stabbed Sayyidina Umar three times in the belly. He fell down 
unconscious. Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4§£> quickly took 
his place and led the worshipper through a brief salah. Abu Lu Lu 
tried to run away from the mosque but the rows of worshippers 
obstructed his passage like a thick wall. He wounded thirteen other 
Companions in his attempt to flee away — seven of them were 
martyred. Meanwhile the salah was over and the wretched man was 
apprehended and he committed suicied with the same dagger. 
Sayyidina Umar <4fe was carried home and he regained 
consciousness in a little while and he completed his salah in this 
condition. His first question was, "Who was my murderer?" He 
was told that he was Abu Lu Lu Majoosi. He thanked Allah that He 
had given him martyrdom at the hands of a disbeliever, and was 
convinced that his prayer was accepted. He used to pray: "O Allah, 
grant me martyrdom. And let me die in the city, Madinah, of your 
Messenger." Once his daughter, Sayyidah Hafsah \$s> &\ heard 
this prayer on his tongue and asked him, "How is it possible that 
you will be martyred and die in this city of Madinah. "(She had 
thought that martyrdom in the cause of Allah can only take place 
during jihad against disbelievers). He said, "Allah is All-Powerful. 
If He chooses He will bestow both blessings on me." Anyway, he 
was convinced that he would be martyred. He appointed Sayyidina 
Suhayb <4fe as imam in his place. He also appointed six top 
Companions (all of whom were from the ten who were given glad 
tidings of Paradise) to select a Khalifah from among themselves 
witnin three days of his death. 

He then instructed his son, Abdullah <4fe to go to Sayyidah 
Ayshah & and convey to her his salaam. He requested her 
to allow him to be buried next to Sayyidina Muhammad iH and 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe but if she was not willing ot give her the 
permission then the jannat ul Baqee' was better for him. Sayyidina 
Abdullah ibn Umar $k> met her and she said, "I had thought of that 
place for myself but now I prefer him to me." 

When Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar conveyed to his father 



388 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



her permission, he thanked Allah and said, "This was my cherished 
ambition." 

He was murdered on 27th Zul Hajjah on Wednesday and died 
on Sunday, 1st Muharram. 

When his funeral Salah was about to be offered, Sayyidina Ali 
said about him that which we will read in the next pages 1 . 
Sayyidina Suhayb ^> led the funeral salah and he was buried next 
to Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4& in the Rawdah, j «u* ^Ju? Ai 



O. Hadith # 155 by Ibn Abu Mulaykh. 



MERITS OF THE SHAYKHAYN 1 



We have read already the merits of Sayyidina Abu Bakr and 
Sayyidina Umar 4fe. Now, we will read some Ahadith in which the 
Prophet's ill sayings about the excellences of both these 
Companions are found together. He has often spoken of them with 
himself to show that they were his close friends. We begin with 
Sayyidina Ali's 4^ statement as narrated by Sayyidina Abbas 4^>. 

J* y& Jj* jlS- tfS ^ ^ J>\ (Y . U/n •) 

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(201 1/60) Ibn Abu Mulaykah (a tabi'ee) reported having heard 
Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4§b say: When (the dead body of) Umar 
was placed on the wooden plank (to give him a bath), the people 
gathered around him. They prayed for him and beseeched Allah 
for His mercy before he should be carried away, and I was one 
of them. Suddenly, I felt someone holding my shoulder (and I 
saw that) he was Ali ibn Abu Talib. He w ; as praying for (Allah's) 
mercy on Umar and he said, "You have not left behind you a 
person whose deeds I may imitate and take them to Allah. And 
by Allah, I always thought that Allah would join you with your 
two companions (Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr), for, 
often did I hear the Prophet ij| say, "1, Abu Bakr and Umar 
0. Shyaykhayn: two Shaykhs, Abu Bakr and Umar. 



390 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



went (on that work)." Or, "I enterred (the mosque or that place) 
and, with me, Abu Bakr and Umar also entered. And, I came out 
and Abu Bakr and Umar also came out." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Ali 4^> could mean by 'Allah will join 
you with your two Companions' that "you will be buried with 
them" or "you will go to Paradise with them," or he could have 
meant both the things. He has made it amply clear that the Prophet 
Hi had a very close relationship with his two companions. 

It is also clear from his initial words (lamenting that Sayyidina 
Umar 4<k> had not left behind one whose deeds he could perform 
and take with him to Allah) that he wished to perform deeds like 
those Sayyidina Umar 4fe had done. 

Hafiz Ibn Hajr has explained this Hadith thus: 

"And Ibn Abu Shaybah and 

Musadad has reported from ^j^^y^^J 
Ja'far Sadiq who from his , 
father Muhammad (Baqir) who & & J* 

from Sayyidina Ali 4fe words ^£)t IJLa y%j ^ j£ <lJ 
of similar import. The 



transmission is authentic. And 



this report is a good evidence ^\ ^j^J 

for the report of Ibn Abbas ^ 

because these narrators are the & s 15^ J' J* 
progeny of Sayyidina Ali rf U , 

(Fath al-Bari vl4 p 374 Ansari ^ ^ 

Press Delhi) (^a^jUait^ferVi 

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Book of Virtues And Excellence 



391 



(2012/61) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^ reported that Allah's 
Messenger iHl said: A man was driving a cow but (soon) he got 
tired and mounted on its back. The cow muttered, "We were not 
created for this, but we were created to till the ground/ 1 So, 
(some of the people (there said, "Glory be to God! Can a cow 
speak?" Allah's Messenger HI said, "I believe (that it did 
happen) and Abu Bakr and Umar too (believe)," although as the 
narrator said) they (both) were not present in that assembly. The 
Prophet Wk also said, "While a man was shepherding his sheep, 
a wolf attacked and seized one of them. The shepherd chased it 
and rescued the sheep, and the wolf said to him, "Who will 
(protect and care for) them on yawm us-saV the day when there 
will be no shepherd for the sheep but I?" So, the people said, 
"Glory be to Allah! Does a wolf speak?" Allah's Messenger 
said, "I believe that it is true and Abu Bakr and Umar too 

believe," though both of them were not there." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The reality of faith is that one should believe in 
whatever Allah's Messenger iHl says on being informed through 
revelation! One should not doubt it in the least even if it cannot be 
understood on the basis of normal working of world's affairs. 
Whatever the Prophet iH said about the cow and wolf speaking 
was a fact and that is why some of those present expressed surprise 
and he assured them of its veracity by saying that he believed in it. 
And he also named Abu Bakr 4sb and Umar 4fe among the 
believers although both of them were not present in that assembly. 
Thus it was not that he had taken their names to please them and it 
is evidence, and his testimony, that both of them were nearest to 
him in perfect faith and that he singled them out for that. It is also 
an example of Sayyidina Ali's 4$k> statement in the previous Hadith 
that the Prophet $fj! mentioned them with hirm.UA u^i j in 

The words "^--Ji f jj "yawm iis-sab' in the Hadith have not been 
translated. Commentators have forwarded various suggestions but I 
feel that they refer to the days near the Last Day when its signs are 
seen and men will cease to care for their animals who will wander 
about in the wild. Therefore, yawm us-sab* is the Day of the beasts. 
But Allah knows best. 



392 Meaning and Message of the Traditions' Part VIII 

fjt oiS ,JLij ^ip iiit J^> *Ja\ # J- 0 ^ r/n Y ) 

(2013/62) Sayyidina Ibn Umar 4§£> s^d that one day the Prophet 
came out and entered the mosque, Abu Bakr 4i§£> and Umar 
with him, to his right and left. The Prophet isH had held their 
hands and he said, "The three of us will be raised on the Day of 
Resurrection in this way." (Jami'Tinnizi) 

Commentary: The Prophet Hi displayed to the people that just as 
the three of them walked together that day, they would be with 
each other on the Day of Resurrection. Undoubtedly, this is their 
distintion shared by no one else and the Prophet HI let other 
Companions know of that. 



, J, s & y 3 s i, 3 s i 

, f S S > <S s 3.3 3 *• J s 3 • * . 3 J * * J 3 * 3 t . «..* . ✓ 3 3 . 

(2014/63) Sayyidina Huzayfah ^ reported that Allah's 

Messenger Hi said, "I do not know how long I will remain 

among you, so follow these two, Abu Bakr and Umar, after me." 

(Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It was disclosed to the Prophet that he will be 
survived by Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe and Sayyidina Umar 4^ who 
will be his caliphs one after the other. So, he advised his 
Companions to obey them. 

(<j;.L^J!o1jj) 

(2015/64) Sayyidina Anas reported that Allah's Messenger 
III said, "Abu Bakr and Umar will be the chiefs of the 
middle-aged inhabitants of Paradise, the earliest and the latest 
except the Prophets and the Messengers." (Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ and Sayyidina Umar 4fe 
will be the chiefs of those people who reach middle age and died 
and are entitled to enter Paradise because of their righteous deeds 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



393 



irrespective of when they had lived in this world — the earliest 
times or the latest. Also, these two will be placed in a rank higher 
than the rest but lower than the Prophets and Messengers who will 
be superior most in Paradise. The same saying of the Prophet ill is 
transmitted by Ibn Majah as narrated by Sayyidina Ali 4fe. 

(2016/65) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al Khudri <*^b reported that 

Allah's Messenger iil said, "Every Prophet has two wazeer 

(ministers) from the dwellers of the heaven (angels) and two 

wazeer from the inhabitants of the earth. So, my wazeer from 

the dwellers of the heaven are Jibreel and Mika'eel and my 

wazeer from the earthlings are Abu Bakr and Umar." 

(Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Prophet's W> relationship with these two men 
was like the one of the head of the government with his ministers. 
He always consulted them. . Ua i&j j Upp &\ ^ j 



SAYYIDINA UTHMAN ^> 

iLj 4JJI Jl> /-Jl J* jy^'yS jillil lijlp (Y • \ V/ll) 

1L*j t!A* 4JU1 ^JJ? JJ^i jUiP P '<usrU- 4JI 

4\ 'aJ ji'li t>*H J^J 

_i > ^ ^ ** ' ^ * ^ ^ * * j j ^ y > s % y ^ y * 

y^3 Lsfi ci- ^3 Ojt : ^ Ji^J 1 * Cii3 <v3j-iil ii 



394 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(2017/66) Sayyidah Ayshah If* At said: (My father) Abu 
Bakr sought the Prophet's permission to come in. He was lying 
down on my bed and had covered himself with my cloak, and he 
gave him permission to enter and continued to lie down as he 
had been. (Abu Bakr came in) after discussing what he had to, 
he went away. Then Umar came and asked for permission to 
enter ancf was given that while the Prophet H> continued to lie 
down as he had been. Then he too went away after attending to 
what had brought him. Then Uthman sought permission to 
come in, so the Prophet ^ sat up and arranged his garments 
and instructed me to cover myself up properly. He then gave 
him permission to enter (He came in and) after saying what he 
had come to say, he went away. (When he had gone) I 
submitted, "Messenger of Allah! 1 did not see you arranging 
yourself for Abu Bakr and Umar as you did for Uthman." He 
said, "Uthman is one who is (naturally inclined to be) modest. I 
feared that if I had called him while I lay as I had been then he 
(whould have gone away soon and) would not have said what he 
had come to say." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: How much was Sayyidina Uthman 4fe overcome 
with modesty! And how much the Prophet ill respected, him for 
that! 

In another version of this same Hadith also in Saheeh Muslim, 
the Prophet's iH answer to Sayyidah Ayshah if* & was: 

iL> j^lIj Jjt j ^ "Shall I not be modest to one to whom 
the angels are modest?" 

It is worth remembering that this happened before the hijab was 
imposed. For, Sayyidina Umar was also a ghayr mahram for 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ and the Prophet 0 did not ask her to 
observe hijab. 

<Op ifo J^> o!fi> JtS ^ <S*(T . ^ A/nv) 

✓ s £ s s 

I t . | » 3 * . f ».•»* * a '* ■* *. s ) ' t . » y ' 3 1 I * £ " % s s \ s s 

AU\ J^-jjU JUS jUi£ ^U9 flj-lJl^^jr J^^J^lPCJW j»J,»i-»J 

jb± ft Jji \^ 'j t# usij Jju aiu *J* 
'J *iJ' S** Jl *y&i J*>. & M Sr>'yi 5^ 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



395 






(2018/67) Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Khabbab 4fe said that 
he presented himself before the Prophet isH when (sitting on the 
minbar) he was urging people to help the jaysha al-ushrah 
(army of distress, for Battle of Tabook). Sayyidina Uthman 
got up and said, "O Messenger of Allah! I am responsible for a 
hundred camels with their cloths and saddles (that is, with full 
equipment) in Allah's path. Afterwards, the Prophet iHl urged 
the people to help the army and Uthman got up again and said, 
"O Messenger of Allah! 1 am responsible for (another) two 
hundred camels with their cloths and saddles in Allah's path." 
Again the Prophet appealed for help to the army and (for the 
third time) Uthman got up and said, "O Messenger of Allah! I 
am responsible for (another) three hundred camels with cloths 
and saddles in Allah's path." (Abdur Rahman ibn Khabbab 4^ 
said that) he saw Allah's Messenger Hi coming down the 
minbar and saying: & J^pU jUIp 'J* U" "Nothing will go 
against Uthman after what he has done today and his monetary 
sacrifice no matter what he does." He said that twice. 



Commentary: The Prophet W? had decided in 9 AH to lead an 
army towards Shaam (Syria). They advanced till Tabook which 
was within the borders of Shaam during those days. The army 
encamped there for about twenty days and through Allah's Mercy, 
the objective was achieved without combat. So they returned from 
there and that is why the battle is known as the Battle of Tabook. 
The Hadith refers to the army as Jaysh al-Usrah. The word usrah 
means hardship, difficult times, distress. When they had advanced, 
Madinah was in the grip of famine and because of that, hard times. 
It was very hot. In terms of those days, the army vvas very large — 
a formidable thirty thousand, but they had a low number of riding 
beasts and very little provision. That is why it was called J>~r" 
"3 jaysh al-usrah. 



(Jami Tirmizi) 




396 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 




In view of that the Prophet sgl took extraordinary measures to 
urge people to contribute physically and monetarily to war efforts. 
It was not his practice to make such appeals for help in battles. 
Sayyidina Uthman contributed most in this battle. He gave six 
hundred camels with cloths and saddles. The exponents of Hadith 
have said on the basis of other Ahadith that he contributed another 
three hundred and fifty camels too, fifty horses and one thousand 
Ashrafis. The Prophet accepted these gifts of Sayyidina Uthman 
4fe and in the presence of all people said: Jk^ 
which means that this deed and this sacrifice by themselves are 
enough for Uthman to gain Paradise and Allah's pleasure. If we 
picture the difficult conditions for which this army was known as 
the army of distress then we will estimate his contribution more 
highly. 

(Details of this battle may be seen in books of seerah and 
history.) 



(2019/68) Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Samurah 4p> reported 
that when the Prophet e& was making arrangements for 
necessary things for the jaysh al-usrah (army of distress for the 
Battle of Tabook). Sayyidina Uthman *3§§b brought one thousand 
dinars (ashrafis) in his sleeve and put them in the Prophet's &£l 
lap. (Abdur Rahman ibn Samurah 4$k> said:) 1 saw the Prophet 
turning them over in his lap and saying: "f»)*h 4» J-^U ^>U" 
(Nothing will harm Uthman after today whatever he does.) He 
said that twice. 

Commentary: The turning of the Ashrafis over in his lap was to 
display his inner pleasure. 

We had read in the previous Hadith that the Prophet ^ had 
given Sayyidina Uthman 4fe similar glad tidings when he had 
donated camels. True Believers do not become neglectful on 
receiving such tidings. Rather, they are inspired to seek Allah's 





Book of Virtues And Excellence 



397 



pleasure and to love Him with a greater religious zeal. 

^jAlUiJJi JU Sj^jy* til J is : J is c^Ji jp(t r ,/n<\) 
Jjt JjijAJ cii^i is Jlp *jJb csu»-u Oj-^ "^j-^j 

(2020/69) Sayyidina Anas 4fe said: When Allah's Messenger iil 
asked people (at Hudaybiyah) to take the Bayat Ridwan (oath of 
allegiance of Allah's pleasure), Uthman had gone to Makkah as 
an envoy of Allah's Messenger. When all those (who were 
present) took the oath of allegiance, Allah's Messenger Hi said, 
"Uthman (is not here and) has gone to Makkah on work for 
Allah and His Messenger. (If he were here, he would have 
sworn allegiance with all of you, so 1 will take the oath on his 
behalf)-" Then he struck one of his hand on his other hand (as is 
done in swearing allegiance). (Sayyidina Anas, the narrator, 
who was one of those who took the oath, said:) The hand of 
Allah's Messenger with which he took the oath on their own 
behalf. (Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Bayat Ridwan is a well-known case. It is also 
mentioned in the Qur'an. 

In 6 AH, the Prophet lH decided to go to Makkah to perform 

Umrah. He had seen a dream and his Companions had insisted 

on the journey. Everyone who learnt of his intention, joined in with 

him to perform Umrah. Their number rose to one thousand four 

hundred. They did not inform the Makkans aforehand because they 

had formed an intention to perform Umrah, the month was Zu 

Qu'dah which is one of the sacred months and even the idolaters 

respected these months during which they refrained from fighting. 

However, the idolaters of Makkah were the worst enemies of the 

Prophet Hi and Islam and when they learnt of his intention, they 

resolved not to let the Muslims enter Makkah. At Hudaybiyah 

(more than twenty miles from Makkah), the Prophet Sjl learnt of 

their resolve, so he broke journey there with his Companions 4^ 

and sent Sayyidina Uthman to Makkah as his envoy. He was 



398 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



chosen because some of the Quraysh leaders were related to him 
and his mission was to convince their chiefs that the Muslims had 
come only to perform Umrah whereafter they would return to 
Madinah. 

Sayyidina Uthman did not return when he was expected 
back and the Muslims were conveyed the news somehow that the 
disbelievers had killed him. The Prophet Hi and his Companions 
eHfe were saddened at this news and he took an oath from them to 
fight jihad in Allah's cause and be prepared for martyrdom. This 
oath of allegiance was taken under a tree. The Qur'an proclaims 
that Allah was specially pleased with those who swore allegiance 
and it is known as Bay'at Ridwan. 

While all the Companions c^> who were present at Hudaybiyah 
placed their hands on the Prophet's $fc as a token of their 
allegiance, the Prophet Hi placed one of his hands on the other on 
behalf of Sayyidina Uthman ^> who was at Makkah. Indeed, this is 
among the greatest merits of Sayyidina Uthman 43^. 

It was learnt later that he was alive. He came back from 
Makkah with the news that the idolaters were not prepared to let 
the Muslims perform Umrah. Their envoys came to the Prophet 
one after the other and finally the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah was 
concluded which the Qur'an has characterised as " j~* ^s* " fath 
mubeen (a clear victory). Readers may see books of history and 
seerah for details on the event. 

x i» (5 i ^ ^ 

a^p an JL* Jji Sr>) est ■ < ^ J>. cf O • * ^ Y • ) 

J* Ju» vj» J> J£j j** c&f 5 J (^J 

(2021/70) Sayyidina Murrah ibn Ka'ab 4^ reported that he 
heard Allah's Messenger ii& saying about some of the mischief 
that will arise in the ummah after his death. He referred to them 
as happening in near future. A man passed by (while he was 
speaking) and the Prophet lH said pointing out to him. "This 
man will follow guidance during the coming days of trial." (The 
narrantor, Murrah, on hearing that from the Prophet iil) went 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 399 

towards the man (to see who he was) and saw that he was 
Uthman ibn Affan. Murrah made him face the Prophet l§l and 
asked, "Is he the one (about whom you said that he would 
follow guidance in times of trial)?" He said, "Yes (he is the 
one)!" (Tirmizi Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The Prophet said that Sayyidina Uthman 4fe would 
emerge as the rightly-guided one in the fitan that would take place 
after the Prophet's 0 death. The very first fitan was a civil war 
against Sayyidina Uthman 4<k> himself and he was killed very 
mercilessly in that. In view of the Prophet's m sayings, the ahl 
us-Sunnah believe that Sayyidina Uthman 4fe> was on the right path 
and those who obstructed him were on the wrong path 

-cM U J ^ U <j4 s 3 JJr^ 1 est ^ ifi 

(we seek refuge in Allah from mischiefs and trials — the 
apparent among them and the unseen.) 



iUl JL> ^Jl g> CuT : J\5 <ls ^ (Y . Y Y/V \ ) 

(t» ^ s * s s > s s ■>< y s 3 s ^ & 

JJp ^\ Jtij C ^K^13 J^-j s-l^i <l*&\ jlk^- ja lafe J> 

'<u^JLs < c-*^ "^«JW °.r^j c^!" (i^j 

Iil9 c'4l C^siS "i^Jb fl^iJj '.0 ^ 21)1 JL* ^Jl JUS 

^jubJjl (Jj <*JJli«jii jjlij aIIp iJJl JU> {Jl\ Jl5 Uj '4J_^l5 f^ii. 

(2022/71) Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ash'ari 4^ said: I was with 
the Prophet ill in a garden of Madinah when someone came 
and requested for the gate to be opened. So the Prophet life said, 
"Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of 
Paradise." I opened the gate and found that he was Abu Bakr. I 
gave him the tidings of Paradise and he praised Allah. Then, 
another person came and requested that the gate should be 
opened, and the Prophet iall said, "Open the gate for him and 



400 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

convey to him the good news of Paradise." So, I opened the gate 
to find Umar at it and I told him what the Prophet Hi had said 
and he praised Allah. Then someone else asked that the gate 
should be opened. The Prophet ill* said, "Open the gate for him 
and give him glad tidings of Paradise against a great calamity 
that he will face." I (opened the gate and) found Uthman there. I 
told him what the Prophet ill had said and he praised Allah and 
said ji*u~Jt &\ (Allah is the Helper against the calamity which I 
will face). (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The Hadith uses the word JajV (Ha'it) for 'garden 1 . 
It is an enclosed garden and has four walls around it and a gate 
leads into it. (In another version of this Hadith it is stated that the 
Prophet $jl had deputed Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ashary 4^ to 
guard the gate and allow no one in without his permission.) In each 
of the cases, Abu Musa 4^> had not known who was on the other 
side of the gate until he had opened it and in the first two cases the 
Prophet's iH instructions were indentical. The third time the 
Prophet ill said that the person should be allowed in, giving the 
glad tidings but also told of a calamity he would face. Sayyidina 
Uthman 4§£>, the man on the other side of the gate, thanked Allah 
and sought His help against the calamity. We shall know more 
about the hardship he was to face from the following Ahadith. 

&Y^ S J 1 * <<sj£$* ?>- J o*j 0 • yt/vy) 

y s v y 

3* y . , y . y s 3 y y _ 3 X yX y y y . 3 . 



y y y y , 9 ^ y y y y 9 y y (5 _y , i" 

3 y y . y y y y y y . y y y 

i J y ^9y y . X y y y 0 y 

4^ Vr* 1 £>' i^J*^ f Js 3 ' (^'j tsi u S-^ 
J* *^Ciy»j & ^liJl : Jl2i ^ : ? ^ # 

0 y * "* y j y y 

y y yt i y * * f y 3 y 

^cw^J 4s? cs^*' ^J*^ fjs 11 i^ 15 LSi u V 1 -^ ^r^ 13 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



40 



(2023/72) Thumarah ibn Hazm al-Qushayri 4^£> said: I was 
present at Uthman's 4^£> house when he addressed (the rebels 
who had surrounded his house) from the upper room: I adjure 
you by Allah and Islam, (and ask you) Are you aware that when 
Allah's Messenger came to Madinah (having observed the 
hijrah), there was no well of fresh water apart from Bi'r Ruma 
(and that belonged to a Jew who sold its water at a high price). 
Allah's Messenger asked, "Who among Allah's slaves will buy it 
and allow all Muslims to take its water that Allah might give 
him better than that in Paradise?" So, I bought it from my 
capital (and placed it in waqf). And today you forbid me its 
water so that I am compelled to drink salty water." They 
answered f^p^W (By Allah, Yes!). 

Then Uthman again said: I adjure you by Allah and Islam, do 
you know the mosque built by Allah's Messenger iHl became 
too small for the worshippers, so he said, "Which slave of Allah 
will buy the piece of land of so-and-so family (which is adjacent 
to the mosque) and add it to our mosque so Allah might grant 
him a better piece in Paradise?" So, I bought it from my capital 
(and added it to the mosque). And today you prevent me from 
offering two raka'at salah in it." So they said, (By Allah, 

yes!) 

Uthman then said: I adjure you by Allah and Islam, do you 
know I had equipped the army of the Battle of Tabook from my 
capital? They confirmed fu^ 1 (By Allah, yes!). 

Then he said to them: I adjure you by Allah and Islam and ask 
you, do you know that Allah's Messenger Hi was on the 
mountain Thabir in Makkah and Abu Bakr, Umar and I were 
with him when the mountain shook and its stones fell down on 
the ground below, so he kicked his foot hard on the mountain 



402 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



and said ^jjSL-i (Stop Thabir!) because, at this time, a Prophet, 
a Truthful one and two martyrs are on you?" The people 
confirmed that ^JUi. 

Then Uthman said; Allahu Akbar! They too have testified. (And 
he also said:) By the Lord of the Ka'bah. I am (going to be) a 
martyr. He said that thrice. (Jami Tirmizi, Sunan Nasai, Daraqutni) 

Commentary: After Sayyidina Umar 4^ was martyred, the 
committee he had formed selected Sayyidina Uthman 4& as 
Khalifah. He was as unanimously accepted Khalifah as Umar 4fe> 
before him and Abu Bakr 4^£> before Umar 4§b. He remained 
Khalifah for about twelve years. Towards the last years of his 
office, the civil strike showed signs of emergence which the 
Prophet iH had spoken of frequently. The siege to which this 
Hadith refers was the last step by the rebels. The siege was laid by 
the rebels of Egypt and Iraq who were incited by a hypocrite 
Abdullah ibn Saba who was really a Jew. (Facts about this mischief 
may be seen in books on seerah and history). 

The siege was so severe that Sayyidina Uthman 4^ could not 
even go to the mosque and water could not be provided to him and 
his family. The rebels demanded that he should resign from office, 
but Sayyidina Uthman 4^> cited a guidance of Allah's Messenger 
ill whereby he considered it better to give up his life at the hands 
of the rebels. 

Sayyidina Uthman 4fe> was Khalifah of the world's biggest and 
strongest government and the rebbellion could have been crushed 
easily. But, he did neither command nor permit anyone to use force 
against the rebels. He was very compassionate. Besides, he could 
not allow killing of a fellow Muslim to save his own life, so, till the 
last moment, he tried to pacify the rebels through negotiations, his 
address which is referred to in the Hadith was part of these 
negotiations. The narrator of the Hadith, Thumamah 4^>, heard this 
address with his own ears. His final words suggest that he had 
known that the culmination would be martyrdom as foretold by the 
Prophet H frequently. Thus, he resigned himself to innocent 
martyrdom and his was a unique example of innocent martyrdom 
and sacrifice. We will see shortly the account of how he prepared 
himself for martyrdom. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



403 



The Hadith tells us of the Mount Thabir which rocked when 
the Prophet £§1 and his three Companions 4fe w ^ re on top of it. The 
Prophet gave it a kick and asked it to stop, for, it had those people 
on it. A similar case took place at Uhud in Madinah as we will read 
in the following Hadith. 



\&\ Jb^ J^j tiJl JL> ft ^\ (Y . Y t/vr) 

t^NJlp UJ13 J^i C-Ji J U3 ^ ^^H 23 y 'jW^J J-^J 



(2024/73) Sayyidina Anas 4k> said that (one' day) the Prophet 
ascended the Mount Uhud and Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman 
(accompained him). The Mount Uhud began to shiver because 
of them (and it shook), so the Prophet kicked it with his foot 
and said, "O Uhud! Stop! at this moment, a Prophet of Allah, a 
Siddiq (Truthful one) and two martyrs are on you." 

(Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: Undoubtedly the movement in the mountain was a 
miracle of the Prophet, and naming two martyrs Sayyidina Umar 
<g£b and Sayyidina Uthman *^>, was another miracle. The former 
was martyred about twelve years after and the latter twenty four 
years after the Prophet's H death. Surely, he was informed by 
Allah's wahy. 

ja %\ ! ft&t ja fa 5 itii JU ^\ ft lite ^ x . r */v i> 

(2025/74) Sayyidina Ayshah I^p it said that the Prophet 

said to Sayyidina Uthman 4fe (one day), "O Uthman! Perhaps 

Allah will clothe you with a shirt, and if people ask you to take 

it off then do not take it off on their saying." 

(Jami Tirmizi, Sunan Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The exponents of Hadith interpret it as Allah would 
grant him caliphate and then he must not listen to them and must 
not resign. This instruction of the Prophet iH is acknowledged by 
Sayyidina Uthman 4fe himself in the following Hadith. 



404 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



y y y y 



(2026/75) Abu Sahlah said, "Sayyidina Uthman said to me 
on the day his house was besieged and he was martyred that 
Allah's Messenger ill had given him an instruction to which he 
would adhere with patience." (Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Abu Sahlah was the freed slave of Sayyidina 
Uthman 4&>. He was present in the house at the time of the siege. 
He joined, other sympathisers in asking him to use force to which 
Sayyidina Uthman replied in the words we have read in the 
Hadith of Sayyidah Ayshah if* above. 

He was finally killed — an innocent martyr — while he 
adhered to the Prophet's instructions. 



y y * y» y^y tf y - *^ tf A & , 

3 I y lit, \ y 9 »« P a y y > 



' y y y 

» . - - * * *. 

(i*Ujd» oljj) .£U*P ^ U jUap l£i Jxi 

(2027/76) Sayyidina Ibn Umar 4fe reported that the Prophet III 
mentioned a great civil strife and, referring to Sayyidina 
Uthman, said, 'This man will be martyred wrongfully." 

(Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Indeed, this saying is another of the Prophet's 
miracles for he let his Companions know of a fitan that would 
take place some twenty four years after his death. Obviously, this 
was disclosed to him by Allah through a wahy. 

&*\ oUiP l\ 5UiP *Jy JLjl*> J> jili jP (Y . YA/YV) 

t9 X ✓ 2 ✓ 3 & x i* ✓ x 

3 y y y 3y y ' " 3 A y ' ' ' y9y y 3 . 3 A ' ** .» y 3* ' ' 



(^jjtj jit ot jj) J* J 

(2028/77) The freed slave of Sayyidina Uthman 4S^>, Muslim ibn 
Sa'eed, reported that (on the day he was martyred) Sayyidina 
Uthman set twenty slaves free and asked for seraweel 
(trousers) to be brought to him (and wore that), and he bound 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



405 



them up on him strongly. He had never worn them before, 

neither in pre-Islamic days nor during Islam. He said, "Last 

night I saw the Prophet in my dream and Abu Bakr and 

Umar with him. They said to me: Uthman, be patient Yo will 

break fast tomorrow with us." He then asked for (a copy of) the 

Qur'an to be brought to him and, placing it before him, he 

opened it (and began reciting from it). He was then martyred 

while the Qur'an was before him. 

(Musnad Ahmad, Musnad Abu Ya'la Moosli) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Uthman 4fe had realised through his firm 
faith that the rebels would martyr him and his dream was the last 
unseen message. He then made all preparatioins for his martyrdom. 
The morning after the dream was Friday and he kept a fast and did 
many righteous deeds. He released twenty slaves and wore trousers 
which he had never worn. The Arabs generally wore the tahband (a 
lower garment wrapped round the waist) which he too wore 
always. However, because he was too modest, he wore trousers 
instead of tahband on that day and he bound them to his waist 
strongly so that even after martyrdom this portion of his body 
should not be exposed. He then sat down to recite the Qur'an and 
the rebels killed him in this state. We learn from reports that he 
was reciting the end of part 1 of the Qur'an and was at the verse 
137 of al-Baqarah: 

{So Allah will suffice you against them; and He is the Hearer, 
the Knower} 

This is Allah's proclamation that He would seize revenge from 
the cruel people. 

(We have sufficed to translate and explain the Ahadith briefly. 
Details may be seen in Shah Waliullah's "U*Ji all ji" Izalat ul-Khafa 
and seerah and history books.) 

The Ahadith of Sayyidina Uthman mentioned so far have not 
recalled his two important merits which distinguish him from all 
Companions and rightly-guided Caliphs. He was married to two of 
the daughters of the Prophet s§* one after the other, and was thus 
known as zun nurayn (he of two lights). The second distinction 
was that he migrated with the Prophet's iH daughter, Sayyidah 



406 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Ruqayyah i^p twice first from Makkah to Ethopia, and the 

second to Madinah. Let us see a few Ahadith on these things. 

s s <Z ✓ - i< lJ* ✓ ^ ' ' & . , > m 

Ji*i Ua^ ^ip -031 ^ ^Ji ^ 

' o ' < 

(2029/78) Sayyidina Anas 4^ Said that the first of the Muslims 
to set on hijrah was Sayyidina Uthman ibn Affan 4§b. He took 
his wife (Sayyidah Ruqayyah i^^\^>^ the daughter of the 
Prophet lall) alongwith him to Ethiopia. (Then for a long time) 
Allah's Messenger ^ did not receive any news from them and 
he used to go out and wait for information and try to get news 
from someone. So a woman of the Quraysh came (to Makkah) 
from Ethiopia and he asked her (about them). She said, "Abul 
Qasim! 1 have seen them both." He asked, "How did you find 
them?" She said, "I saw Uthman had made Ruqayyah sit on a 
slow-moving himar^ and he followed her on foot." Allah's 
Messenger i© said, "May Allah be with them! (And may He 
protect them!)" He then remarked, "After (Allah's Messenger!^) 
Lut, Uthman is the first person who has taken his wife along on 
hijrah in Allah's path."(Mu'jam Kabeer, Tabarani, Bayhaqi, Ibn Asakir) 

Commentary: Four daughters were born on Sayyidah Khadijah 
ibi the first wife of the Prophet 0. They were Sayyidah 
Zaynab ^ &\ Ruqayyah i$jp &\ Umm Kulthum if* & 
and Fatimah \#s> i»i (They were apart from two or three sons 
who died in childhood). The eldest, Sayyidah Zaynab & 
was married to Abu al-Aas ibn al-Rabee' and she continued to 
reside with him. Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Umm Khuthum were 

O. It is a donkey, but the Mawlana has suggested in the Urdu text to leave it 
untranslated because it is bigger than the donkey in our country. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



407 



betrothed to the two sons of the Prophet's uncle, Abu Lahab, 
Utbah and Utaybah. Before they could be married, the Prophet ^ 
gave the call of Islam and Abu Lahab and his wife opposed him 
tooth and nail and even harassed him. The surah Lahab was 
revealed condemning Abu Lahab and his wife, Umm Jamil. So, 
they compelled their sons to renounce their engagement with the 
Prophet's daughters. This was, indeed the working of Allah's ways 
to prevent the righteous daughters going into an impure 
atmosphere. 

{Surely my Lord is Subtile unto whom He will} (Yusuf, 12:100) 

Then the Prophet |§l married the elder of the two, Ruqayyah 
if* in .^p h to Sayyidina Uthman 4^. This was at Allah's command 
(as is known from another Hadith). The Makkans persecuted the 
initial Muslims and were very hard-hearted. The Prophet W° had 
known that the Christian king of Ethiopia w ; as a kind man and a 
just ruler. So, he advised his Companions that those who could 
may migrate to Ethiopia. Accordingly, some people decided to go 
and the first one to undertake the journey was Sayyidina Uthman 
4fe who took his wife Sayyidah Ruqayya if* Ai the Prophet's 
W° daughter along. Then for quite some time there was no news 
.from them till a woman came from there and informed the Prophet 

that she had seen his daughter side ride a slow moving himat^ 
and Uthman walked behind it. (Perhaps it was made to walk slowly 
that Sayyidah Ruqayyah might not feel uncomfortable.) The 
Prophet iH prayed for them and commented that Sayyidina 
Uthman 4fe was the first person after Prophet Lut to set on 
hijrah with his wife only for the sake of Allah — leaving behind 
home and everything. How difficult it must have been in those days 
to travel as far away as Ethiopia leaving behind everything. 

This was the first hijrah (migration) in Islam and it was a small 
group of people who undertook it but it was soon followed by a 
larger group. They stayed there for many years, and Sayyidina 
Uthman too resided a few years whereafter he returned to Makkah, 
only to learn that the Prophet £§> had migrated to Madinah. So, he 

O. As stated in previous footnote though himar is a donkey, the Arabian donkey 
is larger so that word is retained. 



408 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

took his wife and son (Abdullah, born at Ethiopia) and migrated to 
Madinah. Thus he is the one who set on two hijrah (migrations) 
and has this distinction among the Khalifas too. oU^j^up^^j 

In the second year, the Battle of Badr was fought. Sayyidah 
Ruqayyah if* &\ fell ill during these days and the Prophet m 
instructed Sayyidina Uthman to stay behind and look after her. He 
assured him that Allah would reward him as a figher at Badr, and 
he would also get a share in the spoils, Sayyidah Ruqayyah &\ 
if* could not recover and died before the Prophet's return to 
Madinah. The Prophet iH was much grieved at her death. 

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t>i jii oUipU «Js& ^3 iiit JU> Jji **J jiii 

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(2030/79) Sayyidina Sa'eed ibn Musayyib reported that Allah's 
Messenger lH met Sayyidina Uthman ibn Affan who was 
very greived. Allah's Messenger iH said to him (on seeing his 
condition), "Uthman what is wrong with you?" He said, "O 
Mesenger of Allah! May my parents be ransomed to you. Has 
anyone faced a tragedy as I have? Your daughter, my wife, has 
died. May Allah be merciful to her. My back is broken (from 
grief) and my relationship with you as your son-in-law has 
ceased with that (and I am thus deprived of the blessing)." 
Allah's Messenger lH said to him, "Uthman, is it as you say (are 
you grieved at the loss)?" He said, "O Messenger of Allah! I say 
on oath that it is as 1 have said." Just as he was conversing with 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



409 



him, the Prophet W$ (interrupted himself and) said, "O Uthman! 
This is Jibreel! He has come with Allah's command that I should 
marry my daughter Ruqayyah's sister, Umm Kulthum, to you at 
the same dower and same conditions as were agreed for 
Ruqayyah." Then Allah's Messenger ia§l married Umm Kulthum 
to Uthman. (Ibn Asakir) 

Commentary: Sa'eed ibn Musayyib was a tabi'ee and he must have 
heard it from a Companion whose name he has not disclosed. Such 
Ahadith are called mursaL However, he is one of those great tabi'ee 
whose reports of this nature are accepted. Besides, this is supported 
by many other Ahadith. 



ail a! : jlS ^3^1p<dJ! JLi ^jdl ^ s* 1 £*(T.n/A.) 

(2031/80) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4^ reported that the Prophet 

said, "Allah Commanded me through wahy (revelation) that I 

should marry both my dear daughters to Uthman." 

(Ibn Adi, Daraqutni, Ibn Asakir) 

Commentary: We know from this Hadith too that the Prophet 
had married his first daughter, Ruqayyah, to Sayyidina Uthman 
at Allah's Command and she d in the second year after hijrah. 
Then, he married his second daughter, Umm Kulthum \#* &\ 
too to Uthman 4^> at Allah's Command. 

& * ^ \ tfi i< * ^ ' ' * f s 6 s j<» 6 <* 

jiJLoj ^ ^ J j- 1 j jUiP cJxj aIIp <dJt aU\ 

(2032/81) Sayyidina Ismah ibn Maalik al-Khitimmiy 4^ 
reported that when the daughter of Allah's Messenger died 
who had been married to Sayyidina Uthman 4S§£> (Sayyidah 
Umm Kulthum), he said to the people, "Get Uthman married. If 
I had a third daughter, I would have married her to Uthman. 
And, 1 had married my daughters to Uthman on the Command 
of Allah through wahy." (Ibn Asakir) 

Commentary: Sayyidah Umm Kulthum was married to Sayyidina 



410 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Uthman after her elder sister had died in 2 AH but she herself died 
in 9 AH. So, the Prophet Hi advised his Companions c^> to marry 
their unmarried daughter or sister to Sayyidina Uthman If he 
had a third unmarried daughter, he would have given her in 
marriage to Sayyidina Uthman 4^>, in which case, he would not 
have requested them. He also said that he did not marry his two 
daughters to Sayyidina Uthman ^fe on his own but was 
commanded by Allah to do that. 

This shows how highly Uthman was held in the sight of 
Allah and His Messenger iH. 



if*) died, "O Uthman! If I had ten daughters then I would have 
married (all of) them to you one after the other because 1 am 
very pleased and happy with you." 



Commentary: We had read in the Hadith prior to the above that 
on the death of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum if* &\ the Prophet Hi 
had urged his Companions 4|> to marry their unmarried daughter or 
sister to Sayyidina Uthman 4$>* saying that if he had a third 
daughter, he would have given her in marriage to him. In this 
Hadith, he is quoted as assuring Sayyidina Uthman that if he had 
ten daughters, he would give them in marriage to him one after the 
other. There is no contradiction in the two sayings, for, he was 
assuring Sayyidina Uthman 4fe that he was pleased and happy with 
him. This was the best way to console Sayyidina Uthman 4fe in his 
bereavement which spoke of the Prophet's nobility and extreme 
good manners wfjbj <Up &\ Some versions give a greater 
number, but the Prophet's objective is not contradicted by that. 1 

O. The Shia scholars and writers of our times have begun to write such things as 
belie even their own earlier authorities whose statements are very clear. One 
of these is that the Prophet <t^u had only one ...(Continued on Next Page...) 





(Ma'jam Awsat, Tabarani, Afrad, Daraqutni, Ibn Asakir) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



We close this chapter on merits of Sayyidina Uthman Zun 
Nurayn with the Hadith of Sayyidina Ali 

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(2034/83) Thabit ibn Ubayd reported that a man said to 
Sayyidina Ali "I am going to Madinah. Those people will 
ask me about Uthman 4^>, so (tell me) what answer should 1 
give them?" Sayyidina Ali 4^£> said, "Let them know that 
Uthman was among those worshippers of Allah (about whom 
Allah has said in the Qur'an): 

^ 3 

s 

{Believe (firmly) and do righteous deeds, and again abstain 
(from the forbidden things) and believe (in Allah's 
commandments) then fear (Allah) and do good. And Allah loves 
the good-doers.}" (al-Ma'idah, 5:93) (Ibn Mardawiyah, Ibn Asakir) 

(...Continued from Previous page...) daughter, Sayyidah Fatimah if**ui^j 
while the others were not his daughters but daughters of Sayyidah Khadijah 
if* & from her former husband. This is a lie and an invention which only Shia 
scholars can dare to present. This is not the place to write on that in detail. 
Readers may refer to verse 59 of surah al-Ahzab on the veil ... jjV J*^ 1 WSi 
ui^jtjj (O Prophet, say to your wives and daughters... Both words 'wives' and 
'daughters' are plural forms showing that he had many of each. 

A far-sighted, researcher, scholar and writer of these times, Mawlana 
Muhammad Nafi' has written a very authoritative book on this subject Banat 
Arba'ah (Four Daughters). Spread over about four hundred and fifty pages the 
contents encompass the Ahadith of the books of ahl us sunnah on history and 
genealogy, also books of the Shias, the reports of their ma'soomineen scholars, 
and on history, genealogy. He has proved beyond doubt from these their own 
earlier authorities, that Sayyidah Zaynab if* Sayyidah Ruqayyah &\ 

if*, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum if* &\ and Sayyidah Fatimah if* & were 
four daughters of the Prophet @. This book also gives a comprehensive life 
account of these daughters jqS'&^j and their respected mother, Sayyidah 
Khadijah if* <&\ May Allah reward the writer Mawlana Nafi' with the best of 
rewards and may He accord his book approval among the scholars. 



412 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Commentary: Sayyidina Ali «3&> had made Kufa as the capital city. 
The man who was going to Madinah and had asked Sayyidina Ali 
4^> the question was perhaps a close associate. He wondered how 
he should handle questions about Sayyidina Uthman 4& on the 
basis of Sayyidina Ali's views. We must remember that in those 
days Sayyidina Uthman had become a disputed personality. He 
had been martyred and his killers claimed love for Sayyidina Ali 
4^>. The answer Sayyidina Ali 4^ gave him is actually an extract of 
the text of verse 93 of surah al-Ma'idah. Man should pass a life of 
faith, righteous, deeds, God-fearing attitude (piety) and kindness. 
Such people will not be asked about anything in the Hereafter and 
they are loved by Allah. Sayyidina Uthman 4^ was among these 
slaves of Allah. 

We must bear in mind that the Prophet iH had explained the 
word ^\^\ (Ihsaan) used in this Hadith. He said a man may 
worship Allah and obey His Commands in such a way as though he 
sees Allah. Obviously, this is the highest degree of faith and belief. 
May Allah enable this writer and the readers to achieve something 
of the condition of ihsan. 

SAYYIDINA ALI 4b 

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Book of Virtues And Excellence 



413 



( ( JL^ j t^jbUl o»jj ) .(ixdl ^i*- 

(2035/84) Sayyidina Sahl ibn Sa'd 4& reported that Allah's 

Messenger H> said on the day of Khaybar, "Tomorrow, 1 will 

give this banner to one at whose hands Allah will give us 

victory over Khaybar. He loves Allah and His Messenger and 

Allah and His Messenger love him.." In the morning, the people 

came to Allah's Messenger ill, all of them hoping to be given 

the banner. But he said, "Where is Ali ibn Abu Talib?" They 

said, "He has pain in his eyes (so he has not come here)." The 

Prophet iH 5 said, "Send someone to bring him here." So, he was 

called. Then Allah's Messenger put his saliva in both his 

eyes and he recovered as though he never had pain in his eyes. 

He then gave him the banner (a sign that he would be 

commander of the army that day). Sayyidina Ali ^k> asked him, 

"O Messenger of Allah, shall I fight them till they become like 

us (and become Muslims)?" He said, "Go forward gently until 

you are in their region. Invite them to Islam. Tell them what 

rights of Allah they have to give. By Allah! If one of their men 

is guided to Allah through you then that is better for you than 

your receiving red camels in spoils of war." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Khaybar is about 184 km (125 miles) from 
Madinah to its south. The Jews lived there. They were the ones 
who had been driven out of Shaam (Syria) in the past and had 
settled here. They were all wealthy people. At Khaybar they had 
built strong forts and they possessed a large inventory of weapons 
and ammunition for war. Their lands were green and fertile. 

Those Jews who were expelled from the surrounding areas of 
Madinah for their rebellion and mischief had also settled here. 
They bore tremendous malice for the Muslims, and always 
conspired against them. Therefore, they were a constant threat to 
the Muslims. 

In 6 AH, the Prophet iH returned to Madinah from Hudaybiyah 
after concluding a 10 year peace treaty with the Quraysh. He spent 
almost the whole month of Zul Hajjah at Madinah. In Muhurrum 7 
AH, he advanced to Khaybar to tackle the dangerous enemy there. 
He had only 1500 Companions 4& in his army. They encamped 
near Khaybar at a suitable place. He invited them to join Islam but 



414 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



if they were reluctant then they should pay the jizyah. If they 
rejected both proposals then the Muslims would fight them as they 
were commanded by Allah to fight them till they became Muslims 
or paid the jizyah. 

The Jews of Khaybar rejected all proposals arrogantly and were 
ready to fight. 

They had plenty of war weapons and abundant provision in 
their strong forts and were confident that the Muslims could never 
gain victory over them. The war began. The Muslims captured 
their forts one after another but one of their forts defied them. 
Every Muslim effort was repulsed. It was then that Allah's 
Messenger Hi said, "Tomorrow I will give the standard to one who 
loves Allah and His Messenger and is dear to them, and Allah will 
give us perfect victory at his hands." Either the Jews will accept 
Islam or become subservient to us and pay the jizyah." The Prophet 
HI did not name the man to whom he hoped to give the banner but 
only said what we have read in the Hadith and, indeed, that was a 
great honour and merit and many people cherished it, Sayyidina Ali 

was not present. The next day when the Prophet Hi asked for 
him, he was told that he suffered from eye trouble. The Prophet Hi 
instructed the people to send someone to fetch him and when he 
came he applied his salvia to both his eyes and he was relieved of 
pain right on the moment. Then the Prophet Hi gave him the 
standard, a sign that he would lead the army that day. Sayyidina Ali 
4fe then sought instruction on what he had to do and the Prophet 
HI said to him, "If Allah guides even a single person at your hands 
and he believes then that is better for you than your collecting 
spoils of war that comprise many red camels." (Red camels were 
then regarded precious treasure by the Arabs). The Prophet Hi was 
very clear, "Our aim is not to collect the war booty. Our main aim 
is that Allah's creatures may be guided." This should be the 
objective of jihad and warriors must conduct themselves 
accordingly. The narrator has narrated the Hadith only to the extent 
Sayyidina Ali's merits are disclosed, no further. He has not touched 
upon the battle itself or the result which was as the Prophet Hi had 
said — victory at the hands of Sayyidina Ali We can read about 
the battle in books of seerah and history. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



415 



We learnt of two miracles of the Prophet W$ in this Hadith. (1) 
He applied his salvia in the eyes of Sayyidina Ali 4fe and they were 
restored to normality. (2) He foretold outright victory for the 
Muslims. 

The lesson we learn from the Hadith is that Sayyidina Ali 4fe 
loved Allah and His Messenger and he was dear to them too. 
Paradise belongs to Allah! This indeed is the belief of the alh 
us-sunnah wal Jama' at. However, it does not follow that no one 
else has this honour. In fact, every believer has this honour 
according to the degree of his belief. The Qur'an says: 

<n:rolj**J1) O^jjjAP 

{Say: "If you love Allah then follow me. Allah will love you, 
and forgive you your sins. And Allah is forgiving, Merciful.} 

(Aal-lmran,3:31) 

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J] ,Jbj iii Ju ^fii ^Jt jl^j '4ji U-^Ji Ijy &Jt 

(2036/85) Zirr bin Hubaysh reported that Sayyidina Ali <$j£> said, 

"By Him Who split the Grain and created the soul, the 

unlettered Prophet III told me particularly that only a truthful 

believer shall love me and a hypocrite would hate me. 

(Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Indeed, Allah bestowed his choicest blessings on 
Sayyidina Ali He was among the first people to accept the 
Prophet's call. He was the Prophet's Hi paternal cousin and the 
Prophet iH loved him. He was married to the Prophet's iil 
daughter, Sayyidah Fatimah if* ^ ^ j and thus had the honour of 
being his son-in-law. He accompanied the Prophet Hi in most of 
the battles and always fought courageously putting his life at risk 
he achieved great feats. Indeed, he loved Allah and His Messenger 
and was loved by them. In short, these merits and many others 
entitle him to be loved by every true believer. If anyone dislikes 
him then it must be understood that he is a hypocrite. 



416 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Neverteless, love for him is only that love which is approved by 
Allah and His Messenger HI and is within the limits of SharVah 
otherwise those people are also claimants who regard him divine, 
or those who hold that Allah had sent Jibreel $£$1 to him but he 
went to Sayyidina Muhammad £H ibn Abdullah by mistake. 
Similarly, there are the Shias of the Isma'ili and Nasriyah sects who 
hold the polytheistic beliefs that their Imams are images of God 
and own Divine attributes and capabilities. Also, the Ithna 
ashriyah hold that evleven people of Sayyidina Ali's descendants 
are named by Allah as innocent Imams in the same way as Prophets 
are named and they are worthy of worship, superior to all previous 
Prophets, recepients of wahy and the Book, performers of miracle 
and having authority over the universe. Obviously, this love is like 
the love of the Christians for Sayyidina Isa who were led by 
that love to polytheism and Hell. Those who love Sayyidina Ali in 
the above ways are polytheists — associators with Allah or with 
the Prophet He is absolved of them and fed up with them. The 
love for Sayyidina Ali 4^ that is approved by Allah and His 
Messenger is the one that the righteous men of the ahl us-sunnah 
wal Jama' at have for him. 

Those who hate Sayyidina Ali are hypocrites. They are 
particularly the Khawarij and Nawasib who accused him of 
veering off Qur'anic guidance and said that he had erred from the 
religious path. It was a wretched one among them Abdur Rahman 
ibn Maljim who martyred Sayyidina Ali Ǥfe>. 

After the martyrdom of Sayyidina Uthman 4^, differences did 
crop up among the Companions dfe leading to the battles of jamal 
and siffin. There was misunderstanding among them. None of the 
Companions ^ despised Sayyidina Ali *$k> as one religiously 
astray. Their differences were on the plain of deduction and each 
side declared that the others were Believers and Muslims, and after 
the battle they regretted having fought each other. Finally, the 
compromise struck by Sayyidina Hasan 4^ proved that they did not 
hate each other but their differences were differences of reasoning. 
The Prophet had said about Sayyidina Hasan 4#>'. 

s s s . s 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



417 



(This, my son is a great leader. Allah will get two large groups 
of Muslims to compromise through his efforts.) 

This Hadith makes it clear that people on both sides were Muslims, 
none of them was a hypocrite. 

Finally, it is worth nothing that this Hadith of Zirr ibn Hubaysh 
is preceded in Saheeh Muslim by Ahadith narrated by Sayyidina 
Anas 4fe, Bara ibn Azib 4fe, Abu Hurayrah and Abu Sa'eed 
al-Khudri 4fe> through different lines of transmission. The message 
is "to love the Ansar is a sign of faith, and to despise them is a sign 
of hypocrisy." 

The words of the Hadith of Sayyidina Bara ibn Aazib 4fe in 
Saheeh Muslim are: The Prophet lH said: 
"Only he will love the Ansar 

who is a true Believer and only ^ g ^j^j tfy *$\ '^fczyfi 
he will despise them who is a 3 _ > , , , 
hypocrite. He who loves the <aj1 ^ 1 (H^ 1 u* J?^! 



Ansar, Allah loves him and he a y^. ^ iA 

who hates them, Allah hates 
him." 

The Prophet £§1 had said at different times about different 
Companions that to show love of them was a sign of faith while 
to show hatred smacked of hypocrisy. But, certainly Sayyidina Ali 

did possess a distinction in this regard, and may Allah cause us 
to love Him, His Messenger and all those whom they love and who 
love them. 



z / / ^ j . , /» j ix A,^ , ^ 

(2037/86) Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas 4b reported that 
when Allah's Messenger ill went for the Battle of Tabook, he 
appointed Sayyidina Ali 4^ as his Khalifah at Madinah and left 
him behind. But he said, "Do you leave me as Khalifah over 
children and women?" The Prophet lH said to him, "Are you 
not pleased that your rank with me is what Haroon's was with 



418 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Musa bxcept that (here is no Prophet after me." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: We have mentioned the Battle of Tabook and its 
extraordinary significance when discussing the merits of Sayyidina 
Uthman 4^>. This was the last battle in which the Prophet iH 
participated and, perhaps the most important. Thirty thousand 
Companions participated in it. They included all the Believers 
of Madinah who could join the Prophet only the hypocrites 
remained behind on various excuses. (There were also three or four 
truthful Believers who could not join the warriors though they had 
every intention to go.) The Prophet's wives jf^^^j, his 
daughter, Sayyidah Fatimah and her children, and the 

families of all other warriors were left behind in Madinah. The 
journey was to a distant land most likely a lengthy one of long 
duration, so the Prophet Hi decided to leave behind a deputy who 
could handle any external or internal threat. He found Sayyidina 
Ali 4& most appropriate for the occasion. 

Some evil hypocrites spread the rumour that he was not taken 
along because he was unworthy and was, therefore, left in Madinah 
to look after women and children. Sayyidina Ali asked the 
Prophet iSl if that was so but he said to him, "Are you not happy 
that you should be to me as Haron was to Musa except that there 
will be no Prophet after me?" 

It is stated in verse 142 of surah al-A 'raf that when Allah called 
Prophet Musa SaM to Toor Sina to give him the Torah, he asked 
his elder brother Sayyidina Haroon to deputise for him over 
the Banu Isra'il. It was to this that the Prophet Hi pointed out. 
Without doubt, this was a great honour and merit of Sayyidina Ali 
4fh. It is also a fact that he was chosen because of his close 
relationship with the Prophet Hi and some other reasons. 
(Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^£> and Umar and other Companions c^> 
were participants in the battle and the Prophet Hi, nevertheless, 
wanted to keep them with him for consultation.) 

The Shia scholars point out that the appointment of Sayyidina 
Ali as Khalifah by the Prophet is evidence that he was most 
worthy of the post after the Prophet's Hi death. However, it does 
not need much commonsense to reject this idea. There is a 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



419 



difference in selecting someone as a deputy during one's temporary 
absence and as a Khalifah on a permanent basis after death. 

If Prophet Haroon SSB had taken over the place of Prophet 
Musa 8&3sB after the latter's death then perhaps there could have 
been some logic in this argument. But, as it is, Prophet Haroon 
died in the lifetime of Prophet Musa forty years before 
Prophet Musa's 85!sN death. Yusha' became Khalifah thereafter. 

It is also worth remembering that while he went to the battle 
and appointed Sayyidina Ali $k> as his Khalifah, he asked Abdullah 
ibn Umm Maktoom 4fe to act as Imam in his absence though 
Sayyidina Ali 4fe was more meritorious than him. I suppose that 
the Prophet iil had done it because the appointment of Sayyidina 
Ali 4^> may not be taken as evidence of his permanent selection 
later on. j»JL*i <&i j 

0} JtS jJLj illl J± $\ # <J~& J> fry** cfC • r A/AY) 

(^jsJi otjj) Jj >j ^ Utj ^ Up 

(2038/87) Sayyidina Imran ibn Husayn reported that the 
Prophet Hi said, M Ali is mine and I am his. And, he is the friend 
of all Believers." (Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Only this concluding portion of the full Hadith in 
Tirmizi is reproduced in Mishkat. The gist of the fuller Hadith is: 
The Prophet iH had sent Sayyidina Ali 4^ as the commander of an 
army. They were victorious but some of the participants did not 
regard one of his action as correct, so they complained to the 
Prophet H about it. The Prophet iH did not like what they said 
because their complaint was incorrect. So, he said, as a measure of 
trust and confidence, and demonstration of special relationship, " 

" 4u uij (Surely Ali is mine and I am his). He had, in fact, 

expressed his close relationship with Sayyidina Ali 4^> in these 
words often as well will know in the next Hadith. 

The Prophet had expressed closeness to other Companions 
4l> too in similar words. Thus, there is a Hadith in Saheeh Muslim 
about a Companion 4fe who was martyred in a battle, Sayyidina 
Julaybeeb 4^. He stood next to his corpse and said "i* wj ^ 
(This Julaybeeb is mine and I am his) (Saheeh Muslim v2 p 295). In 



420 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



the same way, he said about the tribesmen Asha'reen of Abu Musa 
al-Ash'ary that J?> (They are mine and I am theirs). The 

background was their behaviour in collecting provision of everyone 
at one place, when some of them lacked it, and sharing it equally. 
This Hadith is also found in Saheeh Muslim v 2 p 302. 

The last sentence of the Hadith refers to Sayyidina Ali 4fe as 
"<yy jf Jjy*j" wali of all Believers. This word wall means friend, 
helper or guardian. It is used in the Qur'an too in one of these 
meanings. 

In this Hadith, it is used to imply a friend. Every Believer must 
have a relationship of a friend and love with Sayyidina Ali 4fe>. 
This is his right because of his close relationship with the Prophet 

May Allah grant me and all Believers love for Him, His 
Messenger lH and all who love them and are dear to them (among 
whom Sayyidina Ali surely has a distinct rank). 

^ \jl Qf tM J S S S S S S 

i^i oi j j) . ^ j\ ui i\ ^yjtfj <"j± # ui j ^/j*fa 3 

(2039/88) Sayyidina Hubshi ibn Junadah 4^ reported that 
Allah's Messenger ill said, "Ali is from me and I from him. And 
(This important message) from me may be conveyed by me or 
by Ali." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: To be able to understand the Hadith, we must keep 
the background in mind. Makkah was liberated in 8 AH and the 
Islamic government was set up there. Next year the surah 
al-Bara'at (or at-Tawbah) was revealed. It contains important 
Commands concerning the idolaters and disbelievers. For example, 
the convenant concluded with them must be annulled because of 
their violation and mischiefs, idolaters or unbelievers should not be 
allowed into the Masjid al-Haram, etc. The Prophet iil sent 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe as Ameer of Hajj with instructions to 
convey to the disbelievers and idolaters coming from different 
areas the commands of Allah which are revealed in this surah and 
all those verses of this surah. The Prophet realised after Abu Bakr 
had gone away that among the Arabs a convenant can be revoked 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



421 



only by a chief himself or his closest relative acting on his behalf, 
otherwise the revocation is invalid. So, he sent Sayyidina Ali 4fe on 
his behalf, being his paternal cousin and son-in-law. It is at this 
time and in this context that he said: 

- &y w y > & & u, 3 & & H 

"Ali is from me and 1 from Ali and (this important message) 
from me may be conveyed by me or by Ali." 

In short, he explained why he had to send Sayyidina Ali 4^> on the 
heels of Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe. 

When they met, Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ asked him if he had 
been sent as ameer or follower and Sayyidina 4^ Ali replied that he 
had been sent as a follower while "You continue to be the ameer. 
My task is limited to this act." 

Whatever happened was dictated by Allah. If Sayyidina Ali 
had been sent as ameer straightaway then that could have been 
construed as evidence of Sayyidina Ali's 4^ Khalifah after the 
Prophet Thus by sending Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe as ameer of 
Hajj the wnmah has thus been protected from that misunder- 
standing. Allah then put the realisation into the Prophet's Hi heart 
about the Arab tradition and he sent Sayyidina Ali to convey the 

* 

message. In this way Allah guided the Muslims that their ameer 
and the Prophet's 0 Khalifah should be Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe>. 
This is exactly like the suggestion in his heart from Allah when he 
was ill that he should appoint Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe as Imam to 
lead the congregation in his place. . * lSj uJ Ljj ji 



J ^ (£-J 4* ^ J* ^ Jj^J & 'J* 

(2040/89) Sayyidina lbn Umar 4^ reported that (after hijrah, on 
coming to Madinah) Allah's Messenger £§1 created a muakhah 
among his Companions e$fe> (ties of fraternity among them). 
Sayyidina Ali came to him (sad and grief-stricken), tears rolling 
down his eyes. He said, "You have created muakhah between 



422 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



every two of the Companions but you have not created such a 
one between me and another," The Prophet lH said, "You are 
my brother in this world and the next." (Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: When the Prophet iH and his Companions came 



to Madinah, these Muhajirs belonged to different tribes and 
different places. The Prophet III created a muakhah between every 
one Ansar and one Muhajir whereby an Ansar became a brother of 
a Muhajir. Thus, they shared one another's grief and heppiness, 
looked after their needs like real brothers and no one felt lonely and 
helpless. Thus, Abu al-Darda Ansar 4^> became brother of Salman 
Farsi 4&>. They were not related in anyway before that neither did 
they belong to the same nation. Sayyidina Ali had not been 
paired with anyone and feeling lonely he complained to the Prophet 
0 who said, "3 y^tj uaJi J cji" "You are my brother both in this 
world and in the next." Naturally, he must have been elated on 
hearing this. Surely, the closeness that he enjoyed with the Prophet 
iH was reserved only for him — he was the Prophet's lH paternal 
cousin, among the first to respond positively to his call to Islam 
and his son-in-law. .«u>jij'<LP<uji^Sj 



(2041/90) Sayyidina Anas said that the Prophet had a 
(roasted or cooked) bird to eat. So, he prayed, "O Allah! Send to 
me one who is dearest to You among Your creatures and who 
would join me in eating this bird." Suddenly, Sayyidina Ali 
came there and he joined the Prophet in eating that bird. 

(Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Shia deduce from this Hadith that Sayyidina 
Ali 4ie> was dearer to Allah than every other creature including 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina Umar 4^. But, if we go by 
that reasoning then the Prophet ill is also including among them. 
Therefore, the exponents of Hadith have explained that the 
Prophet's Hi prayer means: "O Allah! Send to me one who is 
among those dearest to You..." And surely Sayyidina Ali is one of 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



423 



the dearest creatures of Allah. 

Allama Ibn al-Jawzi has classified this Hadith as mawdoo 
(fabricated). However Ibn Hajar disagrees with him, but confirms 
that it is da'eef (weak). 1 



it % 



jli U! £Lij &s> till JL> Jj! J jij Jtf : Jtf ^P(Y ♦ t Yh )) 

(2042/91) Sayyidina Ali 4^ reported that Allah's Messenger Hi 
said, "I am the house of wisdom and Ali is its door." 

(Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Ali 4^ became a Believer in his 
childhood and since then remained in the Prophet's $H company 
and training. So he enjoys a higher rank of the Prophet's iSl 
teachings. That is why the Prophet iH said U^Jijii ui" (I 

am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate.) 

However, it is wrong to suppose that only he possesses the 
knowledge and wisdom taught by the Prophet H and it cannot be 
learnt from anyone else but him. The Qur'an says often that Allah 
sent the Prophet as His Messenger among the ummis (unlettered) 
and he read out to them Allah's verses and taught them the Book of 
Allah and wisdom. This confirms that all the Companions 4^ learnt 
the Book and wisdom according to their individual capacities. 
Hence, all of them are doors and means of the knowledge and 
wisdom received through the Prophet i®. 

When Sayyidina Ali 4fe responded to the Prophet's iH call and 
believed, he was only eight or ten years old, or a little more. He 
was only that much receptive to the Prophet's i® teachings as a 
child of this age is. But, when Abu Bakr accepted Islam on the 
same day, his age was over forty years and he was naturally as 
receptive as one should be at this age. Therefore, he had a share of 
Prophet's ^ knowledge and wisdom greater than the other 
Companion's 4^> collective share. 

When the Prophet lH appointed him Imam in his place during 
his illness that was actually the Prophet's certificate for his superior 
knowledge of the Book and wisdom. Then the Companions 
confirmed that when they appointed him their Khalifah and Imam. 

O. See 787 ***** j^LoJi^W J^L^S j**- ^1 M?Jl 3bp-l (Beirut) 



424 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 




We must also remember that the Prophet all mentioned the 
distinction of different Companions ^> in different departments of 
knowledge as we will see while reading the virtues of different 
Companions t^b. 

The tabi'een learnt the Prophet's Hi knowledge from different 
Companions c^>. Allah got the muhaddith to preserve them in 
Books of Hadith. That will guide the ummah till the Last Day. 

We must also bear in mind that Ibn al-Jawzi and Ibn Taymiyah 
and others have declared that the Hadith " jb ui " as 
mawdoo'. Even Imam Tirmizi has declared it "j&j> ^> ljjb " 
(This Hadith is gharib munkar — a degree of weak Hadith) 

The Hadith is unapproved and unworthy of transmission in the 
eyes of the scholars of Hadith. 



Messenger sgl sent an army (on an expedition) and Sayyidina 
Ali *$k> was a participant of it. She heard Allah's Messenger ^§1 
make supplication with his hands raised (in prayer), "0 Allah! 
Do not take me away from this world till You let me see Ali." 

(Jami Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This is a demonstration of the extreme love the 
Prophet ill had for Sayyidina Ali «4^>, the reasons for which we 
have mentioned previously. 



(2044/93) Sayyidina Ali ibn Abu Talib 4P> said that the Prophet 
iH held the hand of (both his grandsons) Hasan 4fe and Husayn 
^> and said, "He who loves me, both of them, their father and 
their mother (Sayyidina AH and Sayyidah Fatima 
will, on the Day of Resurrection, be in Paradise at the (same) 
degree as mine and with me." (Jami Tirmizi) 






Book of Virtues And Excellence 



425 



Commentary: We have read in volume two a Hadith of Sayyidina 
Anas 4fe reproduced from Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim 
about a man who asked the Prophet ^ (When is the Last Hour?) 
and he said, "You ask about it but what preparations have you 
made for it?" He said, "I have not done much for it except that I 
love Allah and His Messenger iH>." The Prophet i§? said, j* ^ cji" 
"c^r'You are with whom you love." The meaning is, "You may 
rest assured, in the Hereafter you will be with those you love." On 
hearing this, all the Companions r|f& were so happy that they never 
had been as happy since becoming Muslims. Sayyidina Anas 4^ 
said: 

3 3 x y «•* 3 ^ . 3 3 3 3 s s s 3 V 'y . s . s s \ s s > t s } i t is V » V ♦ 

£)' 'jTj'j S>*3 vNW'j ^jUp-uJI J^p ^ ^\ UV3 

■ is?* 

, Abu Bakr 4§b and Umar 
and hope that only because of that I will be with them in the 
Hereafter). 

This is Allah's mercy that He will place those who love His 
Messenger iH and the loved ones with these very sacred people. 
(Without doubt Sayyidina Hasan Sayyidina Husayn <4fe, 
Sayyidah Fatimah \ys> &\ Sayyidina Ali 4fe> are those whom the 
Prophet Hi loved dearly). Thus for the fortunate ones who love the 
beloved of Allah's Sayyidina Muhammad m and those whom he 
loves, the mercy of Allah will place them with the Prophet May 
Allah caues me and the readers to love His beloved, Sayyidina 
Muhammad 



aDi J^> jji j>i>3 crti. cJr ; jis ^ (Y . i *w t> 

- M» t-S - S SS ' S S S Si*'} J / SS t5 

. # J S . ^ 3 . S 3 3 . • S S 3 .» I . ^ . ^ . * J | I, t 3 — . , ^ S \ S S 

till Jjl J>^5 Jl3 i% &j 

s ■»> s s s s s s f s ss 33 ^ s 

JiilP : JlSj <d£^ JlSU ilPli <cii u£T 

(2045/94) Sayyidina Ali 4k> said: I had fallen ill (and was in 
much pain). Allah's Messenger iHl came across me while 1 was 
praying, "O Allah, if my appointed time has .come then grant me 



426 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



peace (give me death and relief from the pain). And if my death 

is delayed then grant me a life of ease and comfort. And if this 

(illness and pain) is a trial (from you) then grant me patience 

(that J may not complain)." Allah's Messenger j|l asked me, 

"What did you say?" So (What I had said in prayer) I repeated to 

him. He hit me with his foot and prayed ukp^^O Allah grant 

him health). (The narrator doubts that he might have said:)£4^ 

4f*» (O Allah cure him). After that I never had that complaint. 

(Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Indeed this was a miracle of the Prophet 




9 9 9 . . . ^ J J <» J* ■<•-''* ' \ ' ' >\ * ■* i 1 1 \ ' * 



3 3, * * 



(2046/95) Sayyidina Ali 4<k> reported that some people said to 
him, "We observe that in severe heat you wear garments of 
winter and we observe that in winter you wear garments of 
summer and wipe perspiration." So, he said, "Once, my eyes 
. ached and Allah's Messenger iHl applied his saliva into them. 
Since then I have never had eye trouble and he prayed for me: 
y^jr^Ji a£ sL*s\ (O Allah! keep summer and winter away 
from him). Since then 1 have not felt heat or cold." 

(Mu'ajam Awsat, Tabarani) 

Commentary: The supplication of the Prophet iH had miraculous 
effects, no doubt. 

3> s \ * s 3 t * 9 1 f . I ' 11 1 3 9 s si 3.* 3 * \ s 3 ' 



(2047/96) Sayyidina Ali 4^> Said, "I have seen myself with 
Allah's Messenger §11 in such a way that I tied a stone on my 
belly to fight off hunger. (But now, by the Grace of Allah) the 
zakah on my wealth works out at forty thousand Ashrafis." 

(Musnad Ahmad) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



All 



Commentary: In the Book of ar-Riqaq (Softening of Hearts), we 
have seen those Ahadith which tell us that the Prophet ^ chose for 
himself and his family a life of poverty and had prayed to Allah for 
that. They went without meals for days together and he sometimes 
did tie stone on his bally to ward off pangs of hunger. Sayyidina 
Ali was among his closest relatives and he too had to do.it 
sometimes. He discloses in this Hadith how his condition changed. 

It is indeed an honour and very meritorious to opt for a life on 
the pattern of the Prophet $11 but if Allah grants wealth to anyone 
from lawful sources and he fulfils his obligations in this regard 
then that is also a blessing of Allah. In that chapter of this Book, 
we have also transmitted Prophet's s§l sayings on this subject. 
Allah did grant Sayyidina Ali 4fe the honour to live on the 
Prophet's Om pattern and also granted him wealth: 

i i 

illi Jji # Ji 463 & J" 0 • * AMY) 

' - s f y y y 

& 'J'J 'J) c>r& ^ 4* k-R est 

^ s ' ' y y 

& JO $ My *j£ ti'r & & ffi ■ & 'J* 

' > ' 3 * ' 3 * ' ** *' ^ ' 3 % f> " % 3 } ' & 



» J & 3 > i ^ , \ 3 y s 3 y 3 . s y 3 y 3 . 

(A^Ujj) .^yj jty JT Jy C^l^I 

(2048/97) Sayyidina Bara ibn Azib and Sayyidina Zayd ibn 
Arqam reported that when Allah's Messenger IH alighted at 
Ghadeer Khumm and stayed there, he held the hand of 
Sayyidina Ali 4l|& and said (to those Companions who were 
there): "(^-^^ ir? o4r?J^W <L^^ ^ ^-^J^" (Do you not know that 
1 am more friendly to the Muslims than they are themselves?) 
They all said, "Certainly it is so!" The Prophet 111 (then) said: 
"U-dfo & JxJ ^Jji ^31 oj^" (i^ 1 (Do you not know that 1 am 
more a friend of a Muslim than he is himself?), and they all said, 
"Certainly, it is so!" He then said:J»jjiiM My'^MycX&ffl 
't\te^> .i^jj* (O Allah, he to whom I am a friend then this 
Ali is also his friend. O Allah, he who is friendly to Ali, You 
keep friendship with him; and he who is unfriendly with him, 



428 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



You too be hostile to him). Then Sayyidina Umar 4|£> met 
Sayyidina AM 4&> and said, "Congratulations to you, O Ibn Abu 
Talib. Every morning and every evening, you are friend and 
beloved of every believing man and believing woman!" 



Commentary: This happened on the return journey after 
performing Hajjat id-Wada' at Ghadeer Khumm (or, the Pond of 
Khumm) which is about three miles from al-Juhfah on the route 
from Makkah to Madinah. The Prophet iH reached this place on 
18th Zul Hajjah with all his Companions ^ who had joined him 
for the Hajj from Madinah and its surroundings. He broke his 
journey there and assembled his Companions c^> and delivered a 
sermon. If we collect all the reports in different books of Hadith, 
we will learn that he spoke of some important matters, one of 
which pertained to Sayyidina Ali 4^ that we have read in the 
Hadith. He spoke about it with emphasis. 
The verse 6 of al-Ahzab reads: 



(The Prophet is ever closer to the Believers than their own 



It is natural for man to be concerned deeply about himself but it is 
the right of our Prophet, Sayyidina Muhammad 0 that as 
Believers we should love him more than our own selves. It is in 
reference to this verse that the Prophet HHfe had asked the Believers 
if they did not know that he had a greater right to their friendship 
and love than their own selves. All those present confirmed his 
words unanimously. He then asked if it was not correct that every 
Believer must love him and be concerned of him more than he is of 
himself, and they all again agreed to it. He then said, "O Allah! (Be 
witness that) Ali is also a friend and beloved of him whose friend 
and beloved I am. O Allah! I pray to You that You be friend to him 
who be friends Ali and antagonise him who antagonises Ali." Then 
Sayyidina Umar 4^ congratulated Sayyidina Ali 4&> that Believers 
— men and women — love him always. 

Having explained the Hadith, I now wish to enlighten readers 
that the Shia scholars present this Hadith as their most strong 
support for their faith. They hold that in this sermon at Ghadeer 



(Musnad Ahmad) 




selves.) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



429 



Khumm the Prophet had appointed Sayyidina Ali as his 
successor and Khalifah, and the Imam of the ummah. According to 
them, this, indeed, was the aim of his sermon. They argue that the 
word l Jy (mawla) in the Hadith means master, owner and ruler, 
and the Hadith means: those whose master and ruler I am, Ali 4fe is 
also their master and ruler. This was, therefore, a proclamation of 
Sayyidina Ali's 4^ Khilafat and rulership over the ummah. Readers 
will see in the following lines how worthless is this argument. 

The fact is that many Arabic words have more than twenty 
meanings. The word mawla is one of them. The Arabic dictionary 
"1**?%j<A\ j*y\&\"al-Qamus al-Muheet gives twenty one meanings of 
U y> mawla (v4 p404). 

JaJlj(r) ^JUJl(^) -*JyA\ 

<uLp ( \ A) ,|JuJij(W) j^LJlj(U) ^JhO°) 

The same meanings are also found in "jji^Ji^yi" Aqrab 
al-Mawrid (v2 pi 488) and also in the most reliable dictionary on 
Hadith j i*JbJi ^> ^ ^ JJJr Ji ysli ^ Li^Ji" (an-Nihayat U Ibn 
al-Atheer al-Juzi fi Gharib al-Hadith. Allamah Tahir Patni has 
reproduced the text of an-Nihayat in Majma' Bihar al-Anwar (v5 
pi 12, Da'irat ul-Ma'arif, Hyderabad, India). 

The Misbah al-Lughat the Arabic-Urdu dictionary has given the 
meanings of almost all those words that are given (as meanings of 
mawla) in al-Qamoos al-Muheet and Aqrabal-Mawarid (p968). 

Some of the meanings given in Arabic-English Lexicon 1 by 
Edward William Lane are: 

O. Part 8, p 3061. 



430 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



l ^Jy : A lord, chief, son of a paternal uncle or a relation, son of 
a sister, a freedman, one whom the emancipator is bound to aid and 
whose property he inherits if he dies having no heir, a slave. (The 
other meaning in the Urdu text are: an emancipator, one who 
rewards, one who is rewarded, one who loves, a companion, a 
sowrn friend, a neighbour, a guest, a partner, a son, an uncle, a 
son-in-law, a relative, a patron, a subordinate.) 

If such a word with multi-meanings is used in the Qur'an or 
Hadith or any eloquent literature then its sense and implication is 
brought out in the text itself, or the context points out to it. 
Similarly, in the Hadith under discussion, the context brings out 
the meaning of the word mawlan. The concluding suplication is: 

(O Allah! Be friend him who be friends Ali and antagonise him 
who antagonises Ali.) 

It is very clear, therefore, that the word mawla is used in the 
Hadith for friend, beloved, and the words "rtj* ^ y c^T ja" 
would mean what we have stated above in the explanation. 

Then after the Prophet's iH death whatever happened is 
undeniable proof of what we have said. Not one of the thousands 
of Companions and not even Sayyidina Ali or those who 
were vey close to him — none of them had taken the Prophet's Hi 
saying at Ghadeer Khumm to imply Sayyidina Ali's ^ successioin, 
Khalifat or Imamat. If they had understood the Prophet $=1 to mean 
that then Sayyidina Ali ^> or anyone else would surely have 
protested that hardly seventy-two days in the past, the Prophet 
had spoken in such a way at Ghadeer Khumm and had proclaimed 
Sayyidina Ali as Khalifah. In fact, no one including Sayyidina 
Ali suggested this meaning and everyone accepted Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr ^ as Khalifah and swore allegiance to him. Rather, if 
we accept the contention of the Shia then the question arises why 
Sayyidina Ali did not press for adherence to the Prophet's i|fe 
instructions. It was a fard (an absolute obligation) on him to get the 
Prophet's iH> will discharged, and if there was a confrontation, he 
should have taken a stand and used force. This is what the 
grandson of Sayyidina Hasan 4$>, Hasan the Third had said to a 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 43 1 

man who subscribed to the extreme belief about Sayyidina Ali 
and cited this saying of the Prophet iHl e*iy> Jl*s o*i y cuf ^ in 
support of his Khilafat. Hasan the Third said to this man: 

"If what you people say is true , , ^ ^ ^ MTJ* 
— that AUah and His ^ " 

Messenger Hi had appointed l^L* '<dj-*oj J^r 

Ali 4£> as Khalifah after the 



then Ah 4P> is ^ " J - 
the worst criminal because he 'ojju ^Js> ^LiJtj 
did not obey the Prophet's 



Prophet 



command. 1 (We seek refuge in ^-s^ j*^' ^ 0^ 

Allah from being rude.) fa ^ ^Jy it u j 

Then, as -the man cited the Prophet's saying fly fl y c^T 
Hasan the Third said: 

"Listen! I swear by Allah, if j^fa^_^^fa jU \ 

Allah's Messenger &il had to w> ^ " 

appoint Ali 4k> as Khalifah uJUll* ,JL»j Up ill 

then he would have spoken . tt , , „ t( . tl 

clearly and unambiguously as u ^ s v v 

he had spoken about salah, 5jJUaJib ^waM US' <u ~ 
fasting, zakah and 7/0/7. He wi 

would have said explicitly: O 0™J ^3 fL*)1j 0j5 jJIj 

People! This Ali would be ^ jbu JjlH jUb 3I ^Ul Igl : 
ruler after me. Hence, listen 

and obey him. 2 .\j*A>\j\j*+^\i 

However, the question remains: what was the Prophet's iH 
purpose by these words. Why he spoke in the way he did about 
Sayyidina Ali 4&>. 

The fact is that the Prophet iH had sent Sayyidina Ali 4fe to 



Yaman with three hundred men sometime before Hajjat ul-Wada. 
He had met the Prophet iH at Makkah during the Hajjat ul-Wada. 
While they were in Yaman, some of his friends did not agree with 
him over some issues and these people had also come to perform 
the Hajj and some of them seized the opportunity to complain to 



O. Izalahal-Khifavl p223, (1329 AH) Umdah al-Mutabah Press, Lucknow 
O. Izalah al-Khifa vl p223, Lucknow 



432 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



the Prophet fi^ about it, and they also mentioned it to other people 1 
which, indeed, was a grave mistake on their part. The Prophet iH> 
convinced those people who had complained to him of the 
correctness of Sayyidina Ali's 4fe actions, and they were satisfied. 
However, they had already spoken to others and the devil took 
advantage of the situation and showed seeds of discord. The 
Prophet Hi — when he learnt of it — found it necessary to let the 
people know that Sayyidina Ali <4^> held a high rank of appreciation 
and love. Hence, he assembled his Companions <^> at Ghadeer 
Khumm and delivered the sermon, held Sayyidina Ali 4fe by the 
hand and said: "obi* ja jIpj o ^ij j* Jtj ^JUi < y Jj& ^ y> c-S* ^" The 
meaning of these words is repeated here: "O Allah! He to whom I 
am a friend, this Ali is also his friend. O Allah! He who is friendly 
with Ali, You keep friendship with him; and he who is hostile to 
him, You too be hostile to him." In fact, as we have said earlier, the 
words of prayer by themselves highlight the meaning of the word 
mawla as 'beloved', 'friend' in this Hadith. 

In short, the saying of the Prophet &§l £Ji rty ^ W y c^f 
does not refer to the issue of Khilafah or Imamat. I hope that 
whatever I have written would suffice for every true Believer. 

(rv:© > 3) 

{Surely in that is an admonition to him who has a heart, or gives 
ear while he is mindful.} (Qaf, 50:37) 

J\ iLj 4* & 4 11 Sj^j ^ : "J* J* 0 ' *^A) 

^ 

J0\ J&\h \i\ lJjLJ cJ&j JCiS £±4*^ ^ h\ ' J 1 ^ *Uaiib 

(2049/98) Sayyidina Ali 4fe> said: Allah's Messenger ^ sent me 
to Yaman (meaning, decided to send me there) as Qadi (judge). 
I said to him, M Q Messenger of Allah! You send me as a 

O. See Saheeh Bukhari (Kitab al-Maghazi, Chapter: Ali Ibn Abu Talib and 
Khalid ibn al-Waleed to Yaman... and al-Bidayahwaan-Nihayah v5 pi 06 (Beirut). 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



433 



judge while I am young and I have no knowledge of judgement 
(disputes, decision of cases)." He said, "Allah will guide your 
heart and keep your tongue firm (that is, He will put in your 
heart and make your tongue speak that which is correct and 
true). When two people bring a case to you, do not decide in 
favour of him who brings (the case) first till you have heard the 
second party. This method will be more useful to you in giving 
judgement." (Sayyidina Ali said:) Thereafter I never had doubt 
in passing judgement (because of the Prophet's teachings and 
prayer). (Jami* Tirmizi, Sunan Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: This event is found in different books of Hadith 
narrated by different narrators. Some of them give some additional 
detail. We get a full picture when we keep all these reports before 
us. The report in Kanz ul-Ummal on the authority of Ibn Jarir is: 
{Some of the Yamanites met the Prophet and said, "Do send to 
us someone who teaches us religion and Shari'ah and decides 
our disputes and cases in the light of Allah's Book" So, the 
Prophet iG§l instructed Sayyidina Ali 4fe to go to Yaman. He 
said, "Those people might bring to me cases about which I have 
no knowledge." The Prophet placed his hand on Sayyidina 
Ali's chest and said Js*^ ^ l& (Go! 

Surely Allah will guide your heart and keep your tongue Firm). 
He said that after that he never felt doubt in deciding any case} 

(Kanz ul-Ummal, vl 3 pi 1 3) 

There is yet another version, also on the authority of Sayyidina 
Ali 4l> in Kanz ul-Ummal as transmitted by Mustadrak Haakim, 
Ibn Sa'd, Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Jarir, etc. 

{When 1 said to the Prophet iHl that 1 was young and had no 
insight in deciding cases, he placed his hand on my chest and 
said '4$ '^t— ! (O Allah make his tongue firm and 

guide his heart)} 

Sayyidina Ali 4fe then said £ui jilii Ui" "Thereafter, no 
dispute was difficult for me to decide. "(Kanz ul-Ummal, vl 3 pi 25) 

I believe that when the Prophet placed his hand on 
Sayyidina Ali f s 4fe chest and prayed, he was confident that his 
prayer was accepted, so he said, '\_&uJ ic^jw^^^^iJJi ji" 
(Surely Allah will guide your heart and make your tongue firm.) 
The letter ^ in this word " ^J^" expresses the belief. This is as 



434 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



the Qur'an says about Sayyidina Musa who said to his people 

{Surely with me is my Lord — He will guide me.} 

(ash Shu'ara, 26:62) 

It is a fact and one of the confirmed realities of the ummah that 
as a result of the Prophet's prayer, Sayyidina Ali 4^ was blessed 
with a perfect ability to decide cases and disputes. He enjoyed a 
distinction in this regard. Surely this is his great merit and a 
miracle of the Prophet w. 

(2050/99) Sayyidina Ali said: Allah's Messenger H said to 

me, "O Ali, you have a great resemblance to Isa ibn Maryam. 

The Jews hated him so much that they slandered his mother, 

Maryam, and the Christians loved him so much that they raised 

him to a position that was not his." Sayyidina Ali then said: 

(Surely it will be so.) Two kinds of people will perish on my 

account — they who love me to the point of exaggeration and 

will praise me for what I do not deserve, and they who hate me 

beyond limit so that their hatred drives them to slander me. 

(Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: Whatever Sayyidina Ali 4^ said on the basis of the 
Prophet's saying was demonstrated during the Khilafah. The 
Khwarij despised him so much that they called him an apostate, a 
disbeliever and one liable to be killed and a hard-hearted among 
them, Abdur Rehman ibn Muljam martyred him. On top of that this 
wretched man termed his evil deed jihad of the highest order and a 
mean to Paradise. There were also those who went to the point of 
exaggeration in loving him who raised him to Divine status or 
those who said that he was the one eititled to Prophethood and 
Messengership but Sayyidina Jibreel SjS^iR had committed a mistake 
in delivering Allah's revelation to Sayyidina Muhammad ill. There 
were also those who said that he was the Prophet's ill successor 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



435 



and Khalifah, and Imam of the ummah, that he was as innocent as 
the Prophet isH and worthy of obedience, and had Divine attributes 
enabling him to direct affairs of the universe. 

There are about fifty sects of these people who exceed the 
limits concerning Sayyidina Ali 

Many of them are now found only in books and we do not think 
that they exist any more in the world. Of those that survive, the 
ithna ashriyah are in a large number. They are also known as 
Imamiyah. These days they are generally called Shia. They believe 
that besides Sayyidina Ali <4fe, Allah and His Messenger ill had 
nominated eleven other Imams of the ummah and their rulers. Like 
him, they are all innocent and worthy of obedience and superior to 
all Prophets p+Js. We can learn more about them from the 
book of Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi *4*&\\**>^ Tuhfah Ithna 
Ashriyah. The Urdu books of Mawlana Muhammad Abdul 
Shakoor Farooqi and my book Irani Inqilab, Imam Khumaini aur 
Shi'ayat also throw light on this sect. 

j^i cJJuj Jli aJQi J^jU ti&'j* <s$ cjli ij&y Jjsa ji 

JfOfi : Jli 4111 Jji# a <tiW< Jli JLif 

x / y . 7 s } s 3 s 3s 

y y } 

(2051/100) Sayyidina Suhayb 4fe> reported that the Prophet S 
asked Sayyidina Ali <4fe (one day), "(Tell me) who was the most 
hard-hearted person among the earlier ummahT He said, "O 
Messenger of Allah, (He was) the man (of Thamud) who 
hamstrung the she-camel (which Allah had created from the 
rock of a mountain as a miracle for Prophet Salih >fiS)." The 
Prophet iil said, "You have spoken the truth. (Now, tell me) 
who will be the most hard-hearted among the people of later 
times?" He said, "I have no knowledge of that." The Prophet Jail 
said, pointing towards Sayyidina Ali's forehead, "(The most 
hard-hearted v. ill be) he who will smite you here (with his 



436 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



sword and your beard will be dyed (with blood). Then (because 
of this saying of the Prophet $H) Sayyidina AM used to (hold 
his beard and) say, "O People of Iraq! I wish that a hard-hearted 
man among you must rise and dye my beard with blood from 
my forehead here!" (Mu'ajam Kabeer) 

Commentary: In the last part of the Qur'an in surah ash-Shams 
(verse 11-12) this man is mentioned: 

{The Thamid belied (the truth) in their insolence when the beast 
of them uprose} 

The man is referred to as the basest or extremely hard-hearted and 
wretched. Sayyidina AH 4fe had given his answer on the basis of 
these verses. 

I think that the Prophet's first question to Sayyidina Ali 4fe was 
by way of an introduction to the second one and he foretold him 
that he would be martyred. He gave him all details of how he 
would be killed. Sayyidina Ali 4fe regarded the Prophet's ^ fore 
warning as a glad tiding for himself and he let the people know that 
he was waiting for the wicked man to strike. Indeed, about thirty 
years after the Prophet's 0 death, Sayyidina Ali was martyred 
au? ji j «up iii ^ j. Indeed, it was a miracle of the Prophet that he 
foretold the event and how it would happen. 

Sayyidina Ali's ^k> Martyrdom 

The compiler of Majma' al-Fawaid has written details of 
Sayyidina Ali's martyrdom on the aurhority of Isma'il ibn 
Rashid immediately following the foregoing account of Suhayb. 
We will present its synopsis but, before we do that, let us look into 
the background of the Khuwarij. They were a part of Sayyidina 
Ali's army and because of their foolishness and adamancy they 
regarded a decision of Sayyidina Ali 4<k> as incorrect and (may 
Allah forgive us!) contrary to Qur'anic teachings. This is why they 
opposed him and took to rebellion. Their numbers ran into many 
thousands but when Sayyidina Ali 4fe> clarified the facts, a large 
number of them reformed and rejoined him. However, a majority 
of them stuck to the erring path and were ready to fight and kill. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



437 



Finally, Sayyidina Ali 4& had to use force (and the war is known as 
the Battle of Naharwan) as a result of which many of them were 
eliminated. Of the few who survived, three — Bark ibn Abdullah, 
Amr ibn Bakr Tamimi and Abdur Rahman ibn Muljam went to 
Makkah and conspired to eliminate the ruling class, particularly 
three men: Sayyidina Hu'awiyah 4fe, Sayyidina Amr ibn al-Aas <4fe 
and Sayyidina Ali Bark, Amr and Abdur Rahman Muljam each 
took upon himself the responsibility to kill each of the three men in 
that order. They covenented on that and agreed to execute their 
strategy on 17th Ramadan when these people would emerge to 
offer Fajr salah. In those days, the salah was led by the Khalifah or 
an ameer appointed by him. 

Bark went to Damascus the capital city of Sayyidina Mu'awiyah 
4fe>, Amr Tamimi went to Egypt where Sayyidina Amr ibn al-Aas 
4^>, was the ameer and Abdur Rahman ibn Muljam went to Kufa 
the capital city of Sayyidina Ali 

On the 17th of Ramadan as Sayyidina Mu'awiyah 4fe came out 
for the Fajr salah. Bark attacked him with his sword but he sensed 
his presense and tried to run away. Nevertheless, Bark was able to 
inflict a deep wound on one of his buttocks. Bark was arrested (and 
later on killed). A doctor was summoned and he suggested 
branding of the wound with red, hot iron because the sword that 
struck him was poisoned. He suggested as an alternative a dose of 
medicine that would render him unable to sire children anymore. 
Mu'awiyah 4fe chose the second alternative because he could not 
hope to endure the hot iron. He said that he had two sons, Yazeed 
and Abdullah, and that was enough. Mu'awiyah recovered after 
treatment. 

Amr Tamimi was already to eliminate Amr ibn al-Aas 4fe>, but 
Divine decree favoured him. He became severely ill in the night 
and could not attend the fajr salah on 17th Ramadan. He asked 
Kharijah ibn Habib to substitute for him. As he stood up to lead the 
congregation Amr took him to be Amr ibn Al-Aas 4fe and attack 
him with his sword and he fell down a martyr. Amr was arrested 
and taken to Savvidina Amr ibn al-Aas he thus learnt that he 
had committed a mistake and, the wretched man that he was, he 
said to Amr ibn al-Aas "O sinner! I had intended to kill you." 



438 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari VIII 



Sayyidina Amr ibn al-Aas 4fe said, "You had formed that intention 
but Allah's intention was otherwise." Then, he was killed in qisas 
(retaliation) for Kharijah ibn Habib. 

The third wretched and most hard-hearted man Abdur Rahman 
ibn Muljam hid himself on 17th Ramadan well before the Fajr 
salah on the route to the mosque. Sayyidina Ali 4fe used to call out 
as-salah as-salah the moment he stepped out of his house till he 
reached the mosque, urging men to hurry for the salah. That 
morning as he followed his practice the wretched murderer rushed 
head-on and struck the sword on his forehead and fled from there 
but was nabbed by men around and brought to Sayyidina Ali 4&>. 
He said to his elder son Hasan 4e^, "If I survive, I will decide about 
him as I like. I may forgive him or kill him in qisas. And if I die, he 
must be killed according to the law of qisas of Shari'ah, but his 
body should not be mutilated because I have heard Allah's 
Messenger 111 say that even if a biting dog is killed he should not 
be mutilated." 

Sayyidina Ali **$k> died of the wound. Sayyidina Hasan then 
commanded that the murderer should be killed. The people who 
were very angry burned down his corpse. 

MERITS OF THE FOUR KHALIFAS 

In some of his sayings, the Prophet iH> mentioned the virtues of 
all four Khalifas together just as he has mentioned the two and also 
the three Companions at one time. We narrate some of his sayings 
in this regard here. 

* S S S S 0 

(t$i»>ji«>jj) 

(2052/101) Sayyidina Ali reported that Allah's Messenger 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



439 



said, "May Allah's mercy be on Abu Bakr. He gave me his 
daughter (Ayshah) in marriage, and made arrangements for me 
(of conveyance, etc.) to reach the Dar ui-Hijrah, Madinah, and 
bought Bilal with his capital and set him free. May Allah's 
mercy be on Umar. He speaks what is True though it may be 
bitter. His true-speaking has left him without a true friend. May 
Allah's mercy be on Uthman before whom even the angels 
display bashfulness. And may Allah's mercy be on Ali. O Allah, 
let truth accompany. May he remain with Truth and may Truth 
remain with him." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Prophet has called for Allah's mercy on all 
four caliphs in this saying. He has recalled three deeds of Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr 4^>. He gave his daughter in marriage to the Prophet ^§1. 
He had at least eight other wives besides her but the marriage with 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ is of significance. The Prophet's Hi 
first wife Sayyidah Khadijah if* &\ was a woman of perfect 
faith and wisdom and she had relieved him of worries on account 
of domestic needs and so he was at peace. Naturally, her death 
caused him immense grief. He received a suggestion from the 
unseen world that he should marry Ayshah if* <u>t ^ j, the daughter 
of Sayyidina Abu Bakr She was a child but the Prophet m 
believed that the suggestion was from Allah. A pious woman 
Khawlah bint Hakim brought to him the proposal from Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr <4fe. Not only was Sayyidah Ayshah if* At a child 
but she had already been engaged to the son of Jubayr ibn Mut'im 
who was very well-off like Abu Bakr 4^£>. The Prophet's financial 
condition was not unknown to anyone. In spite of that Abu Bakr 

decided to give his daughter to him in marriage to be able to 
give solace to the Prophet's heart and earn auspiciousness for 
himself and his daughter. 

The Prophet S$fc also recalled Sayyidina Abu Bakr's <4fe help 
during the hijrah. He was with the Prophet throughout the journey 
besides looking after other arrangements. His third deed was that 
he purchased Sayyidina Bilal and set him free. He had been the 
slave of a cruel disbeliever of Makkah who tortured him 
mercilessly only because he had believed in Allah. Abu Bakr 4fe 
paid the price he demanded and relieved Sayyidina Bilal of his 



440 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



predicament. The Prophet ill named only Bilal 4p> although he had 
set many other slaves free in this manner. 

The Prophet W> then recalled the characteristics of Sayyidina 
Umar He did not care whether the creatures were pleased or 
angered if he followed Truth in all his affairs. Such a person is dear 
to Allah and His Messenger iisl and is worthy of Divine mercy. 

The Prophet next remembered Sayyidina Uthman 4^> as one 
to whom even the angels showed modesty, (we have read about 
this aspect in the chapter on his merits). 

Next he recalled Sayyidina Ali 4fe for whom he prayed for 
Allah's mercy and beseeched Allah, "Let him be on Truth always 
and let Truth be with him." 

The sequence in which the Prophet iH> took these four names 
discloses their merit in the ummah and their ranks in this order. It 
was also an indication of the order of their Khalifah. Indeed, there 
are many other sayings of the Prophet $H in which this sequence is 
maintained. They all indicate to their order of succession. 

3 3 S 1* S m X S S 3 . / j % S X m * 

(2053/102) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe reported that 
Allah's Messenger iljl said, "Of the people of my ummah, the 
most merciful to them is Abu Bakr and the severest of them 
regarding Allah's commands is Umar 4fe>, and the noblest of 
them is Uthman ibn Affan in modesty, and the most just of 
them (in deciding cases) is Ali ibn Abu Talib 4fe." (Ibn Asakir) 

Commentary: The Prophet is§l has mentioned the characteristic of 
each of his Khalifahs in which he excelled over the rest of the 
ummah Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4b, Umar 4fe, Uthman 4fe and Ali 4& 
ibn Abu Talib each was outstanding as the most merciful, the most 
severe in matters of Allah;s injunctions and rights, in modesty 
which a Hadith describes as a department of faith, and in passing 
fair judgements in cases of disputes etc, which, indeed, was Allah's 
choicest blessing and a peculiarity of Khalifah. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



441 



(2054/103) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fe reported that Allah's 
Messenger said, "If anyone gives excellence (to some other 
person) over Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali then he rejects 
what I have said and belies their-rank on which they are (in the 
sight of Allah). (al-Rafee) 

Commentary: The Muslims are agreed on the excellence of these 
four Companions over the ummah and the Prophet's iH sayings in 
this regard are very clear. If anyone believes otherwise then he is 
guilty of rejecting the Prophet's $H sayings. 

: fa 21)1 JU> Jjl J^j JlS : Jtf jS\ (T.ooh . i) 

■&> ^ Jt J* 3 0^3 j+*3 & ^ *«0^ 03* ^ 

(/UP Ja^j ^ ^l^Jdl olj j) 

(2055/104) Sayyidina Anas ^ reports that Allah's Messenger 
III said, "The love of these four (my companions and friends) 
Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali cannot come together in the 
heart of an hypocrite." (Mu'jam Awsat, Tabarani, Ibn Asakir.) 

Commentary: Indeed, the ahl us-Sunnah wal Jama' at hold it as 
part of faith to love all the four Companions dj$>. If an unfortunate 
one despises any of these four then his faith is invalid and he is 
deprived of belief. 

As we have already pointed out these four people are 
mentioned by the Prophet 1=1 in this sequence and it is also the 
order of their rank. 

A Fact About Their Excellence 

There are fewer Ahadith about the merits of Sayyidina Abu 
Bakr 4£> and Sayyidina Umar 4^ than there are about Uthman 4fe 
whose number is relatively larger. Those about Sayyidina Ali's 4fe 
merits are the most — very many, indeed. The reason is that the 
Companions were acquainted with the merits of Abu Bakr 4fe 
and Umar and they did not need to look out for the Ahadith on 
their merits and then convey to other members of the ummah. 



442 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Sayyidina Uthman 4p> faced rebellion and opposition towards the 
end of his Khilafah and there was much character assasination — 
these moves were led by the hypocrite Abdullah ibn Saba. 
Therefore, it became necessary to acquaint the masses with his 
merits which were, therefore, searched and made known. Similarly, 
Sayyidina Ali 4fe> also faced stiff opposition and his personality 
became disputable especially because of the Khawarij who 
regarded him as liable to be killed because of mischief in religion 
and trial of ummah. So, Ahadith on his merits too had to be 
searched. Also, there were many who regarded it rewarding to 
invent Ahadith about his merits, many of those lived a seemingly 
righteous life. The ntuhodditheen could not always sift the 
fabricated Ahadith from the authentic and so some of them found 
their way in our books. That is why Ahadith of Sayyidina Ali's <4fe 
merits are found in exceptionally large number and it is necesasry 
to examine them from a critical point of view on the principles laid 
down in this field. 1 have reached an age and become so weak and 
unhealthy that I cannot undertake this task but I pray that Allah 
may raise someone among those worthy to do this task and 
complete it. 



THE REMAINING OF THE 
TEN GIVEN GLAD TIDINGS 



The Prophet 




had named ten of his Companions as 



dwellers of Paradise. They are called the ashrah mubashsharah 
(ten who were given the glad tidings). We will read the Hadith 
about it as transmitted by Tirmizi. 

The four Caliphs, whose merits we have already read, are 
among the ten. The Prophet named them before everyone else. 
Now, we read about the rest. 



(2056/105) Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4fe said that the 
Prophet said, "Abu Bakr will go to Paradis, Umar will go to 
Paradise, Uthman will go to Paradise, Ali will go to Paradise, 
Talhah will go to Paradise, Zubayr will go to Paradise, Abdur 
Rahman ibn Awf will go to Paradise, Sa'ad ibn Abu Waqqas 
will go to Paradise, Sa'eed ibn Zayd will go to Paradise, and 
Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah will go to Paradise." (JamP Tirmizi) 



Commentary: Obviously, the Prophet £H announced this after 
being informed accordingly through revelation from Allah. The 
scholars of the ahl us-Sunnah have concluded from this Hadith that 
these ten people are more excellent than the other Companions and 
all the ummah. Of course, the Prophet Hi has also given glad 





444 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



tidings to other people at different times that they would go to 
Paradise. 

We reproduce the Ahadith of the merits of these people in the 
same order in which they are named in the above Hadith. 

Talhah Ibn Ubaydullah 4l> 

(2057/106) Sayyidina Jabir «4fe reported that when he saw 
Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaydullah Allah's Messenger ill 
said, "If anyone finds pleasure in looking at a martyr walking on 
the face of the earth then he must look at Talhah ibn 
Ubaydullah." (Jami 1 Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Prophet ill had been informed that Sayyidina 
Talhah would be martyred. The style of this saying highlights the 
merit of Sayyidina Talhah 4^ and the extraordinary approval of 
martyrdom. He was martyred about twenty-five years after the 
Prophet's iH death in the Battle of Jamal. Indeed, that was a 
miracle of the Prophet 



fji Up J^p ^Jl J* tf: J13 jp (Y . oAh . V) 

s & jr s t 3 s s y % s s s 3 j / % 

■ 3 3 ' , 3 ••''It ' •»* 3 f 3 3 \ t ^ S & f. la y s * t ' 3 ' i 



(i^Uj&lloljj) 

(2058/107) Sayyidina Zubayr 4fe said: The Prophet 111 was 
wearing two coats of mail in the Battle of Uhud. He decided to 
climb up to a rock but was unable to do that (because of the 
weight of the extra material he had on him). So, Talhah 4fe sat 
down (that he may step on him and climb up). The Prophet 
placed his foot on his back and ascended the rock. 1 (Zubayr 
4fe>) heard Allah's Messenger iil say i^he>CJrj\ "Talhah has 
made (Paradise) certain for him." (Jami' Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Hadith tells us that it is proper to employ 
means to achieve one's ends like victory over the enemy and 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



445 



wearing coat of mail. It is also a sunnah. 



jUOl oljj) • ^ f J* J ^ ^ <J~* ^ 

(2059/108) Sayyidina Qays ibn Hazim reported that he had seen 
Talha's *i$k> hand had wilted. This was the hand with which he 
had protected the Prophet W> in the Battle of Uhud (from the 
enemy swords). (Saheeh Bukhari) 

Commentary: During the Battle of Uhud the archers of the enemy 
targeted the Prophet ia§l with their arrows. Sayyidina Talhah 
tried to protect him with his shield but he had his hand wounded 
and the shield dropped down from it. So, he used every limb of his 
body to protect the Prophet iH* from the onslaught of the arrows 
and did not allow even a single arrow to strike the Prophet W*. As a 
result, one of his hands became useless and his whole body had 
wounds over it. More than eighty wounds were counted over his 
body but Allah willed him to live and he also participated in almost 
all battles thereafter with the Prophet He continued to serve 
religion till the times of Sayyidina Uthman and martyrdom was 
his fate in the Battle of Jamal. 

It is worth observing about the narrator of this Hadith, Qays ibn 
Abu Hazim that, according to the strict terminology, he was not a 
Companion. He had embraced Islam in the Prophet's lifetime and 
undertook the journey to Madinah to swear allegiance at the hands 
of the Prophet isll but he reached there when the Prophet iH had 
departed from this world. Hence, though he is a tabi'ee yet his 
name is found with the Companions because he had journeyed 
to Madinah with the intention of meeting the Prophet iH* and 
swearing allegiance to him. It is as though the Prophet's ^ saying 
: '^u f.jA*i u;tj olJu JUp *i\ uj»" (Surely deeds are judged by the 
intention that prompt them and surely rewards will depend on 
intentions) applied ot him. 



Sayyidina Zubayr 



d* till {Ji \ JlS ui : ^jJl Jll <y1jPjfl f>l f jft j£i 



446 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 




(2060/109) Sayyidina Jabir «4p> reported that on the day of the 
Battle of Ahzab, the Prophet i§l said, "Who will bring me news 
from the enemy (army)?" Sayyidina Zubayr said, "I will!" So, 
the Prophet said, "Every Prophet has a hawari (sincere disciple) 



Commentary: The Battle of Ahzab (also called Khandaq) was 
fought in 5 AH. It is distinguished on certain accounts. The Qur'an 
describes it in two ruku' (sections), and the surah is also named 
after it. We write here in brief about it. 

The Quraysh, as we know, were staunch enemies of the 
Prophet Hi and Islam. They had resolved not to wage war against 
the Muslims any more after Uhud.. However, the Banu Nadeer 
(Jews) whom the Prophet isH had expelled and who had settled at 
Khayber continued to conspire against Islam. They schemed to 
instigate all Arab prominent tribes to join hands with them and 
attack the Muslims with full force to eliminate them. They sent 
their envoys to the Quraysh too and assured them that they would 
convince other tribes to join forces and that the Jews around 
Madinah (including Banu Qurayzah) would also fight the Muslims 
who would then not be able to resist and would be wiped out of 
existence. Having convinced the Quraysh, they persuaded the 
Ghatafan, Banu Asad, and other tribes to join the confederation, 
assuring them that the fertile lands would then be theirs. In this 
way, they prepared an army of ten thousand or twelve thousand 
men to attack Madinah. 

The Prophet isll consulted his Companions cjfe>. The Madman 
Muslims who could be expected to fight did not exceed three 
thousand. That was the Islamic force. They did not possess even 
one-tenth of necessities of life and materials of war that the 
enemies possessed. So, they decided to defend themselves from 
within Madinah. 

Salman Farsi ^k> suggested that trenches should be dug around 
Madinah's plains as was done in Iran where he belonged. Not men 
and not horses should be able to cross them. The Prophet iH and 
his Companions c$^> approved this proposal. Madinah was 
surrounded by mountains on three sides which were impassable so 



and mine is Zubayr. 



1 1 



(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



447 



that no enemy could infiltrate from there but the southern side was 
plain land and the enemy could invade from there. It was decided 
to dig trenches on this side, ten cubits deep and ten cubits wide. 
Teams often Muslims each began the work and, in spite of severe 
cold, they worked day and night very strenously. The length of the 
trench was about one and a half miles. 

The enemy advanced under the command of Abu Sufyan and 
encamped opposite the trenches. They had tents and provision in 
plenty. They stayed there for about a month but it was not possible 
for them to cross over the trenches. All the two sides did was shoot 
some arrows and, as a result, seven Companions 4fe> were martyred 
and four idolaters were consigned to Hell. The Qur'an has 
mentioned the severest test of the Muslims in this battle and their 
sacrifice but it has not treated any other Battle in the same way and 
as exhaustively. It says further down that Allah sent them His help 
and a violent storm uprooted the tents of the enemy, their cooking 
pots were upturned and some of their horses and camels broke 
loose and escaped. (Many of them might have considered it as a 
punishment and) their commander decided to call it a day and the 
mammoth army returned dejected. 

{And Allah Sufficeth for the Believers in fighting}(ul-Ahzab33:25) 
During the time the armies were poised against one another, the 
Prophet iS> asked for a volunteer to investigate the enemy's 
thinking. This was a very risky undertaking but Sayyidina Zubayr 
4fe was the first person to offer himself for the task for which the 
Prophet H> called him his hawari (disciple) as every Prophet ^ 
had one. Indeed, that is a great merit of Zubayr 

Among the ashrah mubash sharah, like Sayyidina Ali 4&>, he 
too was closely related to the Prophet iH, while Sayyidina Ali 4^0 
was his paternal uncle Abu Talib's son and, therefore, his cousin, 
Zubayr 4& was also the Prophet's iH cousin being the son of his 
paternal aunt, Sayyidah Safiyah daughter of Abdul 

Muttalib. 



448 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



> y . s , ss . J 3 s . J . ill m** . 

„ s V | ^ * ' ♦ \ > s X s M ' \ \ y ' i * ' *> t ' s X s * s ^ y > > . s s > ' \ ' 

o j^si\ OS y^i jsijj O^APj JS-i j**j j^i^J J* 

(2061/1 10) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^> reported that Allah's 
Messenger is§l was on Mount Hira with Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, 
Uthman, Talhah and Zubayr. The rock (on which they were) 
shook and Allah's Messenger said (to it), "Be still, for only a 
Prophet, a siddiq and a martyr are on you." (Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: This kind of miraculous events took place often as 
we have seen in some Ahadith previously. This time apart from the 
four Khalifahs, Sayyidina Talhah 4^ and Zubayr 0 were also with 
him — all of them being among the ten of glad tidings. The 
Prophet also referred to both of them as martyrs, and both were 
martyred in the Battle of Jamal. 

(2062/1 1 1) Sayyidina Ali 4fe> said, "My ears heard from the 
mouth of Allah's Messenger Talhah and Zubayr will be my 
neighbours in Paradise." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Ali used to mention the virtues of 
these two men very emphatically especially about their martyrdom 
and admittance to Paradise. He adopted a unique style in this 
Hadith "Jj£> ^ ^ J>^3 Jt j* ^ my ears heard 

the Prophet's icll mouth say. Obviously that was to emphasise the 
message the main reason for being that both of them were martyred 
although they had detached themselves from the Battle of Jamal by 
some men of Sayyidina Ali's army. 

This was a unique, unprecedented war both sides of which 
were unwilling to fight it. Both were aware of the merits of the 
other side and accepted that but some human devils, Abdullah ibn 
saba and his henchmen were successful in inciting both sides to 
war in the darkness of the night. This war was fought 
unintentionally and both sides were grieved thereafter and they 
regularly sought forgiveness of Allah after that and tried their best 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



449 



to make amends. 1 

Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf 4k> 

x y s s 

Jia ^Js3j dlod J&jf ^^Uii 

^ *U jib Utj cU^d^ UlS ^J&j J4r^j^ ^4* J> i^'fi 

(2063/112) Sayyidina Harith ibn Simmah Ansari 4^> said that 
on the day of Uhud when the Messenger lH of Allah was in the 
valley he asked him whether he had seen Abdur Rahman ibn 
Awf. He said, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah. I have seen him on 
the side of the dark rocks of the mountains. A party of the 
idolaters were fighting him and I intended to go to him and help 
him when I saw you and came to you." The Prophet III said, "It 
should be known that Allah's angels are fighting for him." 
Harith said that he then went back towards Abdur Rahman ibn 
Awf and saw that seven idolaters were lying dead near him and 
he said to him, "May your hands be successful. Did you kill all 
of them?" He said, "1 did kill this Artah ibn Abd Shurahbil and 
these two. As for the four, I did not see who killed them." So, he 
said, "Allah and His Messenger are True." (Ibn Mundah in 
Musnad, Tabarani in Mu'jam Kabeer, Abu Nu'aym in Hilyah.) 

Commentary: Knowledge of a little background of the Battle of 
Uhud is necessary to be able to understand this Hadith. 

The Battle of Badr was fought in Ramadan 2 AH. The Muslims 
fighters numbered only 313 and they had almost nothing in war 
equipment because they had not advanced from Madinah with 

O. See Sirat Khulafa'e Rashideen of Mawlana Abdul Shakoor Farooqi 
Lucknowi, (Chapter on Sayyidina Ali) 



450 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



intent to fight. So, whatever little they had at their disposal, they 
could not carry even that. The Makkan army was more than three 
times the Muslims number and had advanced with intention to 
fight fully equipped. In spite of that Allah gave the Muslims an 
overwhelming victory through unseen help. Seventy of the 
idolaters were killed and they included Abu Jahl and many other 
chiefs of Quraysh and seventy were arrested while the others fled 
from the battlefield. This result infuriated the common man in 
Makkah and they burned to seek vengeance. So, they armed 
themselves for a full year and in Shawwal 3 AH exactly a year after 
the Battle of Badr, three thousand men marched towards Madinah 
under Abu Sufyan to wipe out the Muslims. The Prophet Hi 
advanced from Madinah with seven hundred men and came upto 
Uhud about 214 miles away. They put the mountain behind them 
and stopped on the plain. There was a pass in the mountain where 
the Prophet m> stationed fifty archers to prevent enemy infiltration 
from it. Abdullah ibn Jubayr (the ace archer) was appointed 
their ameer with firm instructions to stay out at this spot. 

The Muslims attacked so severely with the word go that the 
enemy four times their number was compelled to flee. The warriors 
began to collect war booty and the archer also deserted their post to 
gather the booty. Their ameer, Abdullah ibn Jubayr 4<§& tried to stop 
them but they excused themselves saying that the Prophet's 0 
command was upto the battle and that was over. Abdullah ibn 
Jubayr and some others stood their ground. Khalid ibn Waleed 
who was not a Muslim till then brought some of his men from that 
pass and Abdullah ibn Jubayr and the few archers he had could 
not stop their onslaught and they were all martyred. Khalid ibn 
Walid attacked the unwary Muslims from the rear and they were 
taken unawares. Many Muslims panicked and could not fight and 
many top-ranked Companions were martyred. The Prophet ill was 
also injured badly. Then, suddenly, with the unseen help of Allah, 
the tables turned. The Companions c^> reassembled on learning that 
the Prophet iH was alive and routed the enemy. The Hadith under 
discussion concerns this stage of the battle. It seems that it was 
disclosed to the Prophet Hi by Allah that Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 

was fighting the idolaters and Allah's angels were helping him. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



451 



That is why he asked Harith ibn Simmah 4fe about him and told 
him that '<ui JjW&1££UJ» S\ ^ angels were fighting for him. So Harith 
4fe went to him and asked him if he had killed all the seven dead 
idolaters around him. He confirmed having killed three with Allah's 
help but did not know about the other four how they were there. 
Sayyidina Harith ibn Simmah exclaimed, " '^^jilli JU?" 
(Allah and His Messenger have spoken the Truth) meaning, "I have 
seen with my eyes that the angels fought on Abdur Rahman's side 
as the Prophet $jl said and my faith is now strengthened." 

The Hadith brings out the merit of Sayyidina Abdur Rahman 
ibn Awf who fought the idolaters with determination even in 
difficult times and Allah's angels helped him. And, what the 
Prophet Hi disclosed about him was the Prophet's icll miracle. 

\ > * y 3 , 3) & ». * 9 y (S "T 3 'Is .»* 3> ' 3 y 3 , y 3 . 3 y , 

y y ' y 

3 • s*y .4 3 , -* y m 

t y 3 3 3 y y . » t 3 3 ♦ y 3y*y.yyy3 . j 3 t i I 3 y y 3 

• 4* 0^ ^rj J, ^frj jij^j i£^\ ^ f jd 
(jf jjIj ^ y dijj) 

(2064/113) Ibrahim ibn Sa'd (a Tabi'ee) said: I have learnt that 
in the Battle of Uhud Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4^b received 
twenty-one wounds (from swords and arrows). He was injured 
in the foot too and walked with a limp. (Abu Nu'aym. Ibn Asakir) 

Commentary: The Prophet 0 was badly injured in the Battle of 
Uhud. Indeed, those people have attained a high rank who were 
wounded in this battle or martyred. Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4fe 
was one of them. 

£ 1 [J y . yy y y y y y y yy . «* 

(2065/1 14) Sayyidina Mughirah ibn Shu'bah 4^ said that he 
accompanied the Prophet iH in a journey. He brought water that 
the Prophet may make ablution during which he wiped the 
socks (he was wearing — that is, made rnasah). Then he joined 
the congregational salah. Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4^ was 



452 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



leading the salah and on seeing the Prophet ill thought of 
moving back into the congregation (that the Prophet Hi may 
lead the congregation) but he indicated to him that he should 
carry on. (Mughirah 4§& said:) "We prayed behind Abdur 
Rahman ibn Awf whatever portion we could get and the 
remaining salah we offered ourselves." (Mukhtarah, Diya Maqdisi) 

Commentary: This Hadith has narrated the event very briefly. 
Another Hadith — also related by Mughirah — is transmitted by 
Kanz ul-ummal on the authority of sunan Sa'eed ibn Mansoor. The 
gist of it is: 

Someone asked Mughirah ibn Shu'bah if the Prophet iH 
had followed anyone in salah besides Abu Bakr 4^>. So, he related: 
We were together with the Prophet $§1 in a journey. When the time 
of dawn approached, he got up and I followed him and we parted 
from the others till they were very far. Then he left me and went till 
I could not see him. He came back after having relieved himself 
and asked me if I had water and I said, "Yes, I have it." I took 
water from my water-skin that was hanging from the saddle of my 
riding beast and brought it to him. He washed both hands 
thoroughly, while I poured water over them. Then he washed his 
face and arms (up to the elbows), wiped his head and wiped the 
socks too. Then we mounted our beasts and returned. The 
congregational salah had begun with Abdur Rahman ibn Awf as 
the imam. He was in the second rak f ah and I was about to tell him 
(that the Prophet $k was here) but he forbade me and we offered 
the second raka'ah behind Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, and the first, 
which had been offered before we had come, we both offered 
thereafter. 

It is clarified in another version that when it was getting very 
late (and they did not know where the Prophet ^ had gone) they 
decided by consultation to offer the salah and appointed Abdur 
Rahman ibn Awf as their imam. Then, the Prophet iH came when 
the second raka'ah was in progress and Mughirah joined the 
congregation behind Abdur Rahman ibn Awf whereafter they 
completed their salah. 

Thus, Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Awf had the honour of 
leading a congregation in which the Prophet $jl followed him. He 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



453 



wished to move back but the Prophet m backoned him to carry on. 



;i/ Jh, i ii, % 3 y s % 3 / 



aU\ J~e> aU\ Jj-*5 :dJls 'UJUj »i j£ (\ . *n/u o) 

^ s 9 3 s * s 3 * 3 s 3 3 6 s 3 s 3 

(2066/1 15) Sayyidah Umm Salamah if^^^j said that she 
heard Allah's Messenger iSl say to his wives: He who helps you 
generously after my death is a sincere believer and a kind man. 
O Allah! Let Abdur Rahman drink from the salsabeel of 
Paradise. (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: Salsabeel is a pure and clean spring in Paradise. 
The Qur'an says in verse 18 of surah ad-Dahr: 

* 3 s * s li s * *> 3* * 3 s 

(^A:V1 yfeJdl) ^L^JL* J Ifrj tuP 

{A fountain therein named Salsabeel}. 

The Prophet had already said that the Prophet's do not leave 
behind a legacy for their and whatever they left behind was given 
away in charity for the sake of Allah, so his wives could have a 
concern for themselves on how they would subsist after he had 
gone. Therefore, he comforted them that Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 
$b would help them generously. This was again his miracle. There 
is a Hadith in Tirmizi that Sayyidah Ayshah \#s> ibi said to Abu 
Salamah the son of Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4^, "May 
Allah give your father drink from Salsabeel (a spring) in Paradise." 
Abdur Rahman ibn Awf had donated to the Prophet's iH wives a 
garden which was later sold for forty thousand, but another version 
puts the figure at four hundred thousand. The commentators have 
reconciled the two versions by suggesting that the sale proceeds 
were forty thousand dinars or four hundred thousand dirham. (This 
was the ratio of these currencies in the Prophet's times. 

s s % ^ . s 3 6s* 3 |f. 3 s 3 , 3 6 f . 3 s 3 s . 

s s s s s 

J* $ jiii : j> j, fa. ^ \ i if 



454 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(2067/116) Abdur Rahman ibn Abdullah ibn Majma' ibn 
Harithah 4&> reported that Sayyidina Umar 4^0 asked Umm 
Kulthum bint (daughter of) Aqabah and wife of Abdur Rahman 
ibn Awf *$k> 9 "Is it true that the Prophet had said to you that 
you should marry Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4fe who is Sayyid 
ul-Muslimeen (Chief of the Muslims)?" She said,"Yes!" 

(Musnad Ibn Mundah, Tareekh Ibn Asakir) ' 

Commentary: The Prophet 10 called Sayyidina Abdur Rahman 
ibn Awf Sayyid ul-Muslimeen. Indeed, that is his excellence of 
a very high degree. 

Sa ? d Ibn Abu Waqqas 4fe 

(fi— J jl*J» «i Jj) ^ j ^ lift 

(2068/1 17) Sayyidina Ali 4fe said that he never heard the 
Prophet name his parents together except for Sa'd ibn 
Maalik (which refers to Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas). At the Battle 
of Uhud he said to Sa'd. "^Jj ^ $ Ai^U" "O Sa'd! my father 
and my mother be your ransom, shoot the arrows!" 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: By saying Sa'd ibn Maalim, Sayyidina Ali 4^ refers 
to Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas. Sa'd's father was Maalik whose kunyah 
was Abu Waqqas. 

We have read about the Battle of Uhud in the account of 
Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4^>. Among those who were 
steadfast, Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas was an adept archer and he was 
near the Prophet Hi and he said to him what we have read in the 
Hadith. Besides showing him encouragement, the Prophet ill also 
expressed thereby his extreme pleasure. Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Abu 
Waqqas 4sk> is quoted in Sharah as-Sunnah as saying that the 
Prophet Hi prayed for him d^j '^j $1*' (O Allah, let 

his archery be strong and approve his supplication). 

Jami' Tirmizi has a tradition by Sa'd ascribing this prayer to the 
Prophet "Lfoi lij jJLJ ^jJi" (O Allah! Answer his prayer 
whenever Sa'd makes one to You). Thus, generally his prayer were 



tsook of Virtues And Excellence 455 

answered and people requested him to pray for them and feared his 
curse. 

*0s> Jill JL> Jjt jf* *^)* Cf 0 O % \ A ) 

(2069/118) Sayyidah Ayshah i^iai^j reported that when 

Allah's Messenger came to Madinah (after a battle), he could 

not sleep one night (perhaps fearing somethnig). He said, 

"Would that a brave man came in to guard!" They heard at the 

same time sound of weapons and the Prophet iil asked, "Who 

is that?" and Sa'd replied that he was there. The Prophet iH? 

asked, "Why are you here at this time?" He said, "I sensed fear 

for you (lest an enemy may hurt you) so I came to guard you." 

The Prophet then prayed for him and slept peacefully. 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim). 

Commentary: When anyone develops a love for another for the 
sake of Allah then it happens that the condition of his love's heart 
reflects on him. The case of Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Waqqas 4fe is an 
example. The Prophet iH had become restless and hoped for a 
guard to stand for him and Sa'd's 4^ heart received that reflection. 
Indeed, his love of the Prophet Hi for Allah's sake was a great 
blessing of Allah on him and a great excellence. 



6 

S 3 . S 3 * 3 S 9 9 S ».*♦ ■ * 9 9 9 — 9 S m 

s . 9 s s% i y 9 % . 9 9 

S 3 3 3 .S S if. j > / 9 * 3 S ( S ' "\\ " I t * I I 3 

3 * <t 4. s * ' 3 % * ^ "* s ' s s s s 3" s J ^ ^ 3 9s 

jj^j jj jli c^l *JdU 'aIu siJji ur ^id 5ir 

(2070/1 19) Qays ibn Abu Hazim said that he heard Sa'd ibn Abu 



456 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Waqqas say. "I was the first man among the Arabs to shoot 
an arrow in Allah's path (against Islam's enemies). I saw myself 
and my friends the other Companions that we took part in jihad 
with Allah's Messenger ill (against enemies of Islam) while we 
had nothing to eat except the fruit and leaves of mimosa and 
(because of this diet) we passed stool like sheep's in small 
pieces (very dry). And, now, the Banu Asad reprove me about 
Islam and I feel a loser and hopeless and all my deeds seem 
fruitless." (The fact was that) the members of Banu Isra'il had 
complained to Sayyidina Umar that Sa'd did not perform salah 
properly. (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Umar 4^> as Khalifah had appointed 
Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas as governor of Kufah which 
made him responsible . to lead the men in salah, too. Sayyidina 
Zubayr ibn Awwam's grandfather was Asad. Hence, all his clan 
was known as Banu Asad. Some of them complained to Sayyidina 
Umar 4^> that Sa'd 4^> did not offer prayers properly. He wrote to 
him that he had received a complaint about him and he naturally 
felt bad about it. The words he spoke are found in the Hadith. He 
recollected that he was the first archer for Islam in the first year of 
hijrah when the Prophet had sent him with a party to fight 
jihad. He also recollected how he and other Companions lacked 
provision fit for human beings yet were steadfast in jihad. He then 
lamented that if the complaint against him was genuine then he 
was absolutely a failure losing his past deeds. 

Salah is the first and basic essential of faith. So, Sa'd 
regarded the complaint that he did not perform prayers properly as 
improper observance of Islam. Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas 
sent a reply to the Khalifah that he observed salah exactly as he had 
seen the Prophet observe it and Sayyidina Umar confirmed 
to him that he had a similar impression about him but had informed 
him of the complaint as a matter of protocol, and he rejected the 
complaint of Banu Asad. 

We learn from this Hadith that it is proper for a man, if he finds 
it necessary, to recall his efforts for Islam. This is not arrogance 
and egoism which are disallowed. 

We mention some things about Sayyidina Sa'd 4S§£> which are 
found in authentic Ahadith in different ways. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 457 

He disclosed it on his own that he was the third person to 
accept the Prophet's call to Islam. He was a young man of only 
seventeen summers. His mother applied extreme pressure on him 
that he should not relinquish the religion of his forefathers. When 
he did not obey her, she vowed not to eat or drink anything unless 
he submitted to her. She did not take anything for many days and 
fainted three times, meanwhile. But, while Sayyidina Sa'd tried 
to reconcile her, he was not prepared to forsake Islam. According 
to a report in Saheeh Muslim, this verse was revealed on the 
occasion: 

{but if they strive (to compel) you to associate with Me that of 
which you have no knowledge, then obey them not, yet keep 
honourable company with them in this world.} (Luqman, 31:15) 
(part of it is also in al-Ankaboot verse 8) 

It is also known about him that he had sworn allegiance to 
Sayyidina Ali after the martyrdom of Sayyidina Uthman but 
when a civil strife took place because of the innocent martyrdom of 
Sayyidina Uthman 4^, he resolved to keep himself away from that. 
When Sayyidina Ali 4§£>, or his men, tried to win him over to their 
side, he said, "Get me a sword that will kill a disbeliever but be 
ineffective on a Believer." Further, not only did he keep himself 
aloof from the in-fighting but he also went away from Madinah to 
Wadi Aqeeq where he built his home on his land and took his 
family there so that he would also not receive news of the fighting. 

Iraq and all of Faris (Iran) was conquered under his command. 

He died in 55 AH in the times of Sayyidina Mu'awiyah at his 
house in Wadi Aqeeq and his body was brought to Jannat ul-Baqee f 
in Madinah for burial. He was the last of the 'ten with glad tidings 1 
to die. «u>jij <up -fin 

Sa'eed Ibn Zayd 4e> 



458 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



i/„ s s , ✓ „,(•✓, ^ s & s s s 

ail Jj~.j cju j^j : ^^-fijl JiJ^jl ^ VI lJUp J~J 

(2071/120) Sayyidina Sa'eed ibn Zayd ibn Amr ibn Nufayl ^> 
said, "I give testimony for nine people that they will go to 
Paradise and if I give the same testimony about a tenth man that 
he will be admitted to Paradise then I will not be a sinner." He 
was asked how was that and on what basis he said that. So, 
Sa'eed said, "We were on the mountain Hira with the Prophet 
Hi (and it shook). The Prophet ill said to it that it should still 
down for there was on it eitht a Prophet or a Siddiq (truthful 
one) or a martyr." He was then asked who were there with him 
and he said, "(Besides) the Prophet UK Abu Bakr, Umar, 
Uthman, Ali, Talhah, Zubayr and Sa'd (Ibn Abu Waqqas) and 
Abdur Rahman ibn Awf." He was asked who the tenth man was, 
and he said, "I myself." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: We have read the Hadith that names the ten who 
were given the glad tidings (ashrah mubash sharah). While the nine 
names are common to that Hadith and this one, the tenth in the 
former is Sayyidina Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah 4&>. I suppose that 
Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah was not present at the Mount Hira. 

The other difference is that in the earlier Hadith narrated by 
Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4fe the Prophet ft named the ten men and 
said that they would go to Paradise but in this Hadith he did not 
call any name and said nothing apart from, "O Hira, be still! At the 
moment a Prophet, a Siddiq and a martyr are over you." The rest is 
the statement of Sayyidina Sa'eed 4S§£> that there were nine 
Companions with the Prophet 4^ at that time and he named them. 
He was confident on the basis of the Prophet's sayings that, indeed, 
all of them would go to Paradise and so bore testimony for that 
because there is no doubt that a Prophet, a siddiq and a martyr 
would be admitted to Paradise, Of course, the Prophet iil was 
there, Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^£> was a siddiq — in fact a great 
siddiq, Sayyidina Umar Uthman Ali 4^>, Talhah 4&>, 
Zubayr 4^ — five of them — were martyrs, while the remaining 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



459 



Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 4^, Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas ^ 
and Sa'eed ibn Zayd ^ were also siddiq (the truthful ones). 

As for Sayyidina Sa'eed ibn Zayd we know his position 
from a Hadith in this very series in the Kitab al-Mu'amlaat 
concerning usurption. One of its narrators was Sayyidina Sa'eed 
ibn Zayd himself. It would not be incongruous if we reproduce it 
here: 

{A woman (named Arwa) filed a petition in the times of 
Sayyidina MiTawiyah *5§£> before Sayyidina Marwan, the 
governor of Madinah, against this very Sa'eed ibn Zayd that he 
had usurped some of her land. Sayyidina Sa'eed ibn Zayd 4& 
was much grieved at the false accusation. He said to Marwan: 



"Will I take away the land of this woman? I bear witness that I 
have heard the Messenger of Allah say: If anyone takes a span 
of land wrongfully it will be tied round him like a necklace to a 
depth of seven earths." 

Sayyidina Sa'eed 4S§£> related this Hadith with such a sincere 

heart and in such a way that Marwan was deeply impressed and 

said, "I no more ask you for an evidence or proof." Then 

Sayyidina Sa'eed 4^ made a supplication (with a pained heart) 

against the woman, "O Allah, if this woman has accused me 

falsely then deprive her of the sight of her eyes and let her land 

be the site of her grave." (Sayyidina Urwah the narrator said:) 

Then this prayer did materialise and I saw the woman with my 

own eyes she turned blind in her old age and used to say that 

Sa'eed's curse fell on her. One day as she was walking on her 

land she fell into a ditch and died, that became her grave."} 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

May Allah cause us to learn from this incident. 

Abu Ubaydah Ibn Jarrah 4k> 



460 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



(2072/121) Sayyidina Anas 4p> reported that Allah's Messenger 
ia§l said, "Every ummah has an ameen (a true worthy man) and 
the ameen of my ummah is Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah *fe>." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: We have explained earlier in this book that the 
word amanat is used in the Qur'an and Ahadith in a wide sense. It 
is to discharge faithfully the responsibilites on oneself regarding 
right of Allah and fellow-creatures. 

This Hadith tells us that Allah had distinguished Sayyidina Abu 
Ubaydah 4fe in this character. 

iih jU> A Jj-^j S J\ ttjv J*' J 1 * <S* (Y • vr/u Y> 

(2073/122) Sayyidina Huzayfah ibn al-Yamaan said that the 
people of Najran came to Allah's Messenger ^ and requested 
him to appoint an ameen over them and send him to them. He 
said, "I will appoint an ameen who is genuinely trustworthy." 
The people looked expectantly to be appointed but he 
(appointed and) sent Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah, to Najran. 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Najran was a place between Yaman and Shaam and 
the Hijaz. The central city was called Najran. It was overtaken in 
10 AH. Majority of its people were Christians and it was a centre 
of Christianity. At their request for a trustworthy person, the 
Prophet sent Sayyidina Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah as their 
ruler and governor. This Hadith is also found in Kanz ul-Ummal on 
the authority of Musnad Ahmad and a number of other books. 
According to these books, the Prophet ^ replied to their request 
CLa fc&^fc ti*i c&T that he would send to 
them a trustworthy man and repeated the words "J^s 14*1" three 
times (trustworthy man, genuinely trustworthy). This obviously 
amplified his character as ameen. 

: j^S c g# dill fj&tail jJ UUxli iLj dp rill jU «dJl 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



461 



* 9 » S 9s S 9 J |.« „ * * S9s 9 S "i»t * ' * £ (,J o » i < * J ^ 

jjdU^P^i :cJl3 ?^p^j^ : J4?^ :cJl5 ^ 

(2074/123) Ibn Abu Mulaykah said that he heard that Sayyidah 

Ayshah i^&^j was asked, "If Allah's Messenger had 

appointed a Khalifah after him then whom would he have 

named?" She said, "Abu Bakr." She was asked, "Who next?" 

She said, "Umar". She was then asked whom would he have 

appointed after him, and she said, "Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah." 

(Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Certainly, Sayyidah Ayshah ^ knew the 

Prophet's iH mind more than anyone else. She came to this 
conclusion on seeing the Prophet's HB> dealing with her father, with 
Sayyidina Umar 4^ and with Sayyidina Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah 
4^>. In fact, he had declared his choice of Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ 
and we have seen a Hadith in the section on his illness and death 
that he asked for Sayyidina Abu Bakr <*§h and his son Abdur 
Rahman 4& to be invited so that he may dictate his instructions on 
the Khalifah (his successor). But soon he did not think that 
necessary, saying, "Allah and the Believers will not accept anyone 
but Abu Bakr." Then her opinion about Sayyidina Umar as the 
second caliph also was proved correct. 

The following event is recorded in Kanz ul-Ummal on the 
authority of Musnad Ahmad and Ibn Jarir and others. After Shaam 
was overrun by the Muslims, Sayyidina Umar ^ set on a visit to 
it. On the way, at Sargh, he was told that the place was overtaken 
by pestilence and people were dying in large numbers. They tried 
to disuade him from going to Shaam but he did not listen to them 

and said: 

"If my time has come and Abu 
Ubaydah survives me then I 
will appoint him Khalifah after 
me. And if Allah asks me why 
did you appoint Abu Ubaydah 
Khalifah of the ummah of 
Muhammad, I will submit that I 
had heard Allah's Messenger 
say: every Prophet has an 



* > 9 s 9 y 9 jj it s \ 



462 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



ameen and my ameen is Abu l'££y\ ^Ulj \LA {J 
Ubaydah." " ' y / " 

(Kanzul-Ummal, vl3 p215) .H jil 

However, Allah had decreed that Sayyidina Umar 4^ should 
return from the journey sound and healthy but Sayyidina Abu 
Ubaydah should fall fictim to plague and die: 

( r A:rr ^ ^ ".ijjJLaS ijil -UJi >i jiff)" 

{And the commandment of Allah is a decree, decreed 
absolutely. } (al-Ahzab, 33:38) 

In a version in Kanz ul-Ummal, Sayyidina Umar $k> is reported 

to have said: 

"If I had Abu Ubaydah, I would 

have nominated him Khalifah ^\ jJl oillplJi cSj*\ jJ 
after me, and I would not have { , * *'.x">^ 
consulted anyone. If I was u - JJ J 
asked about it then I would cjjJcL^ \ :cJi ciii 
have said that I had nominated 9 s ^ ^ ^ * 

one who was ameen in the {ij^J <3*£'j <3rf' 

sight of Allah and His 
Messenger." 

It seems that he spoke in this way after he was wounded by 
Abu Lu Lu Majoosi and had no hope to survive. But Allah knows 
best. 

In short, these sayings of Sayyidina Umar 4^> confirm the 
opinion of Sayyidah Ayshah i^pAi^j about the Khilafat 
(caliphate). Indeed, Abu Ubaydah enjoyed a high station. 



EXCELLENCE OF THE PEOPLE 
OF THE PROPHET'S HOUSE 
(His Wives & Children) 



It is a fact, and there is no doubt in it, that the word c~Ji J^t (ahl 
ul-bayt, people of the house) is used in the Qur'an for the Prophet's 
Hi wives. In the fourth ruku' (section) of surah al-Ahzab the 
words, after the Prophet's wives are given instructions, are: 

{Allah only desires to take away from you all abomination, O 
people of the Household (of Muhammad), and to purify you 
with a thorough purifying.} (33:33) 

Even one with an elementary knowledge of Arabic will 
conclude on reading this ruku' of surah al-Ahzab that the word ahl 
ul-bayt is used only for the wives of the Prophet and he will 
have no doubt about it. However, it is very surprising that we 
Muslims who believe in the Qur'an do not think of his wives in the 
least on hearing this word but we picture his daughter, Sayyidah 
Fatimah ^^^j, her husband, Sayyidina Ali 4fe and the 
offspring of both of them. 

This word {ahl ul-bayi) is found, besides surah al-Ahzab, in the 
sixth ruku' of surah Hud. The background is that Sayyidina 
Ibrahim was past the age when he could father children and 
he had no child, but a group of angels sent by Allah gave him and 
his wife Sayyidah Sarah f%J\ I^JLp, glad tidings of a son. Sayyidah 
Sarah said in surprise: 

( Y Y : \ "1*4* »k JJJ** W j All! " 

{Shall I said I bear a child when I am an old woman, and this 
my husband is an old man?} (1 1 :72) 



464 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

The angels replied: 

(Vr: ^ ^jA) 

{What, do you wonder at Allah's command? The mercy of Allah 
and His blessings be upon you, O (people of the household) 
ahl-ul-baytl Surely, He is Praiseworthy, Glorious} (1 1 :73) 

Obviously, Sayyidah Sarah, the wife of Sayyidina Ibrahim is 
addressed here. 

One who is aware of the Arabic idiom knows that the first 
person in the scope of anyone's ahl ul-bayt (people of the house) is 
a man's wife. We do not use ahl ul-bayt (people of the house-hold) 
for a mother, sister, daughters and their children — not even in 
Persian (ahle Khanah) or Urdu {gharwalon). In short, there is no 
possibility of doubt that the word ahl ul-bayt (people of the 
household) is used in the Qur'an for the Prophet's iH wives &i 
jf* and they are the first people covered by its implication. 
However, it is proved in the Ahadith that when the foregoing verse 
of al-Ahzab was revealed: 

the Prophet took his daughter, Sayyidah Fatimah i^p & 
both her sons Sayyidina Hasan 4§£> and Sayyidina Husayn 4£> ? and 
her husband — his own paternal cousin — into a blanket and made 
this supplication: (U^j 4*?^ J* J*» (O 

Allah, these too are my ahl ul-bayt, purify them a thorough 
purifying). Without doubt, his prayer was granted. These people 
were then included in the choicest blessings of Allah mentioned in 
the verse of Al-Ahzab on the Prophet's wives as ahl-ul-bayt, and 
they were also included in the application of the word ahl ul-bayt, 
itself. On this basis, these people too are included in the word ahl 
ul-bayt. However, this word is used in the Qur'an only for the 
Prophet's wives, and they alone are the first in its scope. 

Nevertheless, it is neither linguistically correct nor known from 
the Qur'an to exclude the Prophet's ill wives <&i from the 
application of ahl ul-bayt (people of the household) or to include 
only his one daughter, one son-in-law and two grandsons. Rahter, 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



465 



the conspiracy of the artists of a sect has let this wrong meaning to 
be commonly accepted by the ummah (as correct). Like many other 
wrong beliefs this wrong meaning has gained general acceptance. 
The position is that even the educated among us do not include the 
Prophet's &b wives in the word ahl nl-bayt although according to 
the Qur'an they are the first within its scope of meaning. 

With the intention to give currency to the correct meaning of 
ahl ul-bayt, I have decided to write down the virtues of the wives of 
the Prophet H^fe and his offspring under the caption ahl hayt an 
nahawi (the people of the Prophet's household).. jUsJLil^j jijj^ a1J\j 

The Pure Wives 

We learn from authentic reports of Hadith and seerah that the 
wives of the Prophet H — that is, those who had marriage ties 
with him for a little or long period — were eleven in number. Their 
names are: 



1. Sayyidah Khadijah if*<& 

2. Sayyidah Sawdah if*<5i 

3. Sayyidah Ayshah if* A 

4. Sayyidah Hafsah if**» 

5. Sayyidah Zay nab if**» 

6. Sayyidah Umm Salamah if* A 

7. Sayyidah Zaynab if**» 

8. Sayyidah Umm Habibah if* A 

9. Sayyidah Juwayriyah lf*<3i 
10. Sayyidah Safiyah if*A» 



bint Khuwaylid. 
bintZam'ah. 
^ j bint Abu Bakr. 
bint Umar. 
bint Khuzaymah. 

bint Jahsh. 

bint al-Harith. 
bintHuyayy. 



1 1 . Sayyidah Maymunah if* & 
Sayyidah Khadijah if* fa and Sayidah Zynab if* fa bint 
Khuzaymah died during the Prophet's lifetime. Apart from these 
eleven, some reports suggest that he also married Rayhanah bint 
Sham'oon of the Banu Qurayzah. She was among the cpatives 
when the Prophet ill crushed the rebellion of the Jews of Banu 
Qurayzah and she had accepted Islam. She was set free and the 
Prophet lH married her. Some other reports, however, maintain 
that she was the Prophet's iH maid-slave, and she died a few days 
before the Prophet's iH death, or — according to another report — 
fter the Hajjat ul-Wada\ 



466 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



The Honour of Being Prophet's Wife 

Indeed, by itself it is an excellence for them who were the 
Prophet's iH wives and the greatest of Allah's blessings. This was 
available to all his wives equally in spite of differences in their 
social status, just as the commands of Allah for them were equally 
applicable to them. The Qur'an has said about them '^330" 
(and his wives are their mothers) and thus distinguished them as 
mothers of all Believers. Thus it is unlawful for every member of 
the Prophet's Hi ummah to marry anyone of them after his death in 
the same way as it is unlawful for one to marry one's real mother. I 
will now write down, Insha Allah, necessary introduction and 
details and merits of each one of them, how they came into 
marriage with the Prophet ill, and a short biography till death. The 
doubts that devilish minds create in this regard about the many 
wives will also be set at rest, Insha Allah, on reading these 
accounts. 

Sayyidah Khadijah \#*&\ 

She was the first fortunate woman to be taken as a wife by the 
Prophet iH. Her father was a rich and respectable trader of 
Makkah. He was Khuwaylid ibn Asad. She had been married to 
Abu Halah Tamimi and she had two sons (halah and Hind) from 
him. When Abu Halah died, she married Ateeq ibn Aabid 
Makhzumi and had a daughter from him. Ateeq also died soon. Her 
father, Khuwaylid, died when she was about 36 years old and she 
was thus burdened with commercial responsibilities. In Makkah, 
the trading community also appointed their managers on 
profit-sharing basis (which is known as mudaribat). So, she also 
resorted to this method. 

The Prophet's HH integrity and honesty was well-known in 
Makkah and he was called al-ameen, the trustworthy. Hence, 
Sayyidah Khadijah iiii proposed to place him in the care of 
her merchandise being sent to Shaam at double the share given to 
others. He consulted his paternal uncle, Abu Talib, and accepted 
the offer. She also sent with him her slave, Maysarah. Allah 
blessed the earnings from the trade journey and the Prophet 
brought back profit equal to twice the normal earnings. Besides, 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



467 



Maysarah commended his good manners and related to her the 
extraordinary charismas he had witnessed at the Prophet's iall 
hands, or for him. 

Marriage 

Sayyidah Khadijah was a wealthy woman, beautiful, 
well-mannered, generous and chaste. That is why she was known 
as Tahirah. Many nobles of Quraysh proposed marriage, but she 
had decided to live the rest of her life by herself However, she was 
impressed by Maysarah's report about the Prophet ill and wished 
to marry him. She confided with one Nafisah bint Umayyah whose 
account of the proposal is: I asked the Prophet m why he did not 
marry anyone and he said that he was not well-off to be able to 
begin a married life. I asked him what he would say if a rich 
beautiful woman willing to support him proposed marriage with 
him. When he asked who that could be, I told him about Khadijah. 
He got his uncle Abu Talib's permission and accepted the proposal. 
Then I brought them together to discuss the proposal. After that the 
elders of the two sides met and the marriage was finalised at 
Khadija's house. The Prophet had come with Abu Talib and 
Hamzah and other elders while her uncle Amr ibn Asad acted as 
attorney for her. He was twenty-five years old and Khadijah was 
forty years old. This was the Prophet's iH first marriage, performed 
about fifteen years before Prophethood. 

Children 

A son was born to them (five years later, according to a source) 
and he was named Qasim. This also gave the Prophet the Kunyah 
Abul Qasim. But, Qasim died in infancy. Then Zaynab was born. 
Both these children were born before Prophethood. Abdullah was 
their next son born after Prophethood was bestowed on him and, 
therefore, he is also known as Tayyib and Tahir but he too died in 
infancy. Three daughters were born after him, Ruqayyah Umm 
Kulthoom and Fatimah. We will read more about the four 
daughters under the caption of the Prophet's children. 



468 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

Characteristics of Sayyidah Khadijah if* &\ ^ j 

The Quraysh and, in fact, all Makkans generally were 
idol-worshipper. They were not prepared to hear anything against 

idol-worship but, in that period of Ignorance, there were a handful 

> 

of people who detested idol-worship. Sayyidah Khadijah ifpAi^j 
was one of them. She was the only woman who stayed away from 
idol-worship. 

Allah had blessed her with abundant wealth which she placed at 
the Prophet's iH disposal setting him at rest on this account. This is 
what the verse 8 of surah ad-Duha of the Quran refers to 

(A: i r ^waJi) J^fi %\* i-fjJrjj 

{And He found you destitute, so He enriched (you)} 

Also, she had a slave Zayd ibn Harithah who was attached to the 
Prophet iH who, in turn, showed him much compassion. So, she 
handed over Zayd to her husband. He set him at liberty and, 
according to Arab custom of the times adopted him as a son so that 
he came to be called Zayd ibn Muhammad. 

When fifteen years after the marriage Prophethood was 
bestowed on him, and he underwent extraordinary feelings, 
Sayyidah Khadijah if* &\ lent him full support. She comforted 
him and she also took him to her cousin Waraqah ibn Nawfal who 
was a true monotheist Christian and a scholar of Torah and Injeel 
and who confirmed to the Prophet Hi that he indeed was a Prophet 
of Allah. Sayyidah Khadijah accepted what he said and her 
experience of fifteen years with the Prophet $ffe left her in no doubt 
about him. 

Then, when at the command of Allah he invited people to Islam 
and they showed hostility to him, Sayyidah Khadijah if* not 
only sympathised with and comforted him but also shared with him 
his difficulties. When the cruel Makkans restricted the Prophet 
and the Banu Hashim, whether they were believers or not, within 
Sha'b Abu Talib and denied them provision, she stayed with him 
although she could have lived in the comfort of her home. 

Sayyidah Khadijah lived with the Prophet Hi for twenty five 
years as his wife. During this time, the Prophet iH did not take a 
second wife. She died in the tenth year of Prophethood, about three 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



469 



years before hijrah, in Ramadan at the age of 65. 

Salah was not prescribed till then and the salah of funeral too 
was not observed. The Prophet ^ lowered her in the grave. 

Her Excellences 

pLj ^ & JL> ^Jl fer 'J : ^ j£ (T • Vol \ Y t ) 

(2075/124) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fe reported that Jibreel 

came to the Propeht &§l and said, "O Messenger of Allah! 

This is Khadijah (coming here). She has brought a vessel 

containing condiments and food. When she is here, give her 

salaam from her Lord and from me, and convey to her glad 

tidings that in Paradise she will have a house of brilliant pearls 

and there will be no clamour and noise and no toil and labour." 

(Saheeh Bukhari. Sahceh Muslim) 

Commentary: The Hadith does not tell us where it was that 
Sayyidina Jibreel 9K3 came and when. 

Ibn Hajar has suggested on the basis of a version of Tabarani 
that the arrival of Jibreel referred to here followed his first 
arrival at the cave in Hira mentioned by us in Kitab al-Manaqib. 
under begining of revelation. We also learn from this that the 
Prophet's seculsion in the cave in Hira had not come to an end alter 
that first meeting and after the Prophethood. Also, it is beyond 
comprehension that the Prophet should suddenly give up the 
practice of seclusion to which he was accustomed for a long period 
and during which he worshipped Allah, the place where the carrier 
of wahy, Jibreel )#M^ had brought Allah's words. It was during one 
of these visits of Prophet §gl to the cave that Jibreel came and 
informed him that Sayyidah Khadijah \#s> A\ was bringing him 
his provision and asked him to convey to her greeting from her 
Lord and from himself. He also told him about her house in 
Paradise. 

So, we learn of three merits of Sayyidah Khadijah 1$* &\ 



470 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



from this Hadith. 

1 . She was a respectable, rich old woman yet she did not mind 
preparing food for the Prophet ill and carrying it to him at the cave 
Hira which was about three miles from Makkah and it was a 
toilsome climb up to it that would tax even a strong man. (I have 
had a personal experience too of climbing over it.) 

2. She was given salaam from her Lord and from Jibreel 

3. She was told of a house in Paradise which is made of pearls 
and there is no commotion or toil in it. This is unlike houses in the 
world where there is much noise and one has to toil much. 

\ * > ^ 

Ji Ul jt y S S > 



(2076/125) Sayyidina Ali 4& said that he heard Allah's 
Messenger III say, 'The best woman among the women of this 
(world) is Maryam bint Imran and the best woman among the 
women of this (world) is Khadijah bint Khuwaylid." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The impression we get from the Hadith that the 
best of all the women in this world, are Sayyidah Maryam i^JLp 
bint Imran, mother of Sayyidina Isa and Sayyidah Khadijah 
i£* iwi bint Khuwaylid. In that case, both are placed at the same 
rank. Some exponents hold that Sayyidah Maryam f*>LJi i$Jt* was 
the best among women of the earlier ummah while Sayyidah 
Khadijah is the best among women of the Prophet's ill ummah, 
and because his ummah is the best of all ummah, Sayyidah 
Khadijah is the best of all women of all times. But Allah knows 
best. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



471 



(2077/126) Sayyidah Ayshah ifpii^j said, "I was not jealous 

of any of the Prophet's wives as I was of Khadijah if* 

although I had never seen her. The Prophet ic§l remembered her 

much and mentioned her frequently. Sometimes he would 

slaughter sheep, cut into pieces and send them to Khadijah's 

friends. I would say sometimes, There is only the woman 

Khadijah in this world', and he would say, 'She was like this and 

like this, and my children were born to her." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Of the excellent manners of the Prophet ill was 
one that he recognised and acknowledged favours. Sayyidah 
Khadijah if* &\ had been of great service to the Prophet iH and 
had given him much encouragement in the initial stages of his 
mission. She had also shared his problems and had faced suffering 
too. Thus it was her right that the Prophet J|& should remember her 
and mention her to his other wives and other people. Sayyidah 
Ayshah i^^ii^j has confesed her own weakness in envying 
Sayyidah Khadijah lf*^^>j though she had not even seen her, but 
the Prophet iil assured her that his first wife was a fine woman 
who had given him children too. The Prophet iH had no children 
by any other wife. 

We must mention here that the Prophet iH had a son by 
Sayyidah Mariah if^-on^j Qubtiyah named Ibrahim. However, he 
died in infancy at the age of a year and a half, and Sayyidah Mariah 
if* *ut was not one of his wives. She was his maid-slave sent to 
him by Muququis the ruler of Iskandaryah as part of his gifts to the 
Prophet £§l. After the birth of Ibrahim, she became umm walad 
according to the SharVah of Islam. She died five years after the 
death of the Prophet iH in the times of Sayyidina Umar £*§k>. 

Sayyidah Sawdah Bint Zam'ah if* h\ 

When the Prophet all invited the people to shun idol-worship 
and join Islam, he faced stiff opposition from the Makkans except 
from a few sound-natured people who accepted his invitation in the 
initial stage. Sawdah bit Zam'ah Aamiriyah was one of them. She 
had been married to her paternal cousin, Sakhran, who was hostile 
to the Prophet ill. Sayyidah Sawdah if* & thought it wise not 
to disclose her faith and acceptance of Islam. However, she did 



472 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



seize opportunities to put in a word here and there about Islam so 
that gradually her husband also submitted and became a Muslim. 
Then both of them publicly proclaimed their belief in Islam 
whereafter they too became targets of Quraysh persecution so that 
the Prophet iH> advised them to migrate to Ethiopia. Sakram died 
there after a few years and she came back to Makkah to live with 
her father. 

In the tenth year of Prophethood when Sayyidah Khadijah 
ly* *ii died, the Prophet ^ was much grieved. Also, he had no one 
to look after four young daughters. Khawlah bint Hakim the wife 
of Uthman ibn Maz'oom suggested to him that he should marry 
Sawdah bint Zam'ah, a widow and an old woman. The Prophet iH 
decided to marry her, keeping in view her strong faith and practice 
of Islam. He asked Khawlah to make the proposal for him. Saw^dah 
willingly accepted the proposal but suggested that she should talk 
to her father, Zam'ah. When Khawlah met him, he too accepted the 
proposal and invited the Prophet ^§1 and gave away his daughter in 
marriage. She was about 50 years old. For three years till the hijrah 
she was the lone wife of the Prophet She was wise, content, 
unconcerned with worldly matters and very generous. 



After the Prophet's death Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe and 
Sayyidina Umar 4fe treated her with much respect. Sayyidina Umar 
once sent her a bag full of dinars. She asked the man who bad 
brouuht the bag if it contained dates and when he said that it was 



full of dinars, she said, "We could have eaten dates." She took the 
bag and disbursed the money among the needy. 

She died towards the end of Sayyidina Umar f s Khalifah in 



Sayyidah Ayshah if* 

She was born in the fourth year of Prophethood. She was the 
daughter of Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe, the first of the Believers. Her 
mother was Umm Rooman was also among the first believing 
women. She is the only of the Prophet's w wives whose parents 
had believed in Islam before their daughter was born. The Prophet 



iSP was shown her face many times in dream as his wife in both the 
worlds. In the account of Sayyidah Sawdah if* ^ we have 




22 AH at the age of 75 years. &\ 




Book of Virtues And Excellence 



473 



mentioned that Sayyidah Khawlah if*4ii^j bint Hakim had 
suggested to the Prophet iH- after the death of Sayyidah Khadijah 
if* &\ that he should marry Sawdah if* &\ ^> At the same 
time, she had also suggested the name of Sayyidah Ayshah &\ 
if* who was then only about six years old while the Prophet iH 
was over fifty years old. Hence, we have no explanation for the 
suggestion of Sayyidah Khawlah if* except that she was a 

means to the fulfilment of divine decree. The narrations suggest 
that she had not knowledge of the Prophet's dreams, and it was a 
dream that one does not narrate anyone else. Anyway, she had 
suggested both names to the Prophet ill and he gave an identical 
reply that she should convey his proposal to her parents. Sayyidah 
Khawlah if* it went to their home but Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^0 
was not there and when she conveyed the proposal to Umm 
Rooman if* *»» she was extremely happy. Soon, Sayyidina Abu 
Bakr came home and when he was given the good news, he 
asked, "Can he marry her when she is his brother's daughter?" (The 
Arabs did not regard it proper to marry a daughter of an adopted 
brother.) 

When Khawlah if* &\ ^ j asked the Prophet ill the question of 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr ^0, he said, "He is my brother in Islam and his 
daughter is lawful to me." If he was my real brother then it was not 
lawful for me to marry his daughter. Sayyidina Abu Bakr was 
very happy with the reply but there still was a hitch. Sayyidah 
Ayshah if* &\ was engaged to Jubayr ibn Mut'im. So Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr went to their home because he did not wish to 
become a defaulter in this regard. The hostility to Islam during this 
period was at its peak and when he asked Mut'im what their plans 
were regarding his daughter. Mut'im's wife was there and she said 
that she would not like that girl to come to her home anymore 
because she would bring Islam with her and Mut'im also concurred 
with her. Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe returned from there and asked 
Khawlah if* &\ to invite the Prophet iH. When he came the 
marriage was contracted at the very moment. This was the month 
of Shawwal. The Prophet Hi stayed three years more in Makkah 
and during this time only Sayyidah Sawdah if* &\ lived with 
him as his wife looking after domestic affairs by herself. Thirteen 



474 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



years after Prophethood, he migrated from Makkah at the 
command of Allah. This journey was undertaken in secret and only 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr travelled with him while his wife and 
children stayed behind in Makkah. When they reached Madinah 
and had made necessary arrangements of lodging, Sayidina Abu 
Bakr 4^£> sent Abdullah ibn Urayqit to bring his wife and two 
daughters to Madinah. The Prophet ^ sent Zayd ibn Harithah to 
Makkah to bring his family — wife and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum 
if* &\ and Sayyidah Ayshah I^p jut ^ j — to Madinah. He was 
having the mosque built and was also having small homes built 
with it and Sayyidah Sawdah & \ stayed in one of these 
(when she came). Sayyidah Ayshah \#s> &\ had turned about 9 
or 10 years old and Sayyidina Abu Bakr requested the Prophet 
$Sfe that if he thought it proper he may take her to his home. 1 The 
Prophet agreed and she was lodged in one of the homes they had 
buuilt adjacent to the mosque. It was in Shawwal 1 AH. The Arabs 
had attached a bad omen to the month of Shawwal, but the Prophet 
Hi married Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ in this month at Makkah 
and she was brought to the Prophet's house also in the same month 
in Madinah. In this way the stigma attached to this month was 
removed. 

Characteristics 

She has the distinction among all wives of the Prophet £§b of 
being in the Prophet's $m company since the age of 9 or 10 years. 
She benefitted from his teachings and training. She had some other 
distinctions. The Prophet i|fe saw her in his dream before the 
marriage as his wife in this world and the next. She was the only 
one of his wives never to have married anyone else before she 
married the Prophet ii§k She also had the honour that the Prophet 
0 received revelation even when he lay on her bed and they had 
one blanket between them, one of the other wives had this honour. 
She was the dearest of his wives to him, and her lather was the 
dearest of all persons to him. She was the only one of his wives 
whose parents (both) were Muhajir. Verses of the Qur'an was also 
revealed for her absolving her of slanderous charges against her, so 

O. Fath al Bari v!5 p466. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



475 



that the said verses would be recited till the Last Day. She was 
described in these verses as the pure wife of the pure Prophet w. 
The last of these verses was: 

( i :r i *l-o "p/ lSj/j ij&> $ ^4 3 s " 

{Those — for them is forgiveness and a generous provision} 

(Saba, 34:4) 

promising for them forgiveness and abundant provision. She 
recalled that the Prophet ill spent the whole of the last week of his 
life at her home with her. The last day of his life was the day 
reserved for her. In the last moments of his life, her saliva was 
taken in his mouth and mixed with his saliva. 1 He rested on her 
chest in the dying moments and she or the angel of death was with 
him when his soul was taken away. And, finally, her house has 
become his resting place till the Day of Resurrection, for he is 
buried there. 2 

Merits 

ivja tJ\j 5 V* fa* *i\ est J**4 ?3 ' Jsf J^J 1 j* 

.»U&1 JL* 'J* Jjag tUJl J* ilte jjdj . fr'J 

(2078/127) Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ash'ary 4& reported that the 

Prophet ia§l said, "Many men have attained a degree of 

perfection but among women only Maryam bint Imran and 

Fir'awn's wife Aasiyah became perfect and Ayshah's excellence 

over all women is like tharid's over all food.' 1 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Obviously all the Prophet's fM-Ji (t ^U — whose 
number is over a hundred thousand according to some reports — 
all did attain perfection. In the same way, all their disciples and 

0. We have seen Sayyidah Ayshah's i» Hadith in the account of the 
Prophet's rt^u death. Her brother Abdur Rahman &\ had come to see 
him and had a misvvaak in his hand. She understood by the Prophet's <^t 
looks that he wanted to use the miswak, so she took it chewed it til it was solt 
and gave it to the Prophet He used it as he did when he was healthy. 
Thus her saliva was mixed with the Prophet's. 

©. Zurqani v3 p233. 



476 



Adeeming and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



caliphs, whose number is known only to Allah, were perfect. But 
this Hadith names only two women to have attained perfection. 
This is why they are named at the end of surah at-Tahreem as 
examples to be imitated. Some commentators hold that this saying 
of the Prophet $H refers to the earlier people and so we cannot 
deduce that no women of this ummah attained perfection. In fact, 
we have seen a Hadith a few pages earlier c~j ^ i^LLj *J^" 
"*x£j* elf ***** i^UJ^j (The best of women in the world is 
Maryam bint Imran and (also) Khadijah bint Khuwayiid.) In the 
Hadith under discussion, too, the concluding saying is: UJIp jJaij" 
t£ *UkIt yCt jJ^Jt *tiJi J* which means that Allah has given 
Sayyidah Ayshah such superiority over other women as tharid is 
superior to all other kind of food. In those times tharid was 
regarded as the most delicious kind of food. Whatever is written 
about tharid in dictionaries or commentaries on Hadith does not 
help me to explain this reality. I have often had the opportunity of 
eating it with Mwlana Husayn Ahmed Madani and I feel that is 
superior to every other food that we regard excellent in taste, ease 
in consuming, quick to digest and benefit. 

Some scholars contend on the basis of this Hadith that 
Sayyidah Ayshah \#s> At is more superior and excellent than all 
other women of past ummah and present ummah. But if we look at 
all the Ahadith that describe someone's excellence then the most 
correct conclusion seems that such excellence is not final but only 
from one or other angle. For instance, Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ 
enjoys superiority over other women in knowledge of commands 
of Shari'ah, jurispoudence and the like. Sayyidah Khadijah &\ 
if* was superior to other women in characteristics that we have 
mentioned in the account of her merits. Sayyidah Fatimah &\ 
if* was not only very dear to the Prophet HI but also possessed 
the characteristics that we will read in the account of her merits and 
which put her above other women in those fields. 

Apart from this Hadith of Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ash'ary 4fe, 
Saheeh Bukhari has transmitted Sayyidina Anas Hadith which 
only has the concluding portion of this Hadith tUJ^ ^J* Uj* J-Jai) 
(jiiUi^Li ^li ojjdt J-iaiS" {Superiority of Ayshah kinds of food.} 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



All 



(2079/128) Sayyidah Ayshah \#*&\ said: Allah's Messenger 
$H said to me, "You were shown to me in a dream three nights. 
An angel brought you in a silk cloth and said to me, This is 
your wife.' So 1 removed the cloth from your face and saw that it 
was you yourself, and I thought that if it was from Allah then 
He will make it true." (Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: The Hadith does not tell us when the Prophet HI 
saw this dream. It seems that he saw it after the death of Sayyidah 
Khadijah when he was deeply grieved at her parting, and he 
worried about the future. Allah showed him the dream to comfort 
him. She was only a six year old but the Prophet m> had read in her 
the intelligence and capabilities that she possessed. In this way, the 
Prophet iHl was informed that she would substitute Sayyidah 
Khadijah \#s> &\ in the future. But Allah knows best. In the 
initial days of Prophethood, the Prophet i$i> was in need of certain 
characteristics in his wife which Allah placed in Sayyidah 
Khadijah Then after hijrah in the early Madinan era, 

certain other qualities were required in his wife. Allah placed in 
Sayyidah Ayshah &\ those very qualities. 

After seeing the dream, he said -to himself ja to j& o!" 
'"■uaii (If the dream is from Allah then He will make it a reality.) 
Some one may say that the dreams of Prophets f^LJip^lp, 
particularly of the Final Prophet lH are a kind of wahy. Why then 
express doubt about it? The fact is that the words i!" do not 
denote a doubt. It is like the example of a king who declares in 
happiness, "If I am a king then your desire will be fulfilled. The 
Prophet iH> felt convinced that it is from Allah and it will be 
realised. 

The version in Jame' Tirmizi says that the angel who disclosed 
the face of Sayyidah Ayshah if* & was Sayyidina Jibreel SSSi. 
He said to the Prophet: "S^r^J £^ Jl ^-^jj (This is your wife 



478 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

in this world and the next.) 



£ y . »V <5 <M } - s s * s s s 

s \ s s i \ ' /III I s it. I t * * 



caJJi f%l3l 4&j : dill "^CU» Ji^r lililpU 

(2080/129) Sayyidah Ayshah if* Ai^j reported that Allah's 

Messenger Hi said, "O Ayshah, this is Jibreel! He conveys his 

salaam to you." She said, "and on him be salaam." She said that 

the Prophet could see what we cannot see. 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: We have seen under the merits of Sayyidah 
Khadijah if* &\ that Sayyidina Jibreel S0\ came to the cave in 
Hira and informed the Prophet Hi that Sayyidah Khadijah &\ 
if* was bringing provision and asked him to give to her salaam 
from her Lord and from himself. In this Hadith, he is said to 
convey salaam to Sayyidina Ayshah if* &\ and she said that 
the Prophet could see what she could not. 



f jj (►Ab djj*si i >iT ^Ui &s cJu (Y > why >) 

ajM?-j LiJlP 4J : Jj)*- j^ij Up ail ^ all J>-»j 

&i an i# : $ ^ ? 44*- <(&»j 

aii Jji] ^Jj ^J4i # sty : J-bJl ^ (i-j ^ 

^ ^ )«' : l^j jiii c^ki ^ir d4^ ail au 
^ an J\ V* ■■ ^ * s^i ^ w j ^ l; ^ 



(2081/130) Sayyidah Ayshah if* it said: The Companions 
of the Prophet chose to send gifts on my day, hoping to 
please Allah's Messenger by that. (And the fact ws that) his 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



479 



wives were on two sides. One side was made up of herself 
(Ayshah), Hafsah, Safiyah and Sawdah while the other 
comprised Umm Salamah and the others. Those on Umm 
Salamah's side said to her that she should say to Allah's 
Messenger W> to ask the people who wish to send a gift to send 
it to whichever house he is (on that day). She conveyed the 
message and he said, "Do not hurt me concerning Ayshah. It is 
her own peculiarity that revelation came to me in her blanket." 
Umm Salamah said, M 0 Messenger of Allah! 1 repent before 
Allah for hurting you." Then the women of Umm Salamah's side 
sent (his daughter) Sayyidah Fatimah to him for this matter, and 
she said the same thing to him. He said, "My child! Will you not 
love one whom 1 love?" She said, "Of course (I will)." So he 
said, flJ^^-ti "So love this woman (Ayshah)." 

(Saheeh Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim) 

Commentary: Some message of this Hadith need to be clarified. It 
is stated that the Prophet's Hi wives were divided into two parties. 
The two sides had not formed because of differences, but some of 
the Prophet's iH* wives were more like Sayyidah Ayshahif* fa ^ j 
in temperament and others like Sayyidah Umm Salamah if* fa 
(Both of them were distinct from the others in intelligence and 
wisdom and the Prophet iH also had a greater inclination towards 
these two than the others.) 

The other thing is that as far as possible the Prophet l§* treated 
his wives equally in all matters in which he had a choice. But love 
from the heart is not something on which one has control and that 
is why he used to pray to Allah: 

(O Allah, I divide fairly in what is in my power, but forgive me 

in what is not in my power but only in Your power). 

(Mishkat al-Masabeeh) 

So, it is true that the Prophet III had more love for some of his 
wives -ii and he loved Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ the 
most. The Companions djfe who were close to him were aware of 
this fact, so they made it a point to send gifts to him on the day he 
was at Sayyidah Ayshah's houe, hut he himself had never even 
given a hint to anyone to do that. The wives of the Prophet of 



480 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



the side of Sayyidah Umm Salamah if* &\ did not like it and 
they complained to him about it first through her and then through 
Sayyidah Fatimah if* & ^> We do not know if Sayyidah Fatimah 
if* &\ was aware that they had already made a presentation to 
the Prophet £^f, for, if she was then she would not have spoken on 
their behalf. But Allah knows best. 

Scholarly Excellence 

aii £i£ jiliiu : jis <j*y 'J) (t . Mhr\) 

liJUP UJL^j •5ft ililP U Li il dJji- ^ iiit JU> 

(2082/131) Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ash'ari 4i§£> reported, 
"Whenever we the Companions of Allah's Messenger iH had 
any doubt in (understanding) a tradition we asked Ayshah 
if* and found that she had knowledge of that." (Jami'Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari 4& was an earlier 
Muslim and was distinguished in knowledge and jurisprudence. He 
was from Yaman and had come to Makkah when he learnt of the 
call to Islam in its very initial stages. He met the Prophet iH who 
preached to him as was his practice and his sound heart accepted 
the Prophet's iH call without any hesitancy. He decided to take up 
residency in Makkah. When the idolaters itensified their 
persecution of Muslims and made life difficult for them, they 
decided to migrate to Ethiopia on the advice of the Prophet 
The group of the Companions 4fe that went there under the 
leadership of Sayyidina Ja'far ibn Abu Talib included Abu 
Musa al-Ash'ari <^>. They stayed there for a few years and when the 
Prophet ill migrated to Madinah, they too went there. 

Allah had bestowed Sayyidina Abu Musa al-Ash'ary with 
exceptional capabilities. Even in the times of the Prophet sjjl he 
was counted among those Companions c^> to whom the common 
Muslims turned for knowledge. He was thus one of the jurists 
among the Companions Therefore, his saying in the Hadith 
bears much weight. Sayyidah Ayshah if* ^ ^ j either remembered 
a saying of the Prophet iH on the subject or gave a verdict through 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



481 



her knowledge. There are some other testimonies from leading 
tabi'ee too. 

Sayyidina Urwah ibn Zubayr 4^>, the nephew of Sayyidah 
Ay shah \#s> &\ ^ j and a narrator of many of her reports, said about 
her (as carried by Tabarani and Haakim): 

"] have not seen anyone 

knowing more than (my aunt) ^y^> cJtj^ 
Ayshah on the Qur'an, the ^ ^ * « * 

obligations (or laws of ^?J?J™?J^Vtj 

inheritance) the unlawful, the CJsj^j J^ ^J ri&fij 

lawful, the laws of fiqh, poetry ; „ / ' , , 

and medicine, and events and M V^^h^J 

history of Arabs and lijlp 
genealogy." (Zurqani v3 p234) 

Tabarani and Haakim also carry the report of Masrooq, another 
Tabi'ee. 



"Indeed, I saw that the elder * * ^ ^ & Jjlj 

Companions sought the views ' ; 

of Sayyidah Ayshah if* & ^Vr* ^ i^?J 

on laws of inheritance/' A, 



Haakim has also carried the words of Ata ibn Abu Ribah, a 
third tabi'ee. 

Sayyidah Ayshah if* iui _ 4 > 

was a great jurist, a great j%Ap1j ^Ul 4i3l iLiJlp cJlT 

scholar, and the common . * u - * K ' u 

people had a good opinion ^ " - ^ - 



about her." (Zurqani v3 p234) i*UJl 

Oratory 

Allah had also given her excellence in oratory. Tabarani has 
quoted Sayyidina Mu'awiyah *$b. 

"By Allah, I have not seen an cjj^li ^jjlj iijlii JlS 

orator more eloquent than , » -?f^"^r< h 

Ayshah." tt^JC**^* 



482 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



These were her merits that endeared her to the Prophet s@i. 

Sayy idah Hafsah if* 

She was Sayyidina Umar's 4fe daughter. She was the only real 
sister of Abdullah ibn Umar 4fe. Her mother was Sayyidah Zaynab 
if* &\ bint Haz'oon, the sister of the well-known Companion 
Uthman ibn Maz'oom Sayyidah Hafsah if* &\ was born 
five years before prophethood. Thus, she was about 35 years 
younger than the Prophet Hi. 

Sayyidah Hafsah if* was married to the Companion 

Khunays ibn Huzayfah Sahmi and she migrated to Madinah with 
him. Sayyidina Khunays 4fe participated in the Battle of Badr and, 
according to an accepted report, was wounded in the battle and 
could not recover and died a martyr. 

Sayyidina Umar 4fe worried about her. Sayyidina Uthman's 
wife Sayyidah Ruqayyah if* *fo the daughter of the Prophet 
Hi, also died during these days, Sayyidina Umar proposed to 
Sayyidina Uthman ^fe that he should marry his daughter, Hafsah 
if* jut but he excused himself. Sayyidina Umar 4& then made 
the same proposal to Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe but he did not give 
any reply and he was more hurt at that than on Uthman's 4fe 
rejection. Some days thereafter, the Prophet ^ sent a proposal for 
Hafsah if* & and when they were married, Abu Bakr 4fe> met 
Umar 4fe> and clarified to him that his silence was prompted by his 
knowledge of the Prophet's ill intentions. These details are found 
in Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim on the authority of 
Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4^>, brother of Sayyidah Hafsah. In 
the book of Hadith, Musnad Abul Ya'la it is also stated that when 
Sayyidina Uthman 4^ rejected Sayyidina Umar's offer, he 
complained about him to the Prophet W> who said, "Allah will give 
her a better husband than Uthman, and give him a better wife than 
your daughter." Accordingly, after a few days, Sayyidina Uthman 
4$k> was married to the second daughter of the Prophet iil, Sayyidah 
Umm Kulthum if* Jii and Sayyidah Hafsah if* At was 
married to the Prophet . 

Among her merits is that after the death of Sayyidina Umar 4fe 
she possessed the copy of the Qur'an which was brought together 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



483 



within one folder in the times of Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe on the 
suggestion of Sayyidina Umar This copy was then used as the 
base when more copies were prepared in the times of Sayyidina 
Uthman 4fe> and sent throughout the Islamic world. We have 
already written about it in the account of Sayyidina Uthman 4fe\ 
but all we wish to stress here is that it was her merit that, indeed, 
Sayyidah Hafsah i^p^i^j was entrusted with the copy of the 
Qur'an. 

She died in the times of Sayyidina mu'awiyah in 45 AH at the 
age of sixty-three. 

Let us now read the Hadith citing Jibreefs testimony for 
Sayyidah Hafsah &\ Indeed, because of that, this single 
Hadith is enough to speak about her merits. 

(2083/132) Qays ibn Zayd reported that Allah's Messenger 
had divorced Sayyidah Hafsah once and then took her back. 
That was because Jibreel tfSB said to him, "Revoke your 
divorce of her because she keeps fasts often and offers salah 
frequently. She will be your wife in Paradise." 

Commentary: This Hadith should suffice to give us an idea of the 
recognition accorded to Sayyidah Hafsah by Allah. When the 
Prophet ill gave her one divorce for some reason, Allah 
commanded him through Jibreel to revoke the divorce and 
lauded her righteousness. 

We are unable to find out for sure what was the reason for 
giving her one divorce. However, it is clear that the ummah learnt 
the correct procedure of tallaq (divorce) and raj'at (revoking) from 
this inicident at the Prophet's house. Perhaps this was the wisdom 
behind the incident. We also learnt through this incident that 
Sayyidah Hafsah if* &\ holds a high rank and that she will go 
to Paradise. UU^jl^^^j 



484 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Sayyidah Umm Salamah if* & 

Her name was Hind. Some historians have given her name as 
Ramlah. There is also disagreement on what her father's name was. 
It is said that his name was Huzayfah, Suhayl or Suhayl ibn 
al-Mughirah, and his Kunyah was Abu Umayyah and he was 
known through his kunyah. He was among the nobles of Makkah. 
He was very generous and during journeys he entertained all the 
co-travellers which earned him the title zad al-Rakab (responsible 
for the provision of travellers.) 

Sayyidah Umm Salamah iff&^j was first married to 
Sayidina Abdullah ibn Abdul Asad al-Makhzoomi her paternal 
cousin and the Prophet's foster brother. She had earned the kunyah 
because of her son salamah; and also because of him, her husband 
became Abu Salamah. Sayyidina Abu Salamah was also among the 
nobles of Makkah. 

Both husband and wife were among the first to embrace Islam, 
they were among the pioneers. They migrated to Ethiopia but came 
back after some time. Not finding peace, they set out with their son 
salamah on a camel for Madinah. They had hardly stepped out of 
Makkah when the Banu Mughirah got wind of one of their clan 
Umm Salamah if* Ai going away. They got to them and said to 
Abu Salamah that while he was competent to decide about 
himself, they would not allow their daughter to go with him. They 
brought Umm Salamah if* k\ and her son Salamah back to 
Makkah and Abu Salamah *s§£> proceeded all alone to Madinah. 

When the Banu al-Makhzoom the clan of Abu Salamah 
learnt of the maltreatment of one of their men at the hands of Banu 
al-Mughirah, they snatched Salamah 4^©, the child, from them on 
the argument that if Umm Salamah \^ k\ belonged to their 
clan, Salamah was of their family. 

Thus, Abu Salamah 4S§£> was at Madinah, Umm Salamah & 
if* with the Banu al-Mughirah and the child Salamah ^k> with the 
Banu al-Makhzoom. The oppressed woman sat all day long at 
al-Abtah weeping over the separation from her husband and child. 

After a week or so, one member of their clan appealed to the 
other members to have pity on her and let her go to her husband. 
They also relented and allowed her to go to Madinah to her 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



485 



husband. At the same time, the clan of Abu Salamah handed over 
the child to her. 

Sayyidah Umm Salamah <4fe> took the child and rode a camel 
towards Madinah all alone. She had yet gone a few miles from 
Makkah when at Tan'eem she came across a man of Makkah, 
Uthman ibn Talhah. He asked, "O daughter of Abu Umayyah, 
where do you intend to go?" She told him that she was going to her 
husband, Abu Salamah, at Madinah. He asked if she had anyone 
else with her and she said that she had her child and Allah with her 
and no one else. Uthman said, "I will come with you. The daughter 
of Abu Umayyah will not travel alone. " Sayyidah Umm Salamah 
i£&p in remarked that she had not seen anyone as noble as him. 
Throughout the journey, when it was time to stop, he made the 
camel sit down and walked away from there so that she could get 
down from the camel comfortably. As the time to move ahead 
approached, he again made the camel sit down and she mounted it. 
He held the bridle and made the move. When they reached Quba (a 
small settlement at the outskirts of Madina at that time, but now 
part of it), he told Umm Salamah &\ ^ j that her husband was in 
Quba. There he entrusted her to him and himself returned to 
Makkah. 

Most of the historians and seerah writers believe that Sayyidah 
Umm Salamah if* Ai was the first woman to make hirjah to 
Madinah. The next Hadith from Muslim seems to support this 
view. 

Abu Salamah 4^ fought very bravely in the Battle of Uhud. He 
suffered deep wounds which healed in a few days and he regained 
perfect health. The Prophet iH made him ameer of the party sent 
against the Banu Asad but the old wound opened again and he was 
in much pain. He died of it on 8th Jumadi al-Ukhra 4 AH. The 
Prophet iil, who was there, shut his eyes and prayed for him and 
said also, "O Allah, protect and look after his heirs." 

This was a great setback for Umm Salamah i^p who had 

respected him much and considered him matchless. She said that 
she could not hope for an alternative in spite of the saying of the 
Prophet 1§§I: 



486 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



j^JJi . j <Ul Ui j 4ttUl <u 4j»i U JjM *w^ aj * < *-.-j-^ i (%^— 4 ^» 

JU> ill J j^j ill Jd*\3 ij\ (J^j aJp ill JU> ibl J 

{If a Believer faces a difficulty (and loses something) and he 
says to Allah what we are commanded to say in such cases iJUui 

(We belong to Allah and to Him is our return. O Allah reward 
me in my predicament and grant me in place of that which is 
taken away from me something better than that) then Allah 
grants him better than that thing. (She said:) When my first 
husband died, I thought who could be better than him who was 
the first Muslim who migrated towards the Prophet with his 
family. However, 1 observed the Prophet's teachings and said on 
his death: IMf* \ Jt r J JUb*j Jj^^ -0 ^ -UUui 
i^i^AjjJJi ,then Allah gave me His Messenger instead.} 

This narration is from Saheeh Bukhari Muslim and it is also 
found in other books. Ibn Sa'd has transmitted in Tabaqat with this 
addition: (Umm Salamah l^p^t^j said:) 

{One day I said to my husband, "If a woman's husband dies and 
she does not enter into a second marriage and they both go to 
Paradise then Allah keep their relationship intact in Paradise. If 
a wife dies and her husband does not marry again then too this 
worldly relationship is kept alive. Come let us make a promise 
that one who survives the other should not re-marry." Abu 
Salamah said, "Are you prepared to make this promise?" 
When 1 said that I was prepared, he said, "If I die, you should 
re-marry," and he made this supplication, "O Allah, grant Umm 
Salamah a better husband than me after I die who should not be 
one to grieve her or cause her hardship." I could not understand 
after his death who could be better than him." 

When her waiting period was over, Sayyidina Abu Bakr <4fe and 
Sayyidina Umar sent to her their proposals to marry but she 
declined. However, when Sayyidina Umar brought to her the 
proposal of the Prophet Hi, she said to him, "I have three 




Book of Virtues And Excellence 



487 



handicaps: I have a great sense of honour, I have many children 
and I am much advanced in age." She meant to impress upon him 
that she might be lacking in discharge of her duties. In some 
versions she also lamented that she had no guardian in Madinah. 
The Prophet life said — when told of her excuses — , "As far as her 
excessive sense of honour is concerned, I will pray that Allah may 
correct it, and, the children, Allah and His Messenger ill are 
responsible for them, and, as for age, I am older than she. None of 
her guardians will object to this relationship." She then expressed 
willingness and they were married in Shawwal 4 AH. 

Children 

Sayyidah Umm Salamah i^at^j had two sons and two 
daughters by her first husband. Their names were; Salamah and 
Umar, Durrah and Barah which last named the Prophet S§l changed 
to Zaynab. 

Merits 

There is a Hadith in Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim that 
one day Jibreel $fisi\ came to the Prophet Umm salamah &\ 
if* was sitting beside him. When he went away, the Prophet 
asked her, "Who was he?" She said, "Dihyah Kalbi" (because he 
had come in his appearance). Then not until did the Prophet 
mention in the mosque that Jibreel had come did she realise 
that Jibreel was the one who had come to their home. 

It was in her house that the verse of aUAhzah of the Qur'an 
concerning the wives was revealed: 

{Allah only desires to take away from you all abomination, O 
people of the household (of Muhammad), and to purify you with 
a thorough purifying.} (33:33) 

After that the Prophet iH called Sayyidah Fatimah if* *»i 
Sayyidina Husayn <$k> and Sayyidina Hasan 4fe and put the cloak 
over them and himself and sat down behind Sayyidina Ali's 4fe 
back and made this supplication: " j^j-j Jai *y ^^i" "O 



488 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

Allah, they too are the people of my house. Make them too pure." 
Sayyidah Umm Salamah ibi said, "I too am with them." He 
said: ^> J* cJtj cji (You are, of course, among the 

people of the house and you are also on the right). 

(Jami' Tirmizi, Tafseer surah al-Ahzab) 

Sayyidah Umm Salamah & said once, "O messenger of 
Allah! Why is it that women are not mentioned in the Qur'an?" At 
that, this verse was revealed: oUl.Ulij & J£+ } \ o!" 

"£Jt and the Prophet III recited it to his Companions from the 
pulpit. 1 

Sayyidah Umm Salamah if^&^j was very intelligent and 
Allah had granted her a great understanding of religion. As a result 
of the Peace Treaty at Hudaybiyah, the Muslims could not perform 
the umrah and had to return, so, in order that they may return 
home, the Prophet Hi asked them to come out of the ihram make 
their sacrifices and shave their head. The Companions 4fc could not 
bring themselves to agree to that. He came into his tent and 
confided with Umm Salamah ^p^i^j the reaction of the 
Companions cHjfr. She said, "O Messenger of Allah! Go out of the 
tent, sacrifice your animal, shave your head and come out of your 
ihram'' He did that. The Companions ^ then followed suit. 

She had memorised many Ahadith. Sayyidah Ayshah, 
Sayyidina Ibn Abbas and many Companions d& and their 
successors p^JpAtA*^ transmitted Ahadith from her. The 
Muhadditheen have disclosed the number of her Ahadith as 378. 

She used to encourage the people to recite the Qur'an on the 
style of the Prophet iH. She reminded them that he recited the 
Qur'an slowly with proper pauses. She would say by way of 
example that he recited jsJ^i *JJ *u*Jt have a pause, then say 
^ and pause, and so on. She also said that instead of 
jijJi f jj he recited jjoIi ^ (Maliki for maaliki). (Tirmizi) 

Apart from her reports on commandments, there are many 
Ahadith from her on nature of recital and exegesis of the Qur'an. 

Her death is placed in 59 AH but there is disagreement on it. 
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^ led her funeral salah. 



O. Al-Ahzab, 33:35 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



489 




The word Barrah means piety. He changed the names of other 
women too who were known as Barrah. He said: 



(Do not call yourselves pious and generous. Allah knows well 
which of you is pious and generous). 

Her father Jahsh ibn Rikab belonged to Banu Asad and her 
mother Umaymah bint Abdul Muttalib was the Prophet's Hi real 
paternal aunt. Thus she was his paternal cousin. 

Sayyidah Zaynab was one of those who believed in the earliest 



(She was an early believer in Islam and Imam Zuhri said that 
Zaynab was among the earliest to make hijrah). 

First Marriage 

She had been under the Prophet's training because she was his 
cousin and also a Believer while she had been very young. So, he 
married her to his emancipated slave Sayyidina Zayd ibn Harith4^>. 
He had been under the Prophet's lH care since childhood and was 
thus distinguished in knowledge and religion and the Prophet ill 
had also made him his adopted son so that he treated him as a son. 
In spite of that he was a freed slave while she was the 
granddaughter of a chief of the Quraysh, Abdul Muttalib. Even on 
her father's side she was the daughter of a noble family. So, she and 
her brother, Abdullah ibn Jahsh, had originally rejected this 
relationship. 

Tabarani has transmitted that the Prophet iH had himself 
conveyed Zayd's proposal to Zaynab \$s> &\ and she rejected it 
on the plea that she was better than him in descent. Then this verse 
was revealed: 




time. 




490 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



{And it is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when 

Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter, to have the 

choice in their matter. And whoso disobeys Allah and His 

Messenger has surely gone astray into manifest astray ing.} 

(Al-Ahzab, 33:36) 

When this verse was revealed Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ and 
her brother Abdullah ibn Jahsh submitted to the Command of 
Allah and His Messenger iH. He then married Sayyidah Zaynab 
if* k\ to Sayyidina Zayd and paid her dower to her on his 
behalf — this being, ten dinars (about 4 tola gold), sixty dirhams 
(about 18 tola silver), a load bearing animal, a pair of woman's 
garment, fifty mudd wheat and ten mudd dates. (Ibn Katheer) 

Sayyidah Zaynab if* ^ had accepted this relationship for 
the sake of Allah and had reconciled herself to it. The hypocrites of 
Madinah who never let go an opportunity to hurt the Prophet 
created much noise and criticised the Prophet for imposing his 
decision Sayyidah Zaynab if*i>i^> The women among them 
tried to incite Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ who was upset by their 
propaganda and became short-tempered with a superiority 
complex. The mischief of the hypocrites caused a disorder in the 
relationship of husband and wife. 

Sayyidina Zayd found the superiority complex and cool 
attitude of Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ intolerable and he decided 
to end the relationship. He asked the Prophet ill? to allow him to 
terminate the relationship, but he refused to permit him to do so. 
Sayyidina Zayd again requested for permission after a few days, 
but he again asked him to show patience. In fact, the Qur'an also 
revealed these words: 

(rv:rro^i) iJJi jflj ^Xfjj JCJi 

{Keep your wife to yourself and fear Allah} (33:37) 

However, Sayyidina Zayd 4^ was finding it very difficult and 
the situation had taken a turn whereby it was not even correct in 
the eyes of Shari'ah to let their relationship continue. So, the 
Prophet Hi permitted Sayyidina Zayd 4fe reluctantly to finish off 
his marriage with Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ ^> This marriage lasted 
just one year. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



491 



The Prophet Sm had joined them in an expression of Islamic 
equality but Sayyidah Zaynab if* ibi had to bear the taunts of 
the hypocrites who referred to her cynically as the wife of a freed 
slave. There was also the fear that they would taunt her that she 
was divorced by a freed slave. The Prophet icH felt very grieved at 
this tragedy and Sayyidah Zaynab if*^ 1 ^; was also very 
sorrowful about it. The only way amends could be made was for 
him to marry her but the hypocrite could again raise a hue and cry 
and accuse him of marrying the divorced woman of his adopted 
son. The customs of pre-Islamic days did not allow for that. The 
Prophet ill was much worried and could not even bring himself to 
say anything like that. However, Allah revealed: 

(TViTT 

{...and while you were concealing in your mind that which 
Allah was going to disclose, and you were fearing mankind, 
whereas Allah has a better right for you to fear Him} (33:37) 

This verse not only conveyed Allah's permission but also gave 
His Command that the Prophet should marry Sayyidah Zaynab 
tfp^i^j. Her waiting period was over before this verse was 
revealed. The Prophet ill sent Sayyidina Zayd 4#> himself to 
Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ with his proposal for marriage. When 
he conveyed the Prophet's Hfe proposal to her, she said: 

"Before I decide on anything, 1 will observe istikharah 

(consultation) with my Allah surely," 
and she stood up on her prayer rug. (Saheeh Muslim) 

Sayyidina Zayd 4sk> conveyd to the Prophet ill her response and 
at the same moment, these words were revealed: 

( r v:rr # j <Sfc ^ <r 

(So when Zayd had had his want fulfilled of her (and he waiting 
period was over), We joined her in marriage to you, in order 
that there should be no blame for the believers in marrying the 
wives of their adopted sons who have had their want fulfilled of 



492 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 

them.} (al-Ahzab, 33:37) 

Most of the exegetes contend that Sayyidah Zaynab's & 
marriage took place in the heaven not on earth. The verse is very 
clear about it: 

(rv:rr <->\ ^p^r jj * ^ Uifl 

{So when Zayd had had his want fulfuilled of her, we joined her 
in marriage to you}. 

Besides, we also know from authentic Traditions that the Prophet 
iH did not contract marriage with her on earth. The rest of the 
words of Saheeh Muslim's (vl p461) Hadith to which we have just 
referred are: (after u.x*^ J\ c-*Ui) 

{After revelation of these words the Prophet went to Sayyidah 
Zaynab without seeking permission}. 

Also, she herself took pride in the fact, "My marriage was 
concluded by my Allah whereas the marriages of the rest of the 
wives were concluded by their guardians or family members. 11 
The words of a tradition in Saheeh Bukhari are: 

{And she used to take pride over other wives of the Prophet and 

say, "Your marriage was conducted by your family members but 

mine was conducted by Allah above the seven heavens."} 

(Saheeh al-Bukhari v2 pi 104) 

In Saheeh Bukhari, again, the words of another Tradition of the 
same meaning are: 

^ 0* Jj 5 * cJlTj dp &\ JL*> ^ $.L*J 'J^ynis cJlfj 

{She used to take pride over the women of the Prophet and used 
to say, "Allah married me off in the heaven."} 

There are similar Ahadith in other books too. We know from them 
that the marriage of Sayyidah Zaynab ^ & did not take place 
on earth but Allah conducted it in the heaven and Allah's 
Messenger HI considered that enough. (Fath al-Bari v!3 p 412) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 493 

However, it is stated in seerat Ibn Hisham that after the 
revelation of these verses, the Prophet HI married Sayyidina 
Zaynab & and fixed the dower at four hundred dirhams. 
This event is mentioned in Tahzeeb Seerat ibn Hisham in these 
words: 

J^r Cuj ^3 pLoj Up &\ ill Jj^j £jj3 3 

(p332) .p* £0* ^ j 

However, the exegetes and scholar of Hadith generally lean 
towards the former saying. 

Ibn Katheer Up *»i has explained the verse: 

thus: 

(Tafseer Ibn Katheer) 

The gist of it is that the wedding was not held on earth, neither 
were there witnesses nor was the dower determined. 

Allama Shawkani L^j has also explained the verse thus: 

(Tafseer Fath al-Qadeer v4 p285) 

It says the same thing that Allah married her off in the heaven 
because of which there was no need to conduct any rites of 
marriage on earth. 

He also points out that the other opinion is that Allah 
commanded the Prophet f$k to marry Sayyidah Zaynab if* A» ^> 
But, he says, the first opinion is stronger and known from authentic 
Ahadith. 

There are many diverse views on the year in which the 
marriage took place but the most plausible is that it happened in 



494 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Zuqa'dah 4 AH. 

In this entire case of her marriage, there are many religious 
exigencies. It demonstrates Islamic equality. It shows that a 
wealthy daughter may be married to a freed slave. We also learn 
from Qur'anic verses concerning this case that Believers, men or 
women, have no rights about themselves after Allah and His 
Messenger ill have given a command on their conduct. These 
verses also tell us that religious issues should not be overlooked 
because of objection and commotion against the doer. They must 
be ignored and ignorant customs must be oblished. 

Sayyidah Zaynab t^iui^j was rewarded amply for her 
sacrifice earlier. Allah was guardian for her marriage in the heaven 
and the worldly requisities of consent in marriage were dispensed 
with for her. 

Walimah (Wedding Feast) 

The Prophet JH held a splendid feast after his marriage with 
Sayyidah Zaynab \#s> ibi the like of which he had not held after 
any of his other marriages. The Hadith of Sayyidina Anas is 
transmitted in Saheeh Bukhari: 

^ j\U o *UJ ^ Ar\ ^Ip pjjl Up Jjl ^Le ^\ cJ jU 

"I never did see him holding a wedding-feast for any of his 
wives as he held for Zaynab. He slaughtered a sheep in her 
wedding-feast." (Saheeh Bukhari v2 pill. Saheeh Muslim vl p461 ) 

Then, Sayyidah Umm Sulaym i^p^i^j, mother of Sayyidina Anas 
<4^>, also sent hays (or some other food) for the wedding-feast. 

The Prophet ill named certain Companions to Sayyidina 
Anas and asked him to invite them and "invite also whoever 
you meet." His student, Ja'd, asked him how many guests were 
there and he gave their number as about three hundred. Food was 
placed in a large dish and the Prophet served ten men at a time 
who took leave after they had eaten until all of them had eaten in 
this way. When there was no one left, the Prophet Hi instructed 
that the dish should be removed and Sayyidina Anas 4& said, "1 
could not say whether the food in the dish before serving guests 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



495 



was more or after they had been served." (Saheeh Muslim vl p461 ) 

It was during this walimah that the verse of hijab (veil) was 
revealed. 

{O you who believe! Enter not 

the houses of the Prophet, 

except when leave is given you 

for a meal, without waiting for 

its cooking being finished — 

but when you are invited, enter, 

and when you have taken your 

meal, then disperse, not 

lingering for a familiar talk. 

Surely that annyos the Prophet, 

but he is shy of (asking) you (to 

leave), but Allah is not shy of 

the truth. And when you ask 

them (the Prophet's) of any 

good, ask them from behind a 

curtain.} (al-Ahzab, 33:53) 

The account of the walimah given in Saheeh Muslim throws 
light on the background of this verse. Even after the feast was over, 
some people were engrossed in conversation in the house of 
Sayyidah Zaynab &\ who sat facing a wall, they did not 
realise that they should disperse. The Prophet iH did not say 
anything out of modesty but went out of the house himself. When 
he returned after a while, they were as occupied as before, so he 
again went out and this when he came again, they realise and 
departed the Prophet &§l put a curtain over the door. It was then 
that the verse of hijab was revealed. 

The verse gives some commands. 

O. No one must enter the Prophet's house uninvited. 

© No one, even if invited, should come before time or stay 
behind after havig had the meal. 

©. If the Prophet's w wives are requested for anything, the 
request must be made from behind a curtain. 

The verses that follow this one in the Qur'an give commands 
pertaining to Allah's Messenger £§l and his wives 



(Saheeh Muslim vl p461) 

fe> Tit gij «ui 
ij^lsiU tell 

i 6 } . 9 . * • sS x 0 J > > s 

(or:rr oij^).^ 1 *^ ■ J3j 



496 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Merits 

Sayyidah Zaynab i^ibi^j had many excellences. Her 
marriage was conducted by Allah and she took pride in that. She 
was closest of all wives to the Prophet Hi in family ties. The 
revelation of many verses of surah al-Ahzab pertains to her. 

She was a very God-fearing, righteous and generous woman. 
Sayyidah Umm Salamah & ^a>j said that Sayyidah Zaynab ^ j 

i» was very righteous, one who fasted often, and kept vigil in 
the night. (Zurqani — Sharah Mawahib.) 

Sayyidah Ayshah ^ & also praised Sayyidah Zaynab ^ j 
^ &\ much. Saheeh Muslim carries her report. 

{Sayyidah Ayshah ^ u UtJlP cJVS 
said, "Of all the wives of the ^ ^ 

Prophet iil only Zaynab was of *Lp ^ ^s^** 

the same level as I. And I did ^ ^ . 

not see any woman more pious, ™ J ~ " J 

God-fearing, righteous, juJl ^ 1^ Ja3 ot^tjl ^Jj 
truthful, given to join ties of >, 

relationship, giver of charity J^'J ^ cs^J Sr 5 *) 

and devoted to Allah than (i^JU J-^J j J 

Zaynab. Of course, she was a 

little short-tempered but she J i^^'V Ui|» A3>U> 
controlled herself quickly."} ^ ^ JJLtf AJt J^Jl 

(Saheeh Muslim, merits of Ayshah 

The value of these words grows when we see that these words 
formed part of a lengthy Hadith in which Sayyidah Ayshah &\ 
if* discloses that Sayyidah Zaynab if* ibi complained to the 
Prophet iH against her on behalf of the Prophet's iH wives. 

Hafiz Shamsuddin Zahabi has also quoted her in Siyar A 'lam 
an-Nubala. She said: 

{May Allah have mercy on j cJu ^ ^ fa 
Zaynab. She attained honour in ' ' 

this world itself which no -UJL ^ c$AJ1 J^Jl LUJl 
honourable person can match. . , \. . \ lU 

Allah conducted her marriage ' (jr ^^ ? ~* JJ ^ 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



497 



with the Prophet.S Himself fa , fa . ^ ^ -,, 
and mentioned that in the w 



Qur'an. Also, the Prophet cfi* r* s ^ (^J ^ 



gave good news about her, of . , ? , ^, « f- , 

my wives the first to come to ^ 4 • ^ ^ 

me after my death will be she ^rjj ipj--o 
who has long arms (that is, one 

who spends much in charity)." * • <jt 
And she will be his wife in Paradise too.} 

(Siyar a'lam an Nubula v2 p2 1 5) 

The fact is that Sayyidah Zaynab was short-statured and so her 
arms were shorter than the arms of the other wives of the Prophet 
However, she was very liberal and generous and the Arabic 
expression i*b j£J jfci or ^ j& js>\ (longest of you in arm) refers to 
generosity. 

Therefore the Prophet ill used those w r ords for her. Sayyidah 
Ayshah \#s> &\ said that after the Prophet's sll death his waves 
used to compare their arms and took his words literally but when 
Sayyidah Zaynab if* At was the first to die, they realised that 
the words stood for the most generous. "And, indeed, Zaynab was 
the most generous of us." 

Sayyidah Ayshah if* & also said: 

h ju~4 J <u jjuasjj jjpuj £ju cji& jjijlJi ^Lw? cjiT 

"Zaynab earned with her own hands. She made leather items 
and gave away her income in charity." 

(Siyar A'lam an-Nubala v6 p2 1 7) 

Ibn Sa'd has recounted an account of her generosity. 

{Sayyidah Zaynab's maid . , ^ u ^ ^ 

servant Barzah bint Rafi' said ^ 

that during his caliphate, IgJ^u u^jj J 1^>* 

Sayyidina Umar sent to her a St 4tr - • t \n 
liberal cash gift. On seeing 

that, Sayyidah Zaynab said, ui3 *UT IjUS p~J 

"May Allah forgive Umar, for, , s, ( , 

others could have disbursed J w 

this wealth better than I." <U* 'j^V^'j cJlSj^r^ 

Those who had brought it said, , „ . 

lf^- j ^Mjti CjX*\ j bjJ 



498 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



"This is not sent to be 

disbursed, but all of it is for Jib U ^^skplj isjij 

you." She said, "Glory be to ^ 

Allah! Leave it here and cover Jt> 4^^UJjtj3 

it up with cloth." She then f ^ c**3j 

began giving away from it to 

her relatives and orphans. ^ 'jM ? 

Whatever remained after that Iju&^lpjbu^p 

she gave away to Barzah bint 

Raff who counted the money and found them to be eighty-five 

dirham. Sayyidah Zaynab if* ibi then raised her hands to 

heaven and made the supplication, "Let not Umar's gift come to 

me after this year."} 

(Siyar A'lam-al-Nuwala v2 p212 on the authority of Ibn Sa'd) 

Her prayer was granted. Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ died before 
the next year. When Sayyidina Umar $b learnt that she had given 
away all the money, he went to her house and said to her, "I wilj, 
send more!" He then sent another one thousand dirham, but she 
distributed all that money too. 

We have seen above that Sayyidah Zaynab i^iii^j had 
spoken to the Prophet £§l as repi-esentative of his wives against 
Sayyidah Ayshah if*^^^. In tne same Tradition of Saheeh 
Muslim, it is also stated that she spoke out against Sayyidah 
Ayshah if^^i^j to the Prophet iH. In spite of that, her 
righteousness and frankness were witnessed when the Prophet JSSI 
sought her opinion during the affair of ifk (scandal). She spoke 
truthfully ^ W c-Up u Aij (By Allah, I know her to be nothing but 
virtuous!) although her own sister Hamnah was involved in the 
scandal. 

The Prophet Wz himself gave testimony of her piety and 
righteousness. Sayyidah Maymunah if* &\ said that once the 
Prophet ill was distributing the fa 7 (war booty gained without 
Fighting) among his Companions $fe>. Sayyidah Zaynab if* i»» 
gave him some advice which Sayyidina Umar did not like and 
he expressed himself against the interference. The Prophet Sil 
advised Sayyidina Umar 4^> not to say anything to her because she 
was aajI awwahah. Someone asked him what that was and he said, 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



499 



"Awwahah is a women who is softhearted and humble," and he 
recited the verse of the Qur'an: 

(Y°: \ \ ijA) o\j\ ^UJ \ 

{Surely Ibrahim was forbearing, tenderhearted, penitent} 

(Hud, 1 1 :75) 

Sayyidah Zaynab h did not narrate many Ahadith but 
whatever she reported have found place in the Sahah Sitta and 
other books of Hadith. Among those who transmitted her 
narrations are her nephew Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Jahash, 
Umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan, Zaynab bint Abu Salamah, and 
other Companions and tabi'een. 

Death 

She died in 20 AK or 21 AH. She was the first of the Prophet's 
iSl wives to die after him. She had prepared her shroud herself and 
had given instructions that if Sayyidina Umar 4^ also sent a shroud 
then one of them should be used while the other should be given 
away in charity. He did send a shroud for her. So, her sister 
Hamnah if* h bint Jahsh used the one sent by Sayyidina Umar 
i^p -ii and gave away the one left by Sayyidah Zaynab h 
i^p in charity. When she died, Sayyidah Ayshah \#s> &\ said: 

•lHj ^ J Is*^* 1 £ S*^*^ QJl~qs>~ c....ao 

M A praiseworthy, pious and a supporter of orphans and widows 
has departed." 

Sayyidina Umar ^> led the funeral salah and Muhammad ibn 
Abdullah ibn Jahsh, Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abu Ahmad ibn Jahsh 
and Sayyidina Usman ibn Zayd ^ lowered her into the grave 
which is in Jannatul Baqee'. 

Al-Hilaliyah h ^ j 

She was the second wife of the Prophet Hi with the name 
Zaynab. Her full name was Zaynab bint Khuzaymah al-Hilaliyah. 
Her father was Khuzaymah and there was a man, Hilal, in her 
family three giving her the title al-Hilaliyah. Her mother was Hind 
bint Awf or Khawlah bint Awf of the tribe Himyar. Sayyidah 
Maymunah i^it^j was the daughter of this very Hind. The 



500 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Prophet ill married Sayyidah Maymunah if* ibi many years 
after the death of Sayyidah Zaynab bint Khuzaymah. Both of them 
had the same mother but not the same father. 

Syyidah Zynab if* & bint Khuzaymah was first married to 
Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Jahsh 3 4fe who was martyrd in the Battle of 
Uhud in Shawwal 3 AH and after just a few days she delivered a 
premature child so that her iddah (Waiting period) ended with the 
delivery. Therefore, the Prophet !m married her in Zul Hajjah 3 
AH but she died within three months of the marriage. 

It is also said that the Prophet married her in Ramadan 3 AH 
and she died in Rabee' al-Aakhar 3 AH about 8 months after her 
marriage, but the first report is more sound. 

She was only the second wife of the Prophet Hi after Sayyidah 
Khadijah if*«^^j to have died in his lifetime. All the rest 
survived him. 

The Prophet Hi led the funeral salah for her and she was buried 
in Jannat ul-Baqee' in Madinah. She was thirty years old when she 
died (Zurqani, v3 p249) 

Merits 

She was very generous. She was kind to the poor and she fed 
the needy. In fact, she was known as umm ul-masakeen (Mother of 
the poor) even before the Prophet III married her. She had the 
honour of being the Prophet's wife. She died in his lifetime and he 
led her funeral prayer and supervised her burial in Jannat ul-Baqee'. 
These were her great merits. 

Sayyidah Juway riyah if* k\ 

In 5 AH, the Prophet 0 learnt that Harith ibn Abu Dirar the 
chief of Banu Mustaliq was making preparations to attack Madinah 
and on his person, too. He was gathering together the idolater 
tribes of surrounding areas. (al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah v4 pi 56) 

The Banu Mustaliq were a branch of the tribe Khuza'ah. They 

O. This is the most sound tradition, but some scholars have named Tufayl ibn 
al-Harith and some others Ubaydah ibn al-Harith as her first husband (Zurqani 
Sharah Mawahib v3 p249, Siyar A'lam an Nubia v2 p2 1 8, Tahzeeb ai-Kamal 
p204) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



501 



inhabited the lands near the spring named Muraysee'. (It is because 
of that that the Battle of Mustaliq are also known as the Battle of 
Muraysee'.) Many neighbouring tribes joined them and all of them 
had the support of the idolaters. 

The Prophet decided, therefore, to advance and attack the 
Banu Mustaliq and in Sha'ban 5 AH he took them unawares with 
one thousand Companions They were occupied in the diurnal 
chores when the Muslims invaded them. The Prophet $H instructed 
Sayyidina Umar <^&> to call upon them to say &\ *i\ d\ *i (there is no 
god but Allah) so that their life and property will be protected. He 
conveyed to them this message but they refused to accept that and 
shot arrows on the Muslim army. At the command of the Prophet 
ill the Muslims launched their attack on them and while they could 
not resist, their allies had already deserted them having fled from 
there. All the seven hundred members of the tribe were taken 
captives, ten of their members had died in the fighting while one 
Muslim was martyred. 

Among the captives was Juwayriyah daughter of their chief 
Harith ibn Abu Dirar. Harith had somehow escaped while 
Juwayriyah's husband Musafa' ibn Safwan was killed in the battle. 
The captives were distributed among the Companions 4$> together 
with war booty. Juwayriyah fell to the lot of Sayyidina Thabit ibn 
Pays <t&e>. She asked him if he was prepared to free her against 
monetary payment, she would try to arrange the sum of money. 
Thabit ^fe> agreed so that. In the terminology of SharVah this 
arrangement is called Kitahat, and the amount paid to gain liberty 
is called haded kitabat. They had agreed at nine ooqiyah gold, each 
ooqiyah is equal to forty dirham. 

Juwayriyah and all people of her tribe were taken captive so it 
was not possible for her to arrange payment of the haded Kitabat, 
But, she was a daughter of a chief, and she was bold and 
intelligent. She went straight to the Prophet sH and pleaded with 
him, "I am Juwayriyah, the daughter of Harith ibn Abu Dirar who 
is chief of Banu Mustaliq. I have become a Muslim and I bear 
witness that no one is worthy of worship besides Allah and that 
you are His Messenger. You are not unaware of the hardship I am 
facing. In the distribution of the slaves I have been given to Thabit 



502 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



ibn Qays who has concluded kitabat with me, but I do not have 
badal kitabat. I seek your help," He said, "Shall I not tell you of 
something better? If you consent I shall buy you from Thabit ibn 
Qays and set you free whereafter you may marry me." She accepted 
the proposal willingly. In this way, they married and the Prophet 
iSl fixed the dower at four thousand dirham. (Zurqani v3 p255) 

Three days before the battle, Juwayriyah had seen a dream that 
the moon came into her lap from Madinah. She did not mention it 
to the people of her house but when she was taken captive and 
brought to Madinah she could see the interpretation of her dream. 

(Zurqani on the authority of Bayhaqi and Siyar A'lam an Nubala v2 p265) 

When Companions learnt of that, they realised that the 
slaves with them had become in-laws of the Prophet It was not 
proper to retain them as slaves, so they released all of them. 

(Isabah v7 p565, Siyar A'lam an-Nubala v2 p265) 

They were about seven hundred in number. All of them then 
embraced Islam. Sayyidah Ayshah if* ibi said at this juncture: 

lf» j3 ^ Ifu 45" j> j»JaPl 31 y\ U 

"I do not know of a woman who has been as instrumental as 
Juwayriyah in bringing good to her people." 

When all that was over, her father came with a lot of wealth 
and property to ransom his daughter, Sayyidah Juwayriyah &\ 
if*, his two sons were with him. The things he had brought 
included a lot of camels but during the journey he found two 
camels much to his liking, so he hid them in a valley before coming 
to the Prophet lH. He disclosed to the Prophet IH why he had 
come and he told him, "Juwayriyah is here. If she likes, you may 
take her." He said to his daughter that the Prophet ill given his 
permission, so she must go with him. She said, <u* j^jj &\ o (I 
have chosen Allah and His Messenger). The father coaxed her, 
pleaded with her but she was unwilling to part with the Prophet 
Afterwards, the Prophet H reminded Harith ibn Abu Dirar of the 
two camels which he had concealed in a valley. Harith -exclaimed 
that only Allah and he knew about the camels so "I bear witness 
that you are Allah's Messenger," and he became a Muslim 

(Zurqani v3 p255) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



S03 



His two sons also embraced Islam. In this way, the entire tribe 
embraced Islam and that was a blessing of Sayyidah Juwayriyah's 
marriage. Apart from the religious point of view, the faith of Banu 
Mustaliq was signifant from the political and defence points of 
view because they were nearer Makkah than Madinah and the 
Makkans had not believed till then. 

Merits 

Sayyidah Juwayriyah L^^ii^j has reported many Ahadith 
from the Prophet H. Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4fe, Jabir4^, Abdullah 
ibn Umar 4^ have transmitted her narrations. 

She was given to remember Allah often and was a great doer of 
good deeds. She would sit on the prayer rug for hours together 
after offering salah and occupy herself in remembering Allah. Her 
Hadith about that is transmitted by Imam Muslim *Up -fin and 
Imam Tirmizi &\ JU*- > The words of Saheeh Muslim are: 

{Sayyidah Juwayriyah 4it 

if* said that one day the 

Prophet Hi went from her after 

offering the fajr salah while she 

was sitting on her prayer rug 

observing some recital. He 

came back very late after the 

time of the duha salah and 

found her sitting in the same 

place. He asked, "Is it that 

since I went from here you are 

sitting at the same place in the same manner? She confirmed 
that she had been sitting there in the same way.} 

The Hadith is not complete here but we only had to show that 
she was much devoted and given to much worship and zikr. The 
same Hadith is found in Tirmizi with a slight difference of words. 

We also learn from Ahadith that she observed optional fasts. 
Once the Prophet came to her house on a Friday. She was 
fasting. He asked her, "Did you fast yesterday?" She said, "No!" 
Will you fast tomorrow," he asked, and she again said, "No!" So 
the Prophet forbade her to ever again fast only on a Friday. The 



504 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



question of fasting only on a Friday is one on which there are 
divergent views and relevant books may be studied for that. 

It is also to her credit that she alone was instrumental in getting 
freedom to all her people, the Banu Mustaliq, and in bringing them 
to the folds of Islam. 

Death 

She died in Rabee'al-Awwal 50 AH Marwan ibn al-Hakam, the 
governor of Madinah in those days and a tabi'ee led her funeral 
salah. She was buried in Jannat ul-Baqee' in Madinah. 

Sayyidah Umm Habibah i^iii^j 

Her name was Ramlah. She was the daughter of Sayyidina Abu 
Sufyan ibn Harb and sister of Sayyidina Mu'awiyah She 
got the Kunyah Umm Habibah from her daughter Habibah. Her 
mother Safiyah bint Abu al-Aas was paternal aunt of Sayyidina 
Uthman 4fe>. Her first husband Ubaydullah ibn Jahsh had embraced 
Islam in the early days of Islam. However, he was unable to endure 
persecution at Makkah by the idolaters, so he migrated to Habshah 
(Ethiopia). There, he converted to Christianity and died an 
apostate. He had been inciting Sayyidah Umm Habibah if* &\ 
to revoke Islam and become a Christian but she was steadfast even 
in the difficult times. She was fortunate that after Ubaydullah ibn 
Jahsh died and she completed her waiting period, the Prophet iH 
sent Sayyidina Amr ibn Umayyah Damiri to the King Najashi 
with his marriage proposal for Umm Habibah ^^^j. The 
Najashi had, of course, become a Muslim and the Prophet 
suggested that he should officiate as his attorney in conducting his 
marriage. The Najashi sent his slave-girl to Umm Habibah ^ 
if* the message: "The king says that Allah's Messenger Hi has sent 
a letter to him directing him to convey his marriage proposal to 
Umm Habibah &\ ^> If she accepted it then he is directed to 
conduct the marriage." Sayyidah Umm Habibah heard this good 
news and was happy because of it. She gave the slave-girl two 
golden bracelets, many rings and two other pieces of jewellary, and 
she appointed her close relative Khalid ibn Sa'eed ibn al-Aas as 
her attorney. 

(Zurqani Sharah al-Mawahib v3 p244. Al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah v4 pi 43) 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



505 



The next day the Najashi invited all the Companions 
residing in Ethiopia and they included the Prophet's $H cousin 
Sayyidina Ja'far ibn Abu Talib They went to his palace where 
he delivered the sermon and proposed on behalf of the Prophet Hi. 
Sayyidina Khalid ibn Sa'eed 4fe accepted the proposal on behalf of 
Sayyidah Umm Habibah if^ii^j. Najashi fixed the dower at four 
hundred dinars and sent the amount of money to Sayyidah Umm 
Habibah L^iiii^j who gave fifty dinars from that to the slave-girl. 
However, she returned the fifty dinars as also the jewellery that 
was given to her on previousday, saying that it was the King's 
command. The king then sent her many gifts and perfumes. 

When the Companions c^> stood up to depart after the wedding, 
the Najashi asked them to remain seated and go only after the meal 
was served. He also said that it was the sunnah of the Prophets 
f%Jt to give a feast after the marriage was solemnised. 

(al-Bidayah wa an Nihayah v4 pi 43) 

The most accepted view is that the marriage took place in 6 
AH. When Abu Sufyan learnt of it in Makkah, he conceded that the 
Prophet iH was a great man and he spoke highly of the Prophet. 

(Zurqani v3 p244.) 

In a lengthy Hadith in Saheeh Muslim it is stated that after he 

had believed, Abu Sufyan 4fe requested the Prophet Hi in Madinah 

that he should marry Abu Sufyan's daughter Umm Habibah and 

the Prophet accepted his request. 

(Saheeh Muslim v2 p304 — Merits of Abu Sufyan) 

The scholars of Hadith have explained this portion of the 
Hadith in different ways, the gist of which is that this portion of 
the Hadith is wrong as much as suggests Umm Habibah's marriage 
after Abu Sufyan's conversion to Islam and migration to Madinah. 

Anyway, the marriage was concluded in Ethiopia and before 
Abu Sufyan's acceptance of Islam. This statement is supported 
from the following report. After the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah, 
Abu Sufyan came to Madinah as a representative of the people of 
Makkah to clarify certain issues concerning this treaty. He went to 
the house of his daughter, Umm Habibah to meet her. As he went 
in, she wrapped up the bedding of the Prophet Hi that had been 
spread out. He exclaimed, "Why? Is the bed not worthy of me or 



506 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VJII 



am I not worthy of it?" She said, "Father! You are an idolater while 
this is the bedding of Allah's Messenger. Hence, you are not 
worthy to sit on it." ' (al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah v4 pi 43) 

Worthy 

Allah had blessed Sayyidah Umm Habibah with apparent 
beauty and inner perfection. She was among the earliest people 
who believed though her father, Abu Sufyan, a chief of the 
Quraysh, did not believe till near the liberation of Makkah. 
Similarly, other people of her family also took too long to believe 
in Islam. Under the circumstances, it took great determination and 
power of will on her part to embrace Islam at a very early stage not 
allowing her faimily's opposition to deter her. The same 
determination caused her to migrate to Ethiopia and reject all 
enticement by her husband to revoke Islam and become a Christian 
particularly when she was in an alien land where her husband was 
her only outward support. Again, her refusal to allow her polytheist 
father to sit one the Prophet's iH bed showed her exceptional love 
for the Prophet iSl and respect for him as also her superior strength 
of faith. 

She was very careful to put into practice the sayings of he 
Prophet iH. Sayyidah Zaynab ^j, Sayyidah Umm Salamah's 
l^p &\ ^t>) daughter said: 

y\\*y\J yj^^j Up iil ^Jl £jj ^ f \ J* cA±* 
Cj*— a*b- ja ^Jaib h 3 cJli l^b jbu c — » 

?J Jij iiib *\ja *i J^j ^ Jji Up ill <d)t Jj^j 
. ly^pj j*i>\ huj C jj f bj bit J y ^1p o*j d V* i 

The gist of the narration is that Sayyidah Zaynab t^iui^j 
daughter of Sayyidina Abu Salamah 4& visited Sayyidah Umm 
Habiba t#p ^ on the death of her father, Abu Sufyan 4^ (and it 
seems that three days had passed since he had died.) Umm Habibah 
i^p <ii asked for a perfume made of Safron and red and yellow 
colour. She applied it to a child and then on her own cheeks. She 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



507 



then said, "I had no need to use the perfume now but I had heard 
the Prophet all say that it is not proper for a believing woman that 
she mourns a dead person for more than three days except her 
husband for whom she may mourn for four months and ten days. 
So, I applied perfume to conduct myself on the Prophet's tife saying 
(and show that I do not mourn my father for more than three days)" 1 
The Prophet's iH following saying is also reported by her: 

i\Jji\ VjLe JJ 

{Allah's Messenger said: If anyone offers these twelve raka'at 
during a day and night, Allah will build a palace for him in 
Paradise. They are: four before the zuhar, two after Zuhar, two 
after maghrib two after isha and two before fajr} 2 

In Musnad Ahmad, there is this much more in this Hadith: 

"Ever since 1 have heard him say that, I have never neglected 
these raka'at." 

She was much fearful of the questioning in the Hereafter and very 
careful to keep all her dealings clear. Ibn Sa'd has transmitted this 
report of Sayyidah Ayshah i^p &\ ^) about her: 

{She said: Before her death Umm Habibah called me and said, 
"We might have hurt one another as co-wives are likely to do 
so, 1 ask for forgiveness for that." I forgave her (any such thing), 
and she prayed for my forgiveness and I for her.} (zurqani v3 p245) 

Sayyidah Ayshah If* At said that she also asked Sayyidah 
Umm Salamah if* *»i to forgive her. 

She has reported many Ahadith from the Prophet iH directly 

O. Jami' Tirmizi (Chapter: ^jj^J^Jr^j^u) 

©. Jami' Tirmizi (Chapter: J^^^u^i^^jS^^aJj^^ J^^^^ u) 



508 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



and through other people. Among those who have transmitted her 
Ahadith are her brother Mu'awiyah 4fe, daughter Habibah &\ 
if*, and some other Companions ^ and tabi'een ^JpAiu^j. 

Death 

She died in the times of Khalifah Sayyidina Mu'awiyah <§^>. The 
soundest report places her death in 44 AH. She is buried in 
Madinah. .uu^ij if^^Ji^j 

Sayyidah Safiyah if* iirt ^ j 

Her father was Huayy ibn Akhtab, the chief of Banu Nadeer. 
He traced his line of descent to Sayyidina Haroon Her mother 
was Durrah. She was daughter of the chief of Banu Qurayzah. 

(Zurqani v3 p256, Siyar A'lam an Nabula v2 p23 1 ) 

Banu Nadeer and Banu Qurayzah were to prominent Jewish 
tribes of Madinah. They had covenanted with the Prophet ill that 
they would not fight with him and will also not aid his enemies, 
(fath al-bari, Hadith on Banu Nadeer). However, both of them violated 
their assurances. The former were incited by the idolaters of 
Makkah to kill the Prophet III but Allah disclosed to him their 
conspiracy. (Abu Dawood) So, he laid a siege round their fort six 
months after the Battle of Badr. (Bukhari) They requested that peace 
be concluded, so, it was agreed that they may load their camels 
with whatever they could but not any weapons and they may go 
away from there. {Fath al-Bari). They went away to Khaybar where 
there were many Jewish settlements. The parents of Sayyidah 
Safiyah who were very young then salso went away with their 
tribesmen. At Khaybar, she was married to Sallam ibn Mishkan, 
but he divorced her and she was married to Kinanah ibn Abu 
Huqayq. He was killed in the Battle of Khaybar and she was taken 
captive alongwith others by the Muslims. The Companions, 
Dihyah Kalbi 4fe requested the Prophet Hi for a slave girl from the 
captives of Khaybar and he said, "You may choose one." He picked 
up Safiyah. But another Companion 4§b pointed out to the Prophet 
iH that she was a daughter of the chiefs of Banu Nadeer and Banu 
Qurayzah and worthy only of him. So, the Prophet $jl gave Dihyah 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



509 



another female slave and freed Safiyah and married her. 

(al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah v4 pi 94, Saheeh Bukhari v2 p604) 
When he had given her option to go back to her land or marry him. 
She said: 

"I choose Allah and His Messenger. Indeed, I craved for that 
even before Islam." (Zurqani) 

After her marriage, she narrated to the Prophet 111 a dream she 
had seen. She said, "O Messenger of Allah, while you had 
surrounded Khaybar, I dreamt one night that the moon is in my lap. 
I related it to my husband who slapped me so hard that the 
impression of his fingers were left on my face- and he said you 

long to marry the king of the Arabs." (al-Bidayah wa an Nihayah v4 pi 94) 

The Prophet $H had married her while returning from Khaybar 
at Sadd as-Sabba. The next he gave a wedding feast at the same 
place. At his saying, the Companions c^> brought dates, cheese, 
butter-oil, etc. These things were placed on a dining mat and eaten 
and this was the wedding feast. 
(Siyar A'lam al-Nabula v2 p232, Saheeh Bukhari chapter Battle of Khaybar.) 

Throughout the journey, Sayyidah Safiyah if* it rode the 
same camel as the Prophet Hi sitting behind him. 

Merits 

Sayyidah Safiyah if* ^ was very wise and intelligent. She 
did not go home although she was given choice but preferred to 
stay with the Prophet She was very kind. Once her maid-slave 
complained to Sayyidina Umar 4^> that she continued to observe 
the Sabth (sabat) and maintained ties with Jews. He deputed 
someone to find out the truth and she asserted, "When Allah has 
given me a better day, Friday, then why should I observe the Sabat. 
As for joining ties of relationship with Jews, they are my relatives, 
so I join those ties with them (and Islam does not forbid that)." She 
then asked her slave why she had made the complaint and she said 
that the devil had provoked her. Instead of punishing her, she set 
her free. (Isabah) 

One day the Prophet ill found her weeping. He learnt that 
Sayyidah Ayshah and Sayyidah Hafsah had told her that besides 



510 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



being the Prophet's ££l wives, they also belonged to his clan while 
she was from Jewish stock, so they were superior to her. He 
comforted her and said, "Why did you not say to them that they 
could not be superior to you because you are an off-spring of 
Haroon, the Prophet, and your uncle was Prophet Musa and your 
husband is Prophet Muhammad. 

(Tirmizi v2 p229 — Chapter: Merits of Prophet's wives.) 

The Prophet HH expressed great displeasure once when 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* &\ had spoken unreasonable words about 
her. Once, Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ bint Jahsh called her a Jew 
and he said: if^jL-i c~JU i$a "She is a perfect believer," and he 
did not visit Sayyidah Zaynab for many weeks. (Isabah) 

Sayyidah Safiyah if* &\ loved the Prophet exceedingly 
and when he was ilj and in much pain, she said, "O Allah's 
Messenger! I wish I would get your pain instead of you." Some of 
the Prophet's Hi wives doubted her sincerity and this showed on 
their faces. The Prophet told them that she spoke the truth. 

(Isabah v7 p741. Zurqani v3 p258) 

She was very generous. When she came to Madinah for the first 
time, she gave away her jewellery to Sayyidah Fatimah if* At 
and some of the Prophet's iH wives jf* &i ^ j . 

When the rebels had surrounded Sayyidina Uthman's house and 

prevented all kind of provision and water from being sent to his 

house to help him but they did not allow her to enter it. So, she 

arranged supply of these necessities through Sayyidina Hasan *^>. 

(Isabah v7 p742) 

She has narrated many Ahadith. Among her students were 
Sayyidina Zayn ul-Abideen, Ishaq ibn Abdullah, Muslim ibn 
Safwan, Kinanah, Yazeed ibn Mu'attib and other tabi'een. 

Death 

Sayyidah Safiyah if* in died in Ramadan 50 AH and she 
was buried in Jannat ul-Baqee', but some authorities have said that 
she died in 52 AH. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



511 



Sayyidah Maymunah if^Ai 

Sayyidah Maymunah if* was the daughter of Harith ibn 

Hazn who was a Quraysh. Her mother was Hind bint Awf or 
Khawlah bin Awf of the Himyar 1 , and she was also the mother of 
Sayyidah Zaynab if* ibi bint Khuzaymah. We have seen in her 
account that Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ and Sayyidah Maymunah 
if* &\ had the same mother but not the same father. 

Sayyidah Maymunah i^iui^j was the maternal aunt of 
Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas Khalid ibn Waleed 4fe> and 
Yazeed ibn al-Asamm 4^>. Her sister Sayyidah umm al-Fadl ^ 
if* was the wife of Sayyidina Abbas 4l>; another sister Sayyidah 
Asma if* At was the wife of Sayyidina Ja'far ibn Abu Talib 4^ 
but she married Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^ after he was martyred, and 
after he died, she married Sayyidina Ali 4fe. 

Sayyidah Maymunah if* &\ was first married to Abu Ruhm 
ibn Abd al-Uzza. When he died. Sayyidina Abbas suggested to 
the Prophet iH that he should marry her. So, he sent Sayyidina 
Ja'far ibn Abu Talib with the proposal. She gave her consent 
and appointed her brother-in-law, Sayyidina Abbas 4fc>, as her 
attorney. This was a year after the Peace of Hudaybiyah. Before 
they could marry, the Prophet lH proceeded to perform the 
redeeming (gada) umrah in 7 AH. His wives and even Sayyidah 
Maymunah if* &\ were with him. So, he married her during the 
journey. The reports differ on whether the marriage took place 
before assuming the ihram or after that. She was the last of the 
Prophet's iH wives. Her dower was fixed at 400 dirhams. The 
Prophet' ill intention was to hold the wedding feast at Makkah 
after the umrah but the Makkans did not allow them to stay beyond 
three days, so he held it at Sarif, ten miles away from Makkah on 
the route to Madinah. 

Merits 

Sayyidah Maymunah if* k\ lived with the Prophet iH for 
three years. They married in ZuQa'dah 7 AH and the Prophet jH 
died in Rabee' ul-Awwal 10 AH. In this short time she learnt a lot 
from the Prophet She knew many religious rulings which the 

O. Zurqani names her as Hind, Isabah as Khawlah. 



512 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part Vlll 



front-rank Companions ^ also could not know, particularly those 
about women and ghusl (ritual bath) etc. Ahadith on these are 
narrated by her. She has narrated forty-six Ahadith in all, six of 
them are found in Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim, five in 
Saheeh Muslim while the rest are in other books. 

Her students included her nephew, Abdullah ibn Abbas 4fe, 
Abdullah ibn Shaddad Abdur Rahman ibn Sa'ib 4& Yazeed 
ibn al-Asamm and her freed slave Sulayman ibn Yasar and his 
brother Ata ibn Yasar, and others. 

The Prophet ill had borne witness that she had perfect faith, 

(Maymunah and her sisters Umm al-Fadl and Asma' were 
believers of great rank.) 

(Isabah v8 pi 28 on the authority of Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd) 

Sayyidah Ayshah &\ also praised very much her piety 
and habit of keeping ties of relationship intact. 

(Isabah Zurqani on the authority of Tabaqat) 

Her nephew Yazeed ibn al-Asamm said that she was given to 
offer salah abundantly. She attended to household chores and was 
very particular to use the miswak. She released many slaves and the 
Prophet H once gave her his prayers on that account, "May Allah 
reward you for that." 

Death 

Sayyidah Maymunah \#* & died in 5 1 AH at Sarif. She had 
gone to Makkah to perform Hajj or Umrah but fell ill. She said to 
Yazeed ibn al-Asamm, "Take me away from Makkah because I will 
not die in Makkah, for Allah's Messenger had said to me 'You will 
not die in Makkah." Yazeed ibn al-Asamm said that they had 
reached Sarif where she died. 

(Dala'il an-Nabuwah. Bayhaqi and Majama' az-Zawa'id) 

Sarif is about 10 miles from Makkah towards Madinah. Some 
authorities have stated that she was married at Sarif and her 
wedding feast was held there and she also died there. 

(Tahzeeb al-kamal) 

Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Abbas 4fe led the funeral salah. He 
said, "This is the funeral of a wife of the Prophet iH so carry it 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



513 



respectfully and walk gently." She was lowered into the grave by 
Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4fe, Yazeed ibn al-Asamm and Ubaydullah 
ibn Shaddad. They were all her nephews. Her grave was dug at the 
same spot where Allah's Messenger iH had pitched her tent on the 
return journey after performing umrah. 

While Sayyidah Khadijah i^p was the Prophet's first 

wife, Sayyidah Maymunah was the last. 

We have recounted the merits of all the Prophet's eleven wives 
who are mentioned in Books of Hadith. Praise belongs to Allah. 



THE PROPHET'S m CHILDREN 



We now write an account of the Prophet's 4© children and their 
excellences. There is much difference of opinion on the number of 
his children. 1 The most acceptable report seems to be that he had 
seven children, of whom only a son, Ibrahim, was born to Mariyah, 
his slave girl and the rest were children of Sayyidah Khadijah 

We have seen in the account of Sayyidah Khadijah *5»i 
that sometime after their marriage (five years according to a report) 
their first child — a son — Qasim was born. The Prophet iH got 
his kunyah from him. He died in infancy. Then Zaynab, their eldest 
daughter, was born and both these children were born before the 
Prophet was entrusted with the mission of Prophethood. 
Thereafter, a son, Abdullah, was born. He was called Tayyib or 
Tahir because he was born during Prophethood but he too died in 
childhood. Then three daughters were born in succession 2 . They 
were Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah. All the Prophet's 
daughters lived to the age of understanding, saw the Islamic period 
and embraced Islam and also observed the hijrah (migration) from 
Makkah to Madinah, and the Prophet H himself conducted their 
marriage. Therefore, we shall only mention his daughters. 

Sayyidah Zaynab 

She was the Prophet's eldest daughter, born ten years before 
Prophethood. Some seerah writers say that she was the Prophet's 
eldest child while some others say that her brother, Qasim, was the 
eldest. Nevertheless, she was the eldest among his daughters. 



O. Zurqani has stated that he had eleven children 

©. This implies that all three were born during Prophethood but it is not so in 
reality. Muhammad Zakariya. 



516 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



Marriage 

She was married toAbu al-Aas ibn Rabee' who was the son of 
her maternal aunt Halah bint Khuwaylid. He was a very good, 
noble and well-natured man and the two of them loved one another 
deeply. Their close-knit relationship survived all their life. When 
the Prophet migrated to Madinah, he could not take along his 
family. Sayyidah Zaynab if*^^^ was with her husband who had 
not believed in Islam till then. In fact, he was among the worriors 
of Makkah against the Muslims in the Battle of Badr in 2 AH and 
was one of the captives taken to Madinah. In the same way as 
relatives of other captives sent ransom to release them, Sayyidah 
Zaynab if* &\ ^ j also sent her possession to pay for the release of 
Abu al-Aas. 1 The Prophet iH let him go on condition that he would 
sent Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ to Madinah on reaching Makkah. 
Accordingly, he sent her to Madinah on camel-back with his 
brother, Kinanah. While they had just crossed the Makkan border 
and had reached Zu Tuwa, some of the idolaters surrounded them 
and declared that they would not let Muhammad's daughter go to 
Madinah. One of them hit her with a spear causing her to fall down 
and suffer injuries. Kinanah took out his bow and warned that if 
anyone approached them, he would not survive. They all stopped at 
their places. Meanwhile, the Makkans had learnt of this episode 
and their chief Abu Sufyan came there with some influential men 
and persuaded Kinanah to postpone his departure for some time 
after which he may take Sayyidah Zaynab If* di in the darkness 
and quiet of the night because the Makkans had suffered defeat and 
shame in the Battle of Badr and would consider her announced 
departure as a further insult, Kinanah agreed with that and 
Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ returned to Abu al-Aas. A few days 
later, she went to Madinah, again with Kinanah. The Prophet 
had sent Sayyidina Zayd ibn Harithah and an Ansar Companion 

to Batan Ya'jaj to receive her. Kinanah handed her over to these 
two men at this place and returned to Makkah. 

In 6 AH Abu al-Aas, was again taken captive in a battle and 
brought to Madinah. Again, Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ came to 
his aid. She gave him protection and the Prophet iH> acceded to her 

O. Zurqani 



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517 



request and let Abu al-Aas go. He went to Makkah, returned 
whatever the Makkans had entrusted him with, embraced Islam and 
came to Madinah. He and Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ had been 
separated for many years but neither did the Prophet 111 marry 
Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ ^ j to any other man. The Prophet iH 
remarried Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ to him when he came to 
Madinah as a Muslim. 

The Prophet Hi regarded him highly because of his good 
conduct, truthfulness to his promise and kind treatment to Sayyidah 
Zaynab if* i»i ^> And the Prophet ill expressed that His words of 
praise for Sayyidina Abu al-Aas 4& are found in Saheeh Bukhari 
and Saheeh Muslim (respectively chapters: ashar un-Nabi and 
Fada'il Fatimah). 

Merits 

It is not enough to say in her praise that she was the very dear 
child of the Prophet iil? Also, she was among the very first to 
believe, having recited the Kalimah shahadah with her mother, 
Sayyidah Khadijah if*<oii ^> Her faith was so strong that her deep 
love for her husband did not deter her from keeping her faith alive, 
loving the Prophet ill and migrating to Madinah. She left her 
husband at Makkah and went to Madinah soon after the Battle of 
Badr. 

The Prophet SOfe also loved her deeply. Sayyidah Ayshah &\ 
if* said that the Prophet iH learnt of her injury during her attempt 
to migrate. He remarked: 

"T he best of my daughters suffered on my account." 

(Zurqani v3 pi 95 on the aurhority of Tahtawi and Haakim) 

Death 

She died in 8 AH, two years after Sayyidina Abu al-Aas 
came to Madinah and the Prophet remarried them. The Prophet 

was gravely disturbed on her death. He gave meticulous 
instructions to the women who were giving her the bath and 
shrouding her. He gave his own lahmat (lower waist-down 
wrapper) for her shroud. Sayyidah Umm Atiyah if* At was one 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



of the women who gave her a bath. Her Hadith is transmitted in 
Saheeh Muslim: 



{Sayyidah Umm Atiyah \#s> &\ said: when the Prophet's 2§l 

daughter Zaynab died, he said to us who were giving her a bath, 

"Give her the bath an odd number of times — three or five. Pour 

camphor into the water the fifth time. (Or, he said, mix a little 

camphor). And, when you have finished giving her a bath, 

infrom me." So, when we were over with it we informed him. 

He gave us his blessed tahvat for the shroud, saying, "Use it as 

the innermost part of the shroud directly on Zaynab's body." 

(Saheeh Muslim vl p305) 

He led the funeral salah and he and Sayyidina Abu al-Aas 4fe 
lowered her in the grave. She felt the pain from the would she had 
suffered during hijrah all her life till death. Some ulama contend, 
therefore, that she died a martyr. (Zurqani v3 pi 96) 



She had a son, Ali, and a daughter, Umamah. The Prophet ap 
loved both of them dearly. According to Traditions in Saheeh 
Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim, his grand daughter, Umamah, 
climbed on his shoulders while he offered salah but he did not 
object to that. His grandson, Ali, travelled on the same camel as he 
at the time of the liberation of Makkah. He was martyred in the 
Battle Yarmook. (Zurqani v3 pi 97) .^Ufjij^'dii^/ 

Sayyidah Ruqayyah i&*> i» 

She was the second daughter of the Prophet who was 
thirty-three years old at the time of her birth. (Zurqani v3 pi 97). The 
Prophet iH had married her in her childhood to Utbah the son of 
Abu Lahab as he had his other daughter Umm Kulthum to Abu 
Lahab's second son Utabah (though the marriage was not 




Jl3j SjA*- Utfap la Uipl cJlS ^J^lS 




Children 




Book of Virtues And Excellence 



519 



consumated then). He was not commissioned as Prophet at that 
time. Both the girls had not been sent to their husbands home till 
the time he was entrusted with Prophethood. He then began to 
invite people to Islam so Abu Lahab, hostile as he was to Islam, 
told his sons that they may choose between him and Muhammad's 
> daughters. His sons obeyed their father and revoked their marriage 
with the Prophet's £H two daughters. 

The Prophet ill then married Ruqayyah 14* &\ to Sayyidina 
Uthman 4$£> before hijrah (Zurqani v3 pi 98). Both of them were 
among the first migrants to Ethiopia when the Makkan idolaters 
made life difficult for them in Makkah. The Prophet Hi had said at 
the time of their migration: 

"Surely Uthman is the first after Lut to migrate with his family." 

Allah had bestowed beauty on both husband and wife and there 
was not any other couple in Makkah as beautiful as them. Some 
women of the family of Uthman 4fe also composed poetry in their 
praise, zurqani has quoted some of their poetry whose central 
theme is that no one had seen such a beautiful couple. 
, Sayyidina Uthman 4^ and Sayyidah Ruqayyah &\ 

returned to Makkah after some days and, when Allah's Messenger 
lH migrated to Madinah, they too headed there. At Ethiopia, 
Sayyidah Ruqayyah &\ ^ j gave birth to a son who was named 
Abdullah, but he died at the age of six. After that, perhaps they had 
no children. When the Prophet isH was going to Badr for the battle, 
Sayyidah Ruqayyah \#s>&\^ s >j was very ill. So, he instructed 
Sayyidina Uthman to stay behind to look after her. The news of 
victory at Badr was received in Madinah, but before the Prophet iH 
could arrive, Sayyidah Ruqayyah ijiP &\ died. When he came, 
he was much grieved. He went to her grave and there tears rolled 
down his eyes. He wept so much that his tears fell on the grave 

(Zurqani). UU?jij Lj^l^j 

Sayyidah Umm Kulthum if* &\ 

She was the Prophet's ill third daughter. She was born before 
the Prophet Hi began his mission but she grew up in the Islamic 



520 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII 



atmosphere. We have seen that like Sayyidah Ruqayyah if*- *»» 

she too was married in childhood to a son of Abu Lahab. When the 

Prophet ffll began to preach Islam, Abu Lahab's both sons revoked 

their marriages with Sayyidah Ruqayyah if* and Sayyidah 

Umm Kulthum if* ^j. Their relationship thus ended before the 

marriage was consumated. 

(al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah v5 p346, Siyar A'lam an-Nabula v2 p252) 

The Prophet ill had then married Sayyidah Ruqayyah &\ 
if* to Sayyidina Uthman 4?k> but when she died in 2 AH, he 
married Umm Kulthum if* di , a few days later, also to 
Sayyidina Uthman 4^. It thus became Sayyidina Uthman's 4fe 
privilage that he married the Prophet's Hi two daughters one after 
the other, and was, thus, bestowed the title of Zu cm-Noorayn 
(Possessor of two lights). When she too died in the lifetime of 
Sayyidina Uthman the Prophet iH said: 

(If I had a third daughter, 1 would have married her to Uthman, 
surely).! 

When Utaybah had revoked his marriage to Sayyidah Umm 
Kulthum if* Ai ^jpj, he had also displayed extreme rudeness to the 
Prophet iH. Both these things had hurt the Prophet very much 
He had happened to pray to Allah ^So^AT j* LIT <u!p iaJL» (O 
Allah let one of your dogs overpower him!) (Zurqani, v3 p238) When 
Abu Lahab learnt of this curse, he was very worried and feared for 
the life of his son. Some days later they set out on a journey to 
Syria, the carvan pitched tent on the way and the residents of that 
place cautioned them that lions frequented that area. This reminded 
Abu Lahab of the Prophet's prayer against his son, so he employed 
every protective measure he could to save his son, but the words 
that had escaped from the tongue of the Prophet j£& were not 
meaningless. The lion somehow took utaybah away. 

Before Sayyidah Umm Kulthum if*i»i^j was married to 
Sayidina Uthman, Sayyidina Umar's 4fe daughter Sayyidah Hafsah 

O. al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah v5 p347. A version has jUj* j^r^ \j^s> j&j} (If I 
had ten daughters, I would have married them to Uthman, surely). In fact, 

Zurqani has a version (If I had a hundred ) v3 p238. This displays Uthman's 

i^pAi^jSj extraordinary excellence. 



Book of Virtues And Excellence 



521 



if* &\ was widowed. So, he asked Sayyidina Uthman ^ to 
marry her but he gave a vague reply, neither denying flatly nt 
accepting the offer. Sayyidina Umar 4fe complained to the Prophet 
ill who said, "Shall I not read you to a better husband for your 
daughter then Uthman and a better wife for Uthman than your 
daughter." He than asked Umar 4|b to marry his daughter to him 
and he would give his own daughter, Umm Kulthum, to Uthman in 
Marriage.(Zurqani) 

Merits 

We have seen that the Prophet called Sayyidah Umm 
Kulthum more excellent than Sayyidah Hafsah if* &\ ^ > Besides, 
she was the Prophet's iH daughter, among the first people who 
believed. He also loved her as we can see from Utaybah's story. 
Also, the Prophet $$& led her funeral salah and took part in the 
burial. 

Death 

Six years after her marriage with Sayyidina Uthman (in 3AH), 
she died in 9 AH. (Siyar A'lam an-Nabula v2 p253, Zurqani v3 p239) The 
Prophet iH was present in Madinah. Sayyidah Umm Atiyah ii 
if* and some other women bathed her. Some of the exponents of 
Hadith have held that the Prophet's is§l instructions to Sayyidah 
Atiyah if* At ^ j on the death of Sayyidah Zaynab if* ^ j were 
really given on the death of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum i^p & ^ > not 
Sayyidah Zaynab if* &\ but some others suggest that the same 
instructions may have been given both times, for, no name is 
mentioned in the Tradition. The Prophet $§1 led the funeral salah 
and she was buried in Jannat ul-Baqee'.^t^j^^^j 

Sayyidah Fatimah if* *»t 

She was the youngest of the Prophet's iS daughters and she 
was also the most dear to him. The historians differ on her date of 
birth which they place five years or one year before Prophethood. 
(al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah) She was with the Prophet iH till 
hijrah when he had left her at Makkah. He got her to join him at 
Madinah later and, in 2 AH, a little after the Battle of Badr she was 



522 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VIII \ 



married to Sayyidiria Ali 4fe>.(Saheeh Bukhari) Because he too was 
under the Prophet's iH care and had no house of his own, he gave 
them some things that were necessary in a home like a sheet of 
cloth, a waterskin, a leather mattress which was filled with izkhar 
(a kind of hay) and so on. These things did not constitute the 
customary dowry because we do not have evidence of dowry from 
any of his wives or for his other daughters and it was unknown to 
the Arabs of the time. Sayyidina Ali 4fe gave a coat of mail or its 
value as dower because he had nothing else to give in dower. 

Children 

She had three sons Hasan, Husayn and Muhsin. Muhsin died in 
childhood. She had two daughters, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum. Of 
the Prophet's children, his descendants are known only from 
Sayyidah Fatimah if* &\ ^ > Either no child was